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To describe epidemiologic and genomic characteristics of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in a large skilled nursing facility (SNF), and the strategies that controlled transmission.
Design, Setting, and Participants:
Cohort study during March 22–May 4, 2020 of all staff and residents at a 780-bed SNF in San Francisco, California.
Contact tracing and symptom screening guided targeted testing of staff and residents; respiratory specimens were also collected through serial point prevalence surveys (PPS) in units with confirmed cases. Cases were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction testing for SARS-CoV-2; whole genome sequencing (WGS) characterized viral isolate lineages and relatedness. Infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions included restricting from work any staff who had close contact to a confirmed case; restricting movements between units; implementing surgical face masking facility-wide; and recommended PPE (isolation gown, gloves, N95 respirator and eye protection) for clinical interactions in units with confirmed cases.
Of 725 staff and residents tested through targeted testing and serial PPS, twenty-one (3%) were SARS-CoV-2-positive; sixteen (76%) staff and 5 (24%) residents. Fifteen (71%) were linked to a single unit. Targeted testing identified 17 (81%) cases; PPS identified 4 (19%). Most (71%) cases were identified prior to IPC intervention. WGS was performed on SARS-CoV-2 isolates from four staff and four residents; five were of Santa Clara County lineage and the three others were distinct lineages.
Early implementation of targeted testing, serial PPS, and multimodal IPC interventions limited SARS-CoV-2 transmission within the SNF.
In this paper we study the receptivity of the boundary layer to suction/blowing in marginally separated flows, like the one on the leading edge of a thin aerofoil. We assume that the unperturbed laminar flow is two-dimensional, and investigate the response of the boundary layer to two-dimensional as well as to three-dimensional perturbations. In both cases, the perturbations are assumed to be weak and periodic in time. Unlike conventional boundary layers, the marginally separated boundary layers cannot be treated using the quasi-parallel approximation. This precludes the normal-mode representation of the perturbations. Instead, we had to solve the linearised integro-differential equation of the marginal separation theory, which was done numerically. For two-dimensional perturbations, the results of the calculations show that the perturbations first grow in the inside of the separation region, but then start to decay downstream. For three-dimensional perturbations, instead of dealing with the integro-differential equation of marginal separation, we found it convenient to work with the Fourier transforms of the fluid-dynamic functions. The equations for the Fourier transforms are also solved numerically. Our calculations show that a three-dimensional wave packet forms downstream of the source of perturbations in the boundary layer.
To evaluate the occurrence, clinical course and outcomes of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in patients with laboratory confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 infection.
This is a prospective cross-sectional study of patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 infection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction over two months. The epidemiological and clinical outcomes studied were: age, sex, general symptoms, and olfactory and taste dysfunction.
A total of 410 coronavirus disease 2019 infected patients were included in the study, with 262 males (63.9 per cent) and 148 females (36.1 per cent). Ninety-nine patients (24.1 per cent) reported chemosensory dysfunction, of which 85 patients (20.7 per cent) reported both olfactory and taste dysfunction. Olfactory and taste dysfunction were proportionally more common in females. The mean duration of olfactory and taste dysfunction was 4.9 days, with a range of 2–15 days.
Olfactory and taste dysfunction are prevalent symptoms in coronavirus disease 2019 patients. In this study, they were more common in females than males. The occurrence of such dysfunctions is lower in the Indian population than in the European population.
Despite persistent efforts, unmet need for contraceptives in India has declined only slightly from 14% to 13% between 2005–06 and 2015–16. Many women using a family planning method discontinue it without switching to another method and continue to have unmet need. This study quantified the share of current unmet need for modern contraceptive methods attributed to past users of these methods in India. Data were drawn from two rounds of the National Family Health Survey conducted in 2005–06 and 2015–16. Using information on women with current unmet need, and whether they used any modern method in the past, the share of past users with current unmet need for modern methods was calculated. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Among 46 million women with unmet need, 11 million were past users of modern methods in 2015–16. The share of current unmet need attributed to past users of modern contraceptive methods declined from 27% in 2005–06 to 24% in 2015–16. Share of current unmet need attributed to past users was associated with reversible method use. This share rose with increased use of modern reversible methods. With the Indian family planning programme’s focus on increasing modern reversible method use, the share of unmet need attributed to past users of modern methods is likely to increase in the future. The programme’s emphasis on continuation of contraceptive use, along with bringing in new users, could be one of the key strategies for India to achieve the FP2020 goals.
