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Only a few studies have analyzed the effects of physical and psychiatric conditions on the risk of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Therefore, the goal of this exploratory case-control study was to investigate the associations of physical and psychiatric conditions with CFS in almost 19 800 adults from Germany.
This study included patients diagnosed for the first time with CFS in one of 1238 general practices in Germany between 2010 and 2017 (index date). Controls without CFS were matched (1:1) to cases with CFS by sex, age, index year, and practice. Physical and psychiatric conditions diagnosed in the year prior to the index date were included if they were present in at least 3% of patients with CFS. Associations between physical and psychiatric conditions (33 potential independent variables) and CFS (dependent variable) were analyzed in an adjusted conditional logistic regression model, and physical and psychiatric disorders were included in the model using forward stepwise selection.
This study included 9896 cases with CFS and 9896 controls without CFS [65.1% women; mean (standard deviation) age 49.5 (18.3) years]. Seven conditions were associated with CFS in the adjusted regression model. The disorders displaying the strongest relationship with CFS were cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 2.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.24–2.95], sleep disorders (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.66–2.12) and depression (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.61–1.95).
Cancer, sleep disorders, and depression were strongly and positively associated with CFS. Additional studies are needed to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these relationships.
There is a substantial proportion of patients who drop out of treatment before they receive minimally adequate care. They tend to have worse health outcomes than those who complete treatment. Our main goal is to describe the frequency and determinants of dropout from treatment for mental disorders in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
Respondents from 13 low- or middle-income countries (N = 60 224) and 15 in high-income countries (N = 77 303) were screened for mental and substance use disorders. Cross-tabulations were used to examine the distribution of treatment and dropout rates for those who screened positive. The timing of dropout was examined using Kaplan–Meier curves. Predictors of dropout were examined with survival analysis using a logistic link function.
Dropout rates are high, both in high-income (30%) and low/middle-income (45%) countries. Dropout mostly occurs during the first two visits. It is higher in general medical rather than in specialist settings (nearly 60% v. 20% in lower income settings). It is also higher for mild and moderate than for severe presentations. The lack of financial protection for mental health services is associated with overall increased dropout from care.
Extending financial protection and coverage for mental disorders may reduce dropout. Efficiency can be improved by managing the milder clinical presentations at the entry point to the mental health system, providing adequate training, support and specialist supervision for non-specialists, and streamlining referral to psychiatrists for more severe cases.
Psychopathological heterogeneity in manic syndromes may in part reflect underlying latent classes with characteristic outcome patterns. Differential treatment course and outcome after 12 weeks of treatment were examined for three distinct classes of patients with acute mania in bipolar disorder.
Subjects and methods
Three thousand four hundred and twenty-five patients with acute mania were divided into three distinct mania classes: ‘Typical’, ‘Psychotic’ and ‘Dual’ (i.e. comorbid substance use) mania. Persistence of class differences and social outcomes were examined, using multilevel regression analyses and odds ratios.
The three classes showed substantial stability post-baseline in the pattern of associations with class-characteristic variables. Psychotic and Dual mania predicted poorer outcome in terms of psychosis comorbidity and overall bipolar and mania severity, while Dual mania additionally predicted poorer outcome of alcohol and substance abuse. Worse social outcomes were observed for both Dual and Psychotic mania.
The identified distinct classes are stable and associated with differential treatment outcome. Overall, Dual and Psychotic mania show less favourable outcomes compared to Typical mania. These findings additionally give rise to concern on the generalisability of randomized clinical trials RCTs.
Antipsychotic medication maintenance and the factors influencing it were analyzed using data from the SOHO study, a large observational study of the outcomes of antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia in Europe. A total of 7186 adult patients in the outpatient setting who were initiating or changing their antipsychotic medication and who were prescribed only one antipsychotic after the baseline visit were analyzed. Medication maintenance at 12 months varied with the type of antipsychotic prescribed, being highest with clozapine (79.5%) and olanzapine (77.0%), and lowest with quetiapine (51.4%) and amisulpride (58