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The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Thermal imaging diagnostics was used as a surface temperature mapping tool to characterize the energy density distribution of a high-intensity pulsed ion beam. This approach was tested on the TEMP-6 accelerator (200–250 kV, 150 ns). The beam composition included carbon ions (85%) and protons, and the energy density in the focus was 5–12 J/cm2. Targets of stainless steel, titanium, brass, copper, and tungsten were examined. Our observations show that the maximum energy density measured with the thermal imaging diagnostics considerably exceeds the ablation threshold of the targets. An analysis of the overheating mechanisms of each target was carried out, including metastable overheating of the target to above its boiling temperature during rapid heating; formation, migration, and the subsequent annealing of fast radiation-induced defects in the target under ion beam irradiation. This expands the range of energy density measurement for this thermal imaging diagnostics from 2–3 J/cm2 up to 10–12 J/cm2 but introduces error into the results of measurement. For a stainless steel target, this error exceeds 15% at an energy density of more than 4 J/cm2. A method of correcting the results of the thermal imaging diagnostics is developed for a pulsed ion beam under conditions of intense ablation of the target material.
Research results of luminescence spectra of noble gases and Ar–Xe, Ar–Kr, and Kr–Xe mixtures under the excitation by products of nuclear reaction in the core of a stationary nuclear reactor with 0.87 × 1014 n/cm2s thermal neutron flux are described in the article. The emission spectra of noble gases are similar to the obtained spectrum under the excitation by the 40Ar+7 ion beam from the DC-60 accelerator. Bands in spectra of the binary mixtures of noble gases are connected with the radiation on heteronuclear ion molecule transitions. The appearance of the lines of alkali metal atoms at the temperature increase of gas chamber is explained by sputtering of the lithium layer via nuclear reaction products as well as ionized and excited particles of the buffer gas.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
Recent studies indicate that early postnatal period is a critical window for gut microbiota manipulation to optimise the immunity and body growth. This study investigated the effects of maternal faecal microbiota orally administered to neonatal piglets after birth on growth performance, selected microbial populations, intestinal permeability and the development of intestinal mucosal immune system. In total, 12 litters of crossbred newborn piglets were selected in this study. Litter size was standardised to 10 piglets. On day 1, 10 piglets in each litter were randomly allotted to the faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and control groups. Piglets in the FMT group were orally administrated with 2ml faecal suspension of their nursing sow per day from the age of 1 to 3 days; piglets in the control group were treated with the same dose of a placebo (0.1M potassium phosphate buffer containing 10% glycerol (vol/vol)) inoculant. The experiment lasted 21 days. On days 7, 14 and 21, plasma and faecal samples were collected for the analysis of growth-related hormones and cytokines in plasma and lipocalin-2, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), selected microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in faeces. Faecal microbiota transplantation increased the average daily gain of piglets during week 3 and the whole experiment period. Compared with the control group, the FMT group had increased concentrations of plasma growth hormone and IGF-1 on days 14 and 21. Faecal microbiota transplantation also reduced the incidence of diarrhoea during weeks 1 and 3 and plasma concentrations of zonulin, endotoxin and diamine oxidase activities in piglets on days 7 and 14. The populations of Lactobacillus spp. and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and the concentrations of faecal and plasma acetate, butyrate and total SCFAs in FMT group were higher than those in the control group on day 21. Moreover, the FMT piglets have higher concentrations of plasma transforming growth factor-β and immunoglobulin G, and faecal sIgA than the control piglets on day 21. These findings indicate that early intervention with maternal faecal microbiota improves growth performance, decreases intestinal permeability, stimulates sIgA secretion, and modulates gut microbiota composition and metabolism in suckling piglets.