Comparison of the integral dose (ID) delivered to organs at risk (OAR), non-target body and target body by using different techniques of craniospinal irradiation (CSI).
Materials and methods:
Ten CSI patients (medulloblastoma) already planned and treated either with linear accelerator three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (Linac-3DCRT) technique or with linear accelerator RapidArc (Linac-RapidArc) technique by Novalis-Tx Linac machine have been analysed. Retrospectively, these patients are again planned on Radixact-X9 Linac with Helical, Direct-3DCRT and Direct-intensity-modulated radiation therapy (Direct-IMRT) techniques. The dose prescription to planning target volume brain (PTV-Brain) and PTV-Spine is 36 Gy in 20 fractions and is kept the same for all techniques. The target body, non-target body, OARs and total body dose are compared.
ID is lowest in the RapidArc plan for every patient in comparison to Helical and Direct-IMRT. The ID for Body-PTV was found slightly higher in the RapidArc plan in comparison to 3DCRT plans. But there is better normal tissue sparing for most of the OARs in RapidArc plans if it compares with 3DCRT plans.
RapidArc is a better alternative for the treatment of CSI. It provides better target coverage and better OARs sparing from any other treatment techniques.
A non-classical analytical model for vibration analysis of thin isotropic and FGM plate containing multiple part-through cracks (star shaped) of arbitrary orientation is proposed. A plate containing four concentric cracks of arbitrary orientation in the form of continuous line is considered for analysis. The proposed governing equation is derived based on classical plate theory and modified couple stress theory. Line spring model is modified to accommodate all the crack terms. The application of Berger’s formulation introduces nonlinearities in the governing equation and then the Galerkin’s method is applied for solving final governing equation. Results for fundamental frequencies for different values of crack length, crack orientation, gradient index and material length scale parameters are presented for two different boundary conditions. Furthermore, to study the phenomenon of bending hardening/softening in a cracked plate, the frequency response curves are plotted for the parameters stated above. Based on the outcomes of this study, it can be concluded that stiffness of the plate is severely affected by the presence of multiple cracks and the stiffness goes on decreasing with increase in number of cracks thereby affecting the fundamental frequency.
Pharmacogenetic studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) primarily focussing on serotonergic and dopaminergic polymorphisms, provided inconsistent findings. There is recent evidence for glutamatergic abnormalities in OCD.
Examine the association glutamatergic genes with serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) response in OCD.
To study pharmacogenetic association between SLC1A1 and GRIN2B polymorphisms with SRI response in OCD.
DSM-IV OCD patients were recruited from a specialty OCD clinic and evaluated using the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (YBOCS), Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) plus, Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI). They were subsequently reassessed with YBOCS and CGI. To study extreme phenotypes, we included only full responders (> 35% YBOCS improvement and CGI-I score of 1 or 2) to any SRI (n = 191) and non-responders (< 25% YBOCS improvement and CGI-I score ≥ 4) to adequate trial of at least two SRIs (n = 84). Partial responders were excluded. Genotyping was performed using an ABI9700 PCR machine.
Genotype frequencies did not deviate significantly from the values predicted by the Hardy-Weinberg equation. Case-control association analyses revealed no significant association between genotype/allele frequencies with SRI response.
