To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Deficits in visuospatial attention, known as neglect, are common following brain injury, but underdiagnosed and poorly treated, resulting in long-term cognitive disability. In clinical settings, neglect is often assessed using simple pen-and-paper tests. While convenient, these cannot characterise the full spectrum of neglect. This protocol reports a research programme that compares traditional neglect assessments with a novel virtual reality attention assessment platform: The Attention Atlas (AA).
The AA was codesigned by researchers and clinicians to meet the clinical need for improved neglect assessment. The AA uses a visual search paradigm to map the attended space in three dimensions and seeks to identify the optimal parameters that best distinguish neglect from non-neglect, and the spectrum of neglect, by providing near-time feedback to clinicians on system-level behavioural performance. A series of experiments will address procedural, scientific, patient, and clinical feasibility domains.
Analyses focuses on descriptive measures of reaction time, accuracy data for target localisation, and histogram-based raycast attentional mapping analysis; which measures the individual’s orientation in space, and inter- and intra-individual variation of visuospatial attention. We will compare neglect and control data using parametric between-subjects analyses. We present example individual-level results produced in near-time during visual search.
The development and validation of the AA is part of a new generation of translational neuroscience that exploits the latest advances in technology and brain science, including technology repurposed from the consumer gaming market. This approach to rehabilitation has the potential for highly accurate, highly engaging, personalised care.
The ultimate goal of upper-limb rehabilitation after stroke is to promote real-world use, that is, use of the paretic upper-limb in everyday activities outside the clinic or laboratory. Although real-world use can be collected through self-report questionnaires, an objective indicator is preferred. Accelerometers are a promising tool. The current paper aims to explore the feasibility of accelerometers to measure upper-limb use after stroke and discuss the translation of this measurement tool into clinical practice. Accelerometers are non-invasive, wearable sensors that measure movement in arbitrary units called activity counts. Research to date indicates that activity counts are a reliable and valid index of upper-limb use. While most accelerometers are unable to distinguish between the type and quality of movements performed, recent advancements have used accelerometry data to produce clinically meaningful information for clinicians, patients, family and care givers. Despite this, widespread uptake in research and clinical environments remains limited. If uptake was enhanced, we could build a deeper understanding of how people with stroke use their arm in real-world environments. In order to facilitate greater uptake, however, there is a need for greater consistency in protocol development, accelerometer application and data interpretation.
Background: Developing high quality clinical trials within rehabilitation research is achievable and should be pursued wherever possible. One of the greatest challenges rehabilitation trialists face is defining experimental and control interventions and ensuring that the intervention dose is delivered as planned. Aim: We describe procedures employed within a pilot randomised controlled trial of a rehabilitation intervention to monitor therapy dose. Method: The trial setting was two acute stroke units in large teaching hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. The design was a randomised controlled trial of very early mobilisation (commenced within 24 hours of stroke onset) plus standard care (VEM) versus standard care alone. Assessors were blinded to group and analysis was intention to treat. All therapy data (both intervention and control) were acquired using personal digital assistants. Monitoring of therapy dose and feedback to trial staff was given 6 months into the trial by a researcher independent of the trial team. Results: Before feedback, therapists were barely meeting intervention protocol minimum targets. Following feedback, compliance with trial protocol was achieved. Conclusion: Monitoring of the therapy dose within a clinical trial is important to achieve trial quality. This article shows how monitoring including feedback leads to improved delivery of the therapy ‘pill’.
Background: Research in both humans and animals indicates that physical activity can enhance cognitive activity, but whether this is true in patients with stroke is largely unknown. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between increased physical activity after stroke and cognitive performance.
Methods: A systematic review was conducted of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and other electronic databases. All randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical studies that evaluated the effect of physical activity or exercise on cognitive function in stroke were included. Study quality was assessed using four criteria concerning sources of bias (use of randomization, allocation concealment, blinding of outcome assessment, whether all patients were accounted for in outcome data).
Results: The literature search (first run in 2008, updated in 2011) yielded 12 studies that satisfied inclusion criteria. Exercise interventions were heterogeneous; some studies compared different intensities of movement rehabilitation, others included a specific exercise program. Cognitive function was rarely the primary outcome measure, and cognitive assessment tools used were generally suboptimal. Nine studies had sufficient data to be included in a meta-analysis, which indicated a significant benefit of intervention over control (SMD = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.04–0.36; z = 2.43, p = 0.015). Studies that met all four quality criteria reported smaller treatment benefit than studies that did not.
Conclusions: There is some evidence that increased physical activity after stroke enhances cognitive performance. The pool of studies identified, however, was small and methodological shortcomings were widespread.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.