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Pediatric bone marrow transplants represent a medically stressful, potentially traumatic experience for children and caregivers, and psychological support for parental caregivers is paramount to their long-term well-being. However, many medical centers do not have protocols in place to sustain caregiver well-being during these distressing experiences.
We report on a case of a 10-month-old infant with Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome who was hospitalized for bone marrow transplantation.
We describe the significant burden that fell upon caregivers during and after a bone marrow transplantation.
Significance of results:
This case helped guide our suggestions to improve care for caregivers. Several logistical hurdles could be overcome to alleviate some of these burdens. We suggest that a child psychologist or psychiatrist should be on patient care teams and be attentive to parental stress, impairments, or impediments to self-care, and signs of emergency of mental illness in this setting of medical trauma. Additionally, promotion of sleep hygiene and linkage to support systems can maximize resiliency. Finally, we believe that hospital administrators should partner with clinicians to facilitate routine support during highly stressful transitions of care.
The recently validated Cornell Assessment for Pediatric Delirium (CAPD) is a new rapid bedside nursing screen for delirium in hospitalized children of all ages. The present manuscript provides a “developmental anchor points” reference chart, which helps ground clinicians' assessment of CAPD symptom domains in a developmental understanding of the presentation of delirium.
During the development of this CAPD screening tool, it became clear that clinicians need specific guidance and training to help them draw on their expertise in child development and pediatrics to improve the interpretative reliability of the tool and its accuracy in diagnosing delirium. The developmental anchor points chart was formulated and reviewed by a multidisciplinary panel of experts to evaluate content validity and include consideration of sick behaviors within a hospital setting.
The CAPD developmental anchor points for the key ages of newborn, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks, 28 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years served as the basis for training bedside nurses in scoring the CAPD for the validation trial and as a multifaceted bedside reference chart to be implemented within a clinical setting. In the current paper, we discuss the lessons learned during implementation, with particular emphasis on the importance of collaboration with the bedside nurse, the challenges of establishing a developmental baseline, and further questions about delirium diagnosis in children.
Significance of Results:
The CAPD with developmental anchor points provides a validated, structured, and developmentally informed approach to screening and assessment of delirium in children. With minimal training on the use of the tool, bedside nurses and other pediatric practitioners can reliably identify children at risk for delirium.
Our aim was to evaluate interrater reliability for the diagnosis of pediatric delirium by child psychiatrists.
Critically ill patients (N = 17), 0–21 years old, including 7 infants, 5 children with developmental delay, and 7 intubated children, were assessed for delirium using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual–IV (DSM–IV) (comparable to DSM–V) criteria. Delirium assessments were completed by two psychiatrists, each blinded to the other's diagnosis, and interrater reliability was measured using Cohen's κ coefficient along with its 95% confidence interval.
Interrater reliability for the psychiatric assessment was high (Cohen's κ = 0.94, CI [0.83, 1.00]). Delirium diagnosis showed excellent interrater reliability regardless of age, developmental delay, or intubation status (Cohen's κ range 0.81–1.00).
Significance of results:
In our study cohort, the psychiatric interview and exam, long considered the “gold standard” in the diagnosis of delirium, was highly reliable, even in extremely young, critically ill, and developmentally delayed children. A developmental approach to diagnosing delirium in this challenging population is recommended.
To compare macronutrient intakes of Swedish children and adolescents to population goals; to identify the major sources of energy, fat, saturated fat and sucrose; and to simulate the effect adherence to current food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) would have on saturated fat and sucrose intakes.
Cross-sectional study. From 24 h recall data, food groups contributing most to energy, fat, saturated fat and sucrose were identified. Based on the prevailing consumption of foods mentioned in the FBDG, we simulated five scenarios: changes in milk and yoghurt; cheese; energy-dense, nutrient-dilute foods; soft drinks; and burger and sausage consumption.
Stockholm and Örebro (Sweden) in 1998–1999.
Children (n 551, 9·6 years) and adolescents (n 569, 15·5 years) participating in the European Youth Heart Study.
Intakes of saturated fat and sucrose exceeded population goals in all age and gender subgroups. Compliance to the goal for saturated fat was lower in children, particularly boys. Compliance to the sucrose goal was lower among adolescents. The major sources of energy, fat, saturated fat and sucrose in the diet reflect not only the traditional Swedish diet but also the influence of energy-dense, nutrient-dilute foods. The simulations suggest that a combination of FBDG is required to bring both saturated fat and sucrose intakes in line with recommendations.
Widespread adherence to a combination of FBDG could theoretically bring mean intakes in line with population goals. The effect on overall nutrient intakes as well as consumer acceptance of such changes needs to be considered.
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