Our data does not show any association between polymorphisms in glutamatergic genes and SRI response in OCD though such associations have been found in other studies. More SNP's in the same gene could be responsible for the pharmacogenetic associations. More homogenous sample considering symptom dimensions and other phenotypic variables may be needed. It may be critical to go beyond “usual suspect” candidate gene research. In this regard, a novel approach to identify SRI response biomarkers is the use of cellular models.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Contemporary treatment guidelines recommend use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) either as mono therapy or in combination with mood stabilizers as first-line treatment. While these drugs have been established to have superior efficacy compared to placebo, there is very less data comparing these antipsychotics with one another. We sought to study differences in the five-year outcome of first episode of mania (FEM) treated with olanzapine or risperidone, either alone or in combination with mood stabilizer.
We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with FEM (ICD-10) in the year 2008 (n = 88) at our centre. We selected the data of patients prescribed either olanzapine or risperidone for the purpose of this analysis. We extracted data about time to recovery and recurrence after FEM, total episodes, drug compliance and response, and number of follow-up visits from 2008 to 2013. The study was approved by the Institute Ethics Committee.
A total of 88 patients received diagnosis of FEM in the year 2008, of which 50 (56.8%) received risperidone and 35 (39.8%) received olanzapine. The two groups were comparable in socio-demographic and clinical symptomatology of FEM (all P > 0.08). Complete recovery was significantly more in the olanzapine group than the risperidone group (χ2 = 4.84, P < 0.05).
Our study indicates that risperidone and olanzapine, either alone or in combination with mood stabilizers have a similar impact on the five-year course of BD following a first manic episode. However, olanzapine is associated with more complete recovery from FEM than risperidone.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This study proposes a measure of reproductive losses starting from conception to age 15 as an assessment of childbearing ‘efficiency’. It is suggested that losses are due to miscarriages, abortions, stillbirths and deaths to age 15. Data were drawn from various sources for seven regions embracing 129 developing countries. Mortality is an important loss in severely disadvantaged regions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, but the abortion rates are lower there. This is reversed in the more advanced regions, where mortality is low but abortion rates are higher. Total losses numerically depend upon the rates in combination with the numbers of conceptions. The general ‘efficiency’ in moving from conception to a surviving child aged 15 was estimated. The abortion component of wastage has apparently not improved over time, but the mortality component has done so. Abortion rates are found to drive reproductive efficiency downwards; but efficiency is positively correlated with contraceptive use once abortion is controlled for. This implies that as efficiency is improved more couples gain confidence to turn to contraceptive use to avoid unplanned pregnancies and births.
Nanostructures of plasmonic metals naturally combine strong light–matter interactions with catalytic activity, enabling new opportunities for light harvesting, catalytic chemistry, and artificial photosynthesis. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the optical excitation of localized surface plasmons generates hot electrons that can activate adsorbates triggering or facilitating chemical reactions on the surface of the nanoparticle. Going beyond such hot-electron-activated chemistry, a body of studies has shown that electron and hole carriers can be harvested from a plasmonically excited nanoparticle and utilized as redox equivalents for driving chemical reactions involving charge transfer. This article reviews such photoredox chemistry driven by plasmonic excitation of metal nanoparticles. Under certain conditions, a plasmonically excited nanoparticle can catalyze multielectron, multiproton transformations such as the photosynthesis of CO2 to hydrocarbons. We describe how the free energy of plasmonically generated charge carriers can be harvested and utilized for thermodynamically uphill reactions involving the formation of energy-rich chemical bonds or the development of molecular complexity. We end with a discussion of future opportunities in plasmon-excitation-driven photoredox chemistry.
We develop a model that successfully learns social and organizational human network structure using ambient sensing data from distributed plug load energy sensors in commercial buildings. A key goal for the design and operation of commercial buildings is to support the success of organizations within them. In modern workspaces, a particularly important goal is collaboration, which relies on physical interactions among individuals. Learning the true socio-organizational relational ties among workers can therefore help managers of buildings and organizations make decisions that improve collaboration. In this paper, we introduce the Interaction Model, a method for inferring human network structure that leverages data from distributed plug load energy sensors. In a case study, we benchmark our method against network data obtained through a survey and compare its performance to other data-driven tools. We find that unlike previous methods, our method infers a network that is correlated with the survey network to a statistically significant degree (graph correlation of 0.46, significant at the 0.01 confidence level). We additionally find that our method requires only 10 weeks of sensing data, enabling dynamic network measurement. Learning human network structure through data-driven means can enable the design and operation of spaces that encourage, rather than inhibit, the success of organizations.