The new mineral saranchinaite, ideally Na2Cu(SO4)2, was found in sublimates of the Saranchinaitovaya fumarole, Naboko Scoria Cone, Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Its discovery and study has enabled the characterization of the thermal decomposition of kröhnkite and provided an insight into the high-temperature behaviour of other kröhnkite-type materials. Saranchinaite is monoclinic, P21, a = 9.0109(5), b = 15.6355(8), c = 10.1507(5) Å, β = 107.079(2)°, V = 1367.06(12) Å3, Z = 8 and R1 = 0.03. Saranchinaite is a unique mineral in that two of its four independent Cu sites display a very unusual Cu2+ coordination environment with two weak Cu–O bonds of ~2.9–3.0 Å, resulting in [4+1+2] CuO7 polyhedra. Each of the Cu-centred polyhedra shares common corners with SO4 tetrahedra resulting in a [Cu4(SO4)8]8– framework with a complex channel system occupied by Na atoms. Saranchinaite is sensitive to moisture and transforms into kröhnkite within one week when exposed to open air at 87% relative humidity and 25°C. High-temperature X-ray diffraction studies were performed for both kröhnkite (from La Vendida mine, Antofagasta Region, Chile) and saranchinaite. During thermal expansion kröhnkite retains its strongly anisotropic character up to its full dehydration and the formation of saranchinaite at ~200°C, which then transforms back into kröhnkite after exposure to open air. The thermal expansion of saranchinaite is more complex than that of kröhnkite. Saranchinaite is stable up to 475°C with subsequent decomposition into tenorite CuO, thénardite Na2SO4 and unidentified phases.
Little is known about the combined use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants in older psychiatric patients. This study examined the prescription pattern of concurrent benzodiazepines in older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia, and explored its demographic and clinical correlates.
The data of 955 older adults with any type of psychiatric disorders were extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) project. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Both univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.
The proportion of benzodiazepine and antidepressant combination in this cohort was 44.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher doses of antidepressants, younger age (<65 years), inpatients, public hospital, major comorbid medical conditions, antidepressant types, and country/territory were significantly associated with more frequent co-prescription of benzodiazepines and antidepressants.
Nearly, half of the older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia are prescribed concurrent benzodiazepines. Given the potentially adverse effects of benzodiazepines, the rationale of benzodiazepines and antidepressants co-prescription needs to be revisited.
Dynamic autocorrelation functions for 2.56-ms adjusted intervals of single pulses of PSR 0809+74 have been analyzed. The observations were conducted at 102.5 MHz with 10μs resolution. We find that the neighboring 2.56-ms subpulse intervals seem to have independent microstructure parameters, although sometimes the tendency was observed for the occurrence of quasi-periodic structures of close or double periods within the same subpulse. The distribution of a number of well ordered micropulses in quasi-periodic structures was shown to agree with the hypothesis of a random origin of quasi-periodicities. No relation has been found between the microstructure parameters and subpulse longitude.
This article contributes to the search for suitable approaches to combat social exclusion faced by disabled people in capitalist wage labour markets. Referring to policy and service examples in Hong Kong, it reviews four social exclusion approaches – the Moral Underclass (MUD), Social Integrationist (SID), Redistributive (RED) and Collective Production (COP) approaches. These approaches are explored in relation to three key issues: (1) the diverse preferences of disabled people; (2) the myth of infeasibility regarding unconventional approaches and (3) the defects of the medical model of disability. The article argues that the MUD and SID approaches are more associated with the medical model of disability and emphasise individual changes. The RED and COP approaches contain more features of the social model of disability and are in favour of social and structural changes. The COP approach stresses the diverse preferences of disabled people and supports innovative services to combat social exclusion.
The RATAN-600 radio telescope (Kaidanovsky & al. 1972) was designed for solving various problems of astrophysics and radiophysics (Pariisky & al. 1972, Gelfreikh & al. 1972). Because of its high resolving power and large collecting area, this instrument can be used to measure accurate positions of radio sources.
To study the clinical effect of lens cleaning paper patching on traumatic eardrum perforations.
A total of 122 patients were divided into 2 groups, of which 56 patients were treated with lens cleaning paper patching and 66 acted as controls. The closure rate and healing time were compared between the two groups.
