To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between eosinophils in ascites and the diagnosis of intestinal anisakidosis in patients with peritoneal signs on physical examination. We reviewed retrospectively 16 patients diagnosed with intestinal anisakidosis, evaluated between 2012 and 2015. All patients had ingested raw anchovies. The analysis of ascites fluid in ten of these patients was compared with that of 15 patients with ascites and other abdominal pathology (except liver cirrhosis). All patients had an increased number of white blood cells in the ascites fluid. The eosinophil count was significantly higher in patients with intestinal anisakidosis (P < 0.01). All patients had a good outcome. Increased eosinophils in ascites fluid is strongly associated with the diagnosis of intestinal anisakidosis.
The Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plant workers experienced multiple stressors as both victims and onsite workers after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent nuclear accidents. Previous studies found that disaster-related exposures, including discrimination/slurs, were associated with their mental health. Their long-term impact has yet to be investigated.
A total of 968 plant workers (Daiichi, n = 571; Daini, n = 397) completed self-written questionnaires 2–3 months (time 1) and 14–15 months (time 2) after the disaster (response rate 55.0%). Sociodemographics, disaster-related experiences, and peritraumatic distress were assessed at time 1. At time 1 and time 2, general psychological distress (GPD) and post-traumatic stress response (PTSR) were measured, respectively, using the K6 scale and Impact of Event Scale Revised. We examined multivariate covariates of time 2 GPD and PTSR, adjusting for autocorrelations in the hierarchical multiple regression analyses.
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD at time 1 (β = 0.491, p < 0.001) and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.065, p = 0.025, adjusted R2 = 0.24). Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted with higher PTSR at time 1 (β = 0.548, p < 0.001), higher age (β = 0.085, p = 0.005), and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.079, p = 0.003, adjusted R2 = 0.36).
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1. Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted by higher PTSR, higher age, and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1.
Although human paranasal sinuses are critical organs for nitric oxide production, little information is available regarding the role of arginase in alterations of arginine metabolism and nasal nitric oxide levels that may be informative for classifying chronic rhinosinusitis subtypes.
The expression and localisation of arginase and nitric oxide synthase isoforms in paranasal sinus mucosa were examined, and the fractional exhaled nitric oxide was measured in chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (n=18) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (n = 27) patients.
Increased arginase-2 activities in chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps patients were associated with significantly lower levels of nasal fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps patients showed significant NOS2 messenger RNA upregulation with concomitant higher levels of oral and nasal fractional exhaled nitric oxide.
These results indicate that fractional exhaled nitric oxide is a valid marker for differentiating chronic rhinosinusitis phenotypes based on a delicate balance between arginase and nitric oxide synthase activities in nitric oxide production.
In rats, maternal exposure to restraint stress during pregnancy can induce abnormalities in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems of the offspring. These effects are mediated by long-lasting hyperactivation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. However, little is known about the potential effects of stress during pregnancy on metabolic systems. We examined the effect of restraint stress in pregnant mice on the liver function of their offspring. The offspring of stressed mothers showed significantly higher lipid accumulation in the liver after weaning than did the controls; this accumulation was associated with increased expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins such as alanine aminotransferase 2 diglyceride acyltransferase 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glucocorticoid receptor. Additionally, we observed increased levels of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, an intercellular mediator that converts glucocorticoid from the inactive to the active form, in the foetal and postnatal periods. These results indicate that restraint stress in pregnancy in mice induces metabolic abnormalities via 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1-related pathways in the foetal liver. It is therefore possible that exposure to stress in pregnant women may be a risk factor for metabolic syndromes (e.g. fatty liver) in children.
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis refers to the concept that ‘malnutrition during the fetal period induces a nature of thrift in fetuses, such that they have a higher change of developing non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, if they grow up in the current well-fed society.’ Epigenetics is a chemical change in DNA and histones that affects how genes are expressed without alterations of DNA sequences. Several lines of evidence suggest that malnutrition during the fetal period alters the epigenetic expression status of metabolic genes in the fetus and that this altered expression can persist, and possibly lead to metabolic disorders. Similarly, mental stress during the neonatal period can alter the epigenetic expression status of neuronal genes in neonates. Moreover, such environmental, stress-induced, epigenetic changes are transmitted to the next generation via an acquired epigenetic status in sperm. The advantage of epigenetic modifications over changes in genetic sequences is their potential reversibility; thus, epigenetic alterations are potentially reversed with gene expression. Therefore, we potentially establish ‘preemptive medicine,’ that, in combination with early detection of abnormal epigenetic status and early administration of epigenetic-restoring drugs may prevent the development of disorders associated with the DOHaD.
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a severe invasive infection characterized by the sudden onset of shock, multi-organ failure, and high mortality. In Japan, appropriate notification measures based on the Infectious Disease Control law are mandatory for cases of STSS caused by β-haemolytic streptococcus. STSS is mainly caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). Although an average of 60–70 cases of GAS-induced STSS are reported annually, 143 cases were recorded in 2011. To determine the reason behind this marked increase, we characterized the emm genotype of 249 GAS isolates from STSS patients in Japan from 2010 to 2012 and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The predominant genotype was found to be emm1, followed by emm89, emm12, emm28, emm3, and emm90. These six genotypes constituted more than 90% of the STSS isolates. The number of emm1, emm89, emm12, and emm28 isolates increased concomitantly with the increase in the total number of STSS cases. In particular, the number of mefA-positive emm1 isolates has escalated since 2011. Thus, the increase in the incidence of STSS can be attributed to an increase in the number of cases associated with specific genotypes.