Sheath blight caused by soil borne necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani [teleomorph-Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk.] is a major disease of rice. The disease is increasing over the year in India and cause up to 69% yield loss under favourable conditions. A total of 67 accessions of Oryza nivara were screened to identify resistance against sheath blight during 2015. Out of these, 16 accessions were found moderately resistant (MR) which were further evaluated during the year 2016 and 2017. After three years of screening, 12 of them were found to have a consistent moderate resistant reaction whereas four of the O. nivara accessions namely, IRGC81941, IRGC102463C, CR100097 and CR100110A have shown moderately susceptible to susceptible reaction against sheath blight. A correlation study revealed that different disease variables measured were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated. All the genotypes and genotype × environment interaction had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on all the disease variables. Cluster analysis showed that all the accessions were clustered into four groups which showed resistant, MR, moderately susceptible and susceptible reactions. Among all the O. nivara accessions IRGC81941A showed the maximum potential against sheath blight due to a least relative lesion height of 22.80%. None of the accession had complete resistance to the disease. The identified promising accessions such as IRGC81835, IRGC81941A, CR100008 and CR100111B can be utilized in a sheath blight resistance breeding program.
To study 2D and 3D dosimetric values for bladder and rectum, and the influence of bladder volume on bladder dose in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). The large patient data incorporated in this study would better represent the inherent variations in many parameters affecting dosimetry in HDR-ICBT.
Material and Methods:
We prospectively collected data for 103 consecutive cervical cancer patients (over 310 HDR fractions) undergoing CT-based HDR-ICBT at our centre. Correlation among bladder and rectum maximum volume doses and corresponding International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) point doses were estimated and analysed. Impact of bladder volume on bladder maximum dose was assessed.
The ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum varied from the volumetric doses to these organs. Further, bladder volume poorly correlated with bladder maximum dose for volume variations encountered in the clinical practice at our centre.
ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum are less likely to correlate with long-term toxicities to these organs. Further, in clinical practice where inter-fraction bladder volume does not vary widely there is no correlation between bladder volume and bladder dose.
This study analysed the recent changes and patterns of information received about contraceptive methods by contraceptive users in India – an important indicator of quality of care in family planning services. Data were taken from the third and fourth rounds of National Family and Health Surveys (NFHS) conducted in India during 2005–06 and 2015–16. The Method Information Index (MII) was used to capture the information received by respondents on three aspects of contraceptive method use: information about the side-effects of the method, what to do if they experienced any complication from using the method and information received about other methods of contraception. A separate analysis of information received by users about the permanency of sterilization was also carried out. Logistic regression models were applied to assess the independent effects of users’ background characteristics and their states and union territories of residence on method information received by them. The value of the MII nearly doubled from about 16% in 2004–05 to 31% in 2015–16, indicating a marked increase in the information received by contraceptive users in India over the period between 2005–06 and 2015–16. In addition, the percentage of sterilized women who received information about the permanency of the method also increased, from 67% to 80%, over the period. While considerable progress has been made in the last decade, there is still plenty of scope for improvement in the information received by contraceptive users to advance a voluntary approach to family planning.