The healing rate of small perforations was 96.4 per cent (27 out of 28) in the patching group and 90 per cent (27 out of 30) in the control group. The difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The healing rate of large perforations was 89.3 per cent (25 out of 28) and 80.6 per cent (29 out of 36) in the two groups, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The healing time of large perforations was shorter in the patching group than in the control group (p < 0.01).
Patching with lens cleaning paper under an endoscope can accelerate the closure of large traumatic eardrum perforations.
We apply a novel pre-flare tracking of sunspot groups towards improving the estimation of flare onset time by focusing on the evolution of the 3D magnetic field construction of AR 11429. The 3D magnetic structure is based on potential field extrapolation encompassing a vertical range from the photosphere through the chromosphere and transition region into the low corona. The basis of our proxy measure of activity prediction is the so-called weighted horizontal gradient of magnetic field (WGM) defined between spots of opposite polarities close to the polarity inversion line of an active region. The temporal variation of the distance of the barycenter of the opposite polarities is also found to possess potentially important diagnostic information about the flare onset time estimation as function of height similar to its counterpart introduced initially in an application at the photosphere only in Korsós et al. (2015). We apply the photospheric pre-flare behavioural patterns of sunspot groups to the evolution of their associated 3D-constructed AR 11429 as function of height. We found that at a certain height in the lower solar atmosphere the onset time may be estimated much earlier than at the photosphere or at any other heights. Therefore, we present a tool and recipe that may potentially identify the optimum height for flare prognostic in the solar atmosphere allowing to improve our flare prediction capability and capacity.
The unique phenotypic and genetic aspects of obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) are not well characterized. Here, we examine symptom patterns and heritability of OCD and ADHD in TS families.
OCD and ADHD symptom patterns were examined in TS patients and their family members (N = 3494) using exploratory factor analyses (EFA) for OCD and ADHD symptoms separately, followed by latent class analyses (LCA) of the resulting OCD and ADHD factor sum scores jointly; heritability and clinical relevance of the resulting factors and classes were assessed.
EFA yielded a 2-factor model for ADHD and an 8-factor model for OCD. Both ADHD factors (inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms) were genetically related to TS, ADHD, and OCD. The doubts, contamination, need for sameness, and superstitions factors were genetically related to OCD, but not ADHD or TS; symmetry/exactness and fear-of-harm were associated with TS and OCD while hoarding was associated with ADHD and OCD. In contrast, aggressive urges were genetically associated with TS, OCD, and ADHD. LCA revealed a three-class solution: few OCD/ADHD symptoms (LC1), OCD & ADHD symptoms (LC2), and symmetry/exactness, hoarding, and ADHD symptoms (LC3). LC2 had the highest psychiatric comorbidity rates (⩾50% for all disorders).
Symmetry/exactness, aggressive urges, fear-of-harm, and hoarding show complex genetic relationships with TS, OCD, and ADHD, and, rather than being specific subtypes of OCD, transcend traditional diagnostic boundaries, perhaps representing an underlying vulnerability (e.g. failure of top-down cognitive control) common to all three disorders.
The aim of this paper is to introduce the software and astronomical web-services developed in frame of the Ukraine Virtual Observatory (UkrVO) and VIrtual Roentgen and Gamma Observatory (VIRGO) to the broad astronomical community. We report briefly on such web-services as the public databases “Sky Maps” of X-ray observations by XMM-Newton, the Earth Orbital Parameters for International Earth Rotation System, and the UkrVO Joint Digitized Archive of astroplates. We refer to such software as the “Multi-Column View”, “Variable Stars Calculator”, “FrameSmooth” for variable star’s research and “Collection Light Technology” (CoLiTec) software for search and discovery of new Solar System bodies.