This paper summarizes research activities in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for evaluation of the radiation effects on selected terrestrial and aquatic organisms as well as the ecosystems. Seven organisms, conifers, fungi, earthworms, springtails, algae, daphnia and Medaka are presently selected to study. For the estimation of possible radiation dose, transfers of radionuclides and related elements from medium to organisms are evaluated. Dose-effect relationships of acute gamma radiation on the survival, growth, and reproduction of selected organisms have been studied. Studies on the effect of chronic gamma radiation at low dose rate were also started. In order to understand the mechanism of radiation effects and to find possible indicators of the effects, information of genome- and metagenome-wide gene expression has been collected. Evaluation of ecological effects of radiation is more challenging task. Study methods by using three-species microcosm were established, and an index for the holistic evaluation of effects on various ecological parameters was proposed. The microcosm has been simulated as a computer simulation code. Developments of more complicated and practical model ecosystems have been started. The Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) has been applied on soil bacterial community in order to evaluate the radiation effects on soil ecosystems.
Previous studies have reported prefrontal cortex (PFC) pathophysiology in bipolar disorder.
We examined the hemodynamics of the PFC during resting and cognitive tasks in 29 patients with bipolar disorder and 27 healthy controls, matched for age, verbal abilities and education. The cognitive test battery consisted of letter and category fluency (LF and CF), Sets A and B of the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM-A and RCPM-B) and the letter cancellation test (LCT). The tissue oxygenation index (TOI), the ratio of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) concentration to total hemoglobin concentration, was measured in the bilateral PFC by spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy. Changes in HbO2 concentration were also measured.
The bipolar group showed slight but significant impairment in performance for the non-verbal tasks (RCPM-A, RCPM-B and LCT), with no significant between-group differences for the two verbal tasks (LF and CF). A group×task×hemisphere analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the TOI revealed an abnormal pattern of prefrontal oxygenation across different types of cognitive processing in the bipolar group. Post hoc analyses following a group×task×hemisphere ANOVA on HbO2 concentration revealed that the bipolar group showed a greater increase in HbO2 concentration in the LCT and in RCPM-B, relative to controls.
Both indices of cortical activation (TOI and HbO2 concentration) indicated a discrepancy in the PFC function between verbal versus non-verbal processing, indicating task-specific abnormalities in the hemodynamic control of the PFC in bipolar disorder.
We have developed 100-kV, 200-kV, and 350-kV cold-field-emission transmission electron microscopes (FE-TEMs) successively up to this time. Using these instruments, we have been studying the magnetic structure of materials, high-resolution imaging by electron holography, and dynamic observation of the vortex in superconductors by Lorentz microscopy. To make more progress in our research, we need a better electron beam in terms of coherency, beam brightness, and penetration. Here, we report a new lMV-cold-field-emission transmission electron microscope we have developed. Historically, the pioneering projects on a lMV-field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM) (Zeitler and Crewe, 1974) and a 1.6MV FE-STEM (Jouffrey et al., 1984) have been reported. In 1988, Maruse and Shimoyama obtained a lMV-field-emission beam using their 1.25MV-STEM connected to a field-emission gun. Since then, continuous improvements in beam brightness has been made.
The target specifications of our 1 MV-cold-field-emission TEM (H-1000FT) are as follows: Acceleration voltage: 1MV, high-voltage stability :
In this study, we have sought to establish whether N2O and ketamine alter the bispectral index during propofol–fentanyl anaesthesia. Fourteen surgical patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the N2O group (n=7) and the ketamine group (n=7). In both groups, anaesthesia was induced with propofol 1.5–2 mg kg−1 and fentanyl 2 μg kg−1 and maintained with propofol 5–7 mg kg−1 hr−1 to target the bispectral index between 40 and 50. After the bispectral index value had stabilized the propofol infusion rate was fixed. In the N2O group, the following concentrations of N2O were subsequently inhaled at 20-min intervals; 20, 40, 60 and 70%, and then N2O was terminated. In the ketamine group, ketamine (0.4 mg kg−1+1.0 mg kg−1h−1) was given. The bispectral index and 95% spectral edge frequency were recorded 20 min after each change in concentration of N2O or ketamine infusion. The bispectral index and 95% spectral edge frequency did not change significantly in the N2O group, but increased significantly from 44.1±0.7 and 16.0±0.5 to 58.6±1.4 and 19.5±0.3 (P <0.01), respectively, in the ketamine group. Additional N2O or ketamine did not decrease the bispectral index and 95% spectral edge frequency values. The depth of sedation should be assessed carefully using a bispectral index monitor when these anaesthetic agents are used together.