This study examined the pattern of economic disparity in the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) among women receiving contraceptives from the public and private health sectors in India, using data from all four rounds of the National Family Health Survey conducted between 1992–93 and 2015–16. The mCPR was measured for currently married women aged 15–49 years. A concentration index was calculated and a pooled binary logistic regression analysis conducted to assess economic disparity (by household wealth quintiles) in modern contraceptive use between the public and private health sectors. The analyses were stratified by rural–urban place of residence. The results indicated that mCPR had increased in India over time. However, in 2015–16 only half of women – 48% (33% from the public sector, 12% from the private sector, 3% from other sources) – were using any modern contraceptive in India. Over time, the economic disparity in modern contraceptive use reduced across both public and private health sectors. However, the extent of the disparity was greater when women obtained the services from the private sector: the value of the concentration index for mCPR was 0.429 when obtained from the private sector and 0.133 when from the public sector in 2015–16. Multivariate analysis confirmed a similar pattern of the economic disparity across public and private sectors. Economic disparity in the mCPR has reduced considerably in India. While the economic disparity in 2015–16 was minimal among those accessing contraceptives from the public sector, it continued to exist among those receiving services from the private sector. While taking appropriate steps to plan and monitor private sector services for family planning, continued and increased engagement of public providers in the family planning programme in India is required to further reduce the economic disparity among those accessing contraceptive services from the private sector.
Dicationic cobalt(II) complexes of the type [Co(fterpy)2]c(X)2·nH2O·mCH3OH (fterpy = 4′-(2-furyl)-2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine; 1: X = PF6-, n = 1.5, m = 0; 2: X = ClO4-, n = 1, m = 1) have been isolated using self-assembly method and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. In crystalline states both compounds exhibit gradual and incomplete spin crossover (SCO) behaviour in the temperature range 2-320 K. Various spin states of cobalt(II) in 1 have been confirmed by crystallographic evidences at 150 K and 293 K. A variation in counter anions and solvent molecules from 1 to 2 substantially improves the cooperativity among the spin active metal centres and thereby changing the nature of SCO behaviour.
Dementia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality without pharmacologic prevention or cure. Mounting evidence suggests that adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern may slow cognitive decline, and is important to characterise in at-risk cohorts. Thus, we determined the reliability and validity of the Mediterranean Diet and Culinary Index (MediCul), a new tool, among community-dwelling individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A total of sixty-eight participants (66 % female) aged 75·9 (sd 6·6) years, from the Study of Mental and Resistance Training study MCI cohort, completed the fifty-item MediCul at two time points, followed by a 3-d food record (FR). MediCul test–retest reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland–Altman plots and κ agreement within seventeen dietary element categories. Validity was assessed against the FR using the Bland–Altman method and nutrient trends across MediCul score tertiles. The mean MediCul score was 54·6/100·0, with few participants reaching thresholds for key Mediterranean foods. MediCul had very good test–retest reliability (ICC=0·93, 95 % CI 0·884, 0·954, P<0·0001) with fair-to-almost-perfect agreement for classifying elements within the same category. Validity was moderate with no systematic bias between methods of measurement, according to the regression coefficient (y=−2·30+0·17x) (95 % CI −0·027, 0·358; P=0·091). MediCul over-estimated the mean FR score by 6 %, with limits of agreement being under- and over-estimated by 11 and 23 %, respectively. Nutrient trends were significantly associated with increased MediCul scoring, consistent with a Mediterranean pattern. MediCul provides reliable and moderately valid information about Mediterranean diet adherence among older individuals with MCI, with potential application in future studies assessing relationships between diet and cognitive function.
Background: Gliomas demonstrate epigenetic dysregulation highlighted by the Glioma CpG-Island Methylator Phenotype (G-CIMP) seen in IDH1 mutant tumors. IDH1 mutation perturbs the balance between 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by inhibiting TET-mediated active demethylation. The role 5hmC plays in IDH1 mutant tumors remains poorly understood. Methods: We profiled 5hmC in high grade IDH1 mutant (n = 12) and wild-type (n = 9) tumors on the Illumina MethylationEPIC Beadchip. We examined regions with high 5hmC abundance (top 1% probes), and differentially hydroxymethylated regions (DHMR). 5hmC profiles were correlated with gene expression. Results: Mean 5hmC b-values were 4.6%% and 3.8% for IDH1 mutant and wild-type tumors, respectively. Top 1% and DHMR probes demonstrated increased 5hmC among IDH1 mutants. 5hmC enriched for enhancer and super-enhancers. Among G-CIMP target genes, 22/50 were hydroxymethylated in our IDH1 mutant cohort, suggesting that 5hmC contributes to their overall methylation. Gene expression was associated with gene body 5hmC. 48 genes differentially expressed between IDH1 cohorts showed a positive Spearman correlation between 5hmC and gene expression, in particular for genes upregulated in IDH1 mutants. Conclusions: Locus-specific gain of 5hmC, targeting regulatory regions and associated with over-expressed genes, suggests a significant role for 5hmC in IDH1 mutant HGG.