The Universe is permeated by hot, turbulent, magnetized plasmas. Turbulent plasma is a major constituent of active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants, the intergalactic and interstellar medium, the solar corona, the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetosphere, just to mention a few examples. Energy dissipation of turbulent fluctuations plays a key role in plasma heating and energization, yet we still do not understand the underlying physical mechanisms involved. THOR is a mission designed to answer the questions of how turbulent plasma is heated and particles accelerated, how the dissipated energy is partitioned and how dissipation operates in different regimes of turbulence. THOR is a single-spacecraft mission with an orbit tuned to maximize data return from regions in near-Earth space – magnetosheath, shock, foreshock and pristine solar wind – featuring different kinds of turbulence. Here we summarize the THOR proposal submitted on 15 January 2015 to the ‘Call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESAs Science Programme for a launch in 2025 (M4)’. THOR has been selected by European Space Agency (ESA) for the study phase.
The paper is compares the chronology of the monuments of the Scythian epoch located in the east and west of the Eurasian steppe zone on the basis of both archaeological and radiocarbon data. The lists of 14C dates for the monuments located in different parts of Eurasia are presented according to the periods of their existence. Generally, the 14C dates are confirmed the archaeological point of view and allow us to compare the chronological position of the European and Asian Scythian monuments on the united 14C time scale.
Individual rings from 1899–1990 were pooled from four radii of four cross-sections obtained from trees at a managed forest site near Huangling, north of Xian in north central China. Splits of wood ground to 20-mesh were analyzed independently at both the Xian and Arizona laboratories, using their respective methods for cellulose isolation, combustion and mass-spectrometric analysis. The δ13C results were highly correlated (r2 = 0.66) and absolute values typically within 0.2–0.3‰. Inter-tree variability was estimated as 1–1.5‰. The Huangling δ13C curve shows an overall downward trend with year-to-year fluctuations of up to 1.5‰ superimposed. A subset of δ13C maxima corresponded with below-normal precipitation and above-normal temperature in May and June, and minima were associated with above-normal precipitation and below-normal temperature in May and June, perhaps signaling early arrival of the East Asian Summer Monsoon. The generally poor climate correlations with all δ13C values, however, could be a consequence of the fairly mesic environment or of human disturbance. Chronologies of isotopic discrimination (δ) and Ci/Ca had flat slopes, suggesting the δ13C trend was driven by global rather than local effects.
This paper focuses on the chronological study of 2 Scythian period monuments that are the key to the chronology of the entire Eurasian Scythian culture. These are the unique monuments of Arzhan-1 and Arzhan-2 in Central Asia (Tuva Republic). The dating of both these monuments began immediately after their discovery, but discussion about their chronological position is still current. Both monuments contained considerable wooden material from their construction suitable for dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating. The first results for the Arzhan-1 barrow were obtained by wiggle-matching in 2004–2005, while the Arzhan-2 barrow was first dated in 2003. It is now possible to compare the chronological position of these barrows using the same methods. As postulated earlier, Arzhan-1 is the oldest Scythian period monument and is dated to the boundary of the 8–9th centuries BC. The position of the Arzhan-2 monument stretches to the middle of the 7th century BC. δ13C values for annual tree rings in logs from both barrows were also determined to gain a better understanding of the climatic conditions at the time of barrow construction.
Twenty-two annually banded samples of coral from 1977 to 1998 were collected from Daya Bay, South China Sea, and bomb 14C concentrations were determined. The interannual variation of coral Δ14C is controlled mainly by oceanic factors. In ENSO years, the coastwise upwelling current of the South China Sea has been intensified; hence, the coral Δ14C displays its minimum value. The interannual variation curve of Δ14C in coral bears a relationship with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) curves: the correlation coefficient between Δ14C and (SOI)w is 0.43 and the correlation coefficient between Δ14C and (SOI)y is 0.27. The coral Δ14C has no remarkable response to the variation of solar radiation energy. In the past 20 yr or so, the general situation and oceanic thermal structure of the South China Sea are still stable even though interannual variations in atmosphere-sea interaction and upwelling current driven by the tropical energy have occurred.