About 10 X-ray binaries in our Galaxy and LMC/SMC are considered to contain black hole candidates (BHCs). Among these objects, Cyg X-1 was identified as the first BHC, and it has led BHCs for more than 25 years(Oda 1977, Liang and Nolan 1984). It is a binary system composed of normal blue supergiant star and the X-ray emitting compact object. The orbital kinematics derived from optical observations indicates that the compact object is heavier than ~ 4.8 M⊙ (Herrero 1995), which well exceeds the upper limit mass for a neutron star(Kalogora 1996), where we assume the system consists of only two bodies. This has been the basis for BHC of Cyg X-1.
We report the crystal growth and the characteristics of InGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) laser diodes grown on a 6H-SiC substrate using a low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (LP-MOVPE). We discuss the buffer layer, the control of InGaN and AlGaN alloy composition, the magnesium doping of GaN and AlGaN, and the characteristics of the MQW structure. We also demonstrate the room-temperature pulsed operation of the laser diode. The threshold voltage was reduced to 15 V by improving the p-contact resistance. The threshold current was reduced to 500 mA by changing the MQW structure and employing high reflection coating.
The catalytic interaction of noble metal and main group elements in Rh/one-atomic layer GeO2/SiO2 and Pt/SbOx was investigated. The high temperature reduction produced RhGe and PtSb bimetallic particles in which Pt and Rh were electronically modified to retard catalytic activity. However, unique selective catalyses of Rh/one-atomic layer GeO2/SiO2 for CO hydrogenation reaction to oxygenate compounds and for NO+CO reaction to N2 were found. Under the low temperature reduction of Rh/one-atomic layer GeO2/SiO2 and the high temperature calcination of Pt/SbOx, the oxide phases, GeO2 and SbOx, were stable and the selective reduction of ethylacetate to ethanol and the selective oxidation of iso-C4H10 to methacrolein were observed. The high selectivities were ascribed to synergistic interaction between the noble metals and the main group element oxides through the diffusion of adsorbed species and reaction intermediates. The possibility of chemical control of noble metal-catalyses by main group elements is discussed.
The effect of metal contamination and silicon surface defects on the gate oxide yield is investigated. The characteristics of various cleaning procedures are studied and correlated with the integrity of thin gate oxides. The standard wet cleaning recipe is optimized and a new cleaning strategy is proposed. Selective contamination experiments in chemicals and on Siwafers are used to investigate the effect of small amounts of metal contaminants on the gate oxide integrity. It is found that the characteristics of the silicon substrate play a dominant role in this. HF-last processes are investigated and a new wet cleaning strategy is proposed.
Preparation processing to obtain 124 single phase films has been studied by MOCVD. The YBCO thin films which were fabricated on MgO(100) and SrTiO3(100) substrates, respectively, were obtained under both conditions of Ts(temperature of susceptor)=800°C and Po2(oxygen partial pressure)=17.5torr. It was found that the oriented peaks of 124 c-axis and of 123 a-axis were more prominent than others at the composition ratio(Y/Ba/Cu=l.0/2.7/4.7), using the MgO(100) substrates. The 123 a-axis oriented grain was observed by using SEM and TEM. We have obtained thin films which were dominant in the 124 phase on the SrTiO3(100) substrates. The film surface morphology on the SrTiO3(100) substrate was smoother than that on the MgO(100) substrate. The origin of a-axis oriented grain growth was explained by the surface step(about 10 À) on MgO(100).
Chromophoric multilayer thin films exhibiting efficient second harmonic generation have been constructed on inorganic substrates via a stepwise layer-by-layer process using molecular self-assembly techniques. In each step, chemical species bearing appropriate functional groups form covalent bonds with functional groups deposited in the previous step. Bulk acentricity is achieved by the orientation of chromophore-containing layers outward from the substrate surface. A new chromophore having comparable hyperpolarizability but different steric and transparency characteristics than the stilbazolium chromophore used previously has been incorporated into self-assembled films. The large effects of octachlorotrisiloxane capping on the structure of these films have been investigated by second harmonic generation and X-ray reflectivity measurements. Novel in situ measurements of second harmonic generation efficiency as a function of chromophore layer growth are described and provide information useful for optimizing deposition conditions and understanding the film growth process.
Fe and Si layers were deposited alternately by using ion beam sputtering apparatus and the relationship between crystal structure and soft magnetic properties of these multi-layered films have been investigated in detail. The clear periodicity of multi-layered films was confirmed even at the thicknesses of Fe and Si layers δFe and δSi as small as 8.5 Å.
The saturation magnetization 4πMs for all Fe layers decreased with decrease of δFe and δSi, and the coercivity Hc of these films took minimum of 1.0 Oe at δFe of 8.5 Å.
Such a significant decrease of 4TEMs may be attributed to the formation of nonmagnetic regions at both side of each Fe layers. The thickness of these nonmagnetic regions may be estimated at approximately 1.5 Å from the measured value of 4flMs. This thickness seems to be very small because it is almost equal to that of one monolayer of bcc α-Fe. The low Hc of the films with δFe and δSi of 8.5 Å may be due to the formation of ultra-fine crystallites in Fe layer by insertion of amorphous Si layer and the direct magnetostatic interaction among Fe layers.