Introduction: Situational awareness (SA) is essential for maintenance of scene safety and effective resource allocation in mass casualty incidents (MCI). Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can potentially enhance SA with real-time visual feedback during chaotic and evolving or inaccessible events. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of paramedics to use UAV video from a simulated MCI to identify scene hazards, initiate patient triage, and designate key operational locations. Methods: A simulated MCI, including fifteen patients of varying acuity (blast type injuries), plus four hazards, was created on a college campus. The scene was surveyed by UAV capturing video of all patients, hazards, surrounding buildings and streets. Attendees of a provincial paramedic meeting were invited to participate. Participants received a lecture on SALT Triage and the principles of MCI scene management. Next, they watched the UAV video footage. Participants were directed to sort patients according to SALT Triage step one, identify injuries, and localize the patients within the campus. Additionally, they were asked to select a start point for SALT Triage step two, identify and locate hazards, and designate locations for an Incident Command Post, Treatment Area, Transport Area and Access/Egress routes. Summary statistics were performed and a linear regression model was used to assess relationships between demographic variables and both patient triage and localization. Results: Ninety-six individuals participated. Mean age was 35 years (SD 11), 46% (44) were female, and 49% (47) were Primary Care Paramedics. Most participants (80 (84%)) correctly sorted at least 12 of 15 patients. Increased age was associated with decreased triage accuracy [-0.04(-0.07,-0.01);p=0.031]. Fifty-two (54%) were able to localize 12 or more of the 15 patients to a 27x 20m grid area. Advanced paramedic certification, and local residency were associated with improved patient localization [2.47(0.23,4.72);p=0.031], [-3.36(-5.61,-1.1);p=0.004]. The majority of participants (78 (81%)) chose an acceptable location to start SALT triage step two and 84% (80) identified at least three of four hazards. Approximately half (53 (55%)) of participants designated four or more of five key operational areas in appropriate locations. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential of UAV technology to remotely provide emergency responders with SA in a MCI. Additional research is required to further investigate optimal strategies to deploy UAVs in this context.
GLP-1 (abnormal germline proliferation) is a Notch-like receptor protein that plays an essential role in pharyngeal development. In this study, an orthologue of Caenorhabditis elegans glp-1 was identified in Meloidogyne incognita. A computational analysis revealed that the orthologue contained almost all the domains present in the C. elegans gene: specifically, the LIN-12/Notch repeat, the ankyrin repeat, a transmembrane domain and different ligand-binding motifs were present in orthologue, but the epidermal growth factor-like motif was not observed. An expression analysis showed differential expression of glp-1 throughout the life cycle of M. incognita, with relatively higher expression in the egg stage. To evaluate the silencing efficacy of Mi-glp-1, transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying double-stranded RNA constructs of glp-1 were generated, and infection of these plants with M. incognita resulted in a 47–50% reduction in the numbers of galls, females and egg masses. Females obtained from the transgenic RNAi lines exhibited 40–60% reductions in the transcript levels of the targeted glp-1 gene compared with females isolated from the control plants. Second-generation juveniles (J2s), which were descendants of the infected females from the transgenic lines, showed aberrant phenotypes. These J2s exhibited a significant decrease in the overall distance from the stylet to the metacorpus region, and this effect was accompanied by disruption around the metacorporeal bulb of the pharynx. The present study suggests a role for this gene in organ (pharynx) development during embryogenesis in M. incognita and its potential use as a target in the management of nematode infestations in plants.