1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health-care settings, 2005. MMWR Recomm Rep 2005;54(RR-17):1–141.
2. Jorgensen, JH, Pfaller, MA, Carroll, KC, et al. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 11th ed. Washington, DC: American Society of Microbiology; 2015.
3. Behr, MA, Warren, SA, Salamon, H, et al. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patients smear-negative for acid-fast bacilli. Lancet 1999;353:444–449.
4. Hernandez-Garduno, E, Cook, V, Kunimoto, D, Elwood, RK, Black, WA, FitzGerald, JM. Transmission of tuberculosis from smear negative patients: a molecular epidemiology study. Thorax 2004;59:286–290.
5. Tostmann, A, Kik, SV, Kalisvaart, NA, et al. Tuberculosis transmission by patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in a large cohort in the Netherlands. Clin Infect Dis 2008;47:1135–1142.
6. Abad, C, Fearday, A, Safdar, N. Adverse effects of isolation in hospitalised patients: a systematic review. J Hosp Infect 2010;76:97–102.
7. Thomas, BS, Bello, EF, Seto, TB. Prevalence and predictors of compliance with discontinuation of airborne isolation in patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013;34:967–972.
8. Hughes, R, Wonderling, D, Li, B, Higgins, B. The cost effectiveness of nucleic acid amplification techniques for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Respir Med 2012;106:300–307.
9. Marks, SM, Cronin, W, Venkatappa, T, et al. The health-system benefits and cost-effectiveness of using Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct nucleic acid amplification testing to diagnose tuberculosis disease in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 2013;57:532–542.
10. Millman, AJ, Dowdy, DW, Miller, CR, et al. Rapid molecular testing for TB to guide respiratory isolation in the US: a cost–benefit analysis. PLoS One 2013;8:e79669.
11. Boehme, CC, Nabeta, P, Hillemann, D, et al. Rapid molecular detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance. N Engl J Med 2010;363:1005–1015.
12. Steingart, KR, Sohn, H, Schiller, I, et al. Xpert(R) MTB/RIF assay for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;1(1):CD009593.
13. Division of Microbiology Devices, Office of In Vitro Diagnostics and Radiological Health, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration. Revised device labeling for the Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF assay for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis
. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015;64:193.
14. Cowan, JF, Chandler, AS, Kracen, E, et al. Clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of Xpert MTB/RIF testing in hospitalized patients with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 2017;64:482–489.
15. Chaisson, LH, Roemer, M, Cantu, D, et al. Impact of GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay on triage of respiratory isolation rooms for inpatients with presumed tuberculosis: a hypothetical trial. Clin Infect Dis 2014;59:1353–1360.
16. Lippincott, CK, Miller, MB, Popowitch, EB, Hanrahan, CF, Van Rie, A. Xpert MTB/RIF assay shortens airborne isolation for hospitalized patients with presumptive tuberculosis in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 2014;59:186–192.
17. Luetkemeyer, AF, Firnhaber, C, Kendall, MA, et al. Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF versus AFB smear and culture to identify pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with suspected tuberculosis from low and higher prevalence settings. Clin Infect Dis 2016;62:1081–1088.
18. Adjemian, J, Olivier, KN, Seitz, AE, Holland, SM, Prevots, DR. Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in US Medicare beneficiaries. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012;185:881–886.
19. Banerjee, R, Teng, CB, Cunningham, SA, et al. Randomized trial of rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based blood culture identification and susceptibility testing. Clin Infect Dis 2015;61:1071–1080.
20. Choi, HW, Miele, K, Dowdy, D, Shah, M. Cost-effectiveness of Xpert(R) MTB/RIF for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in the United States. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2013;17:1328–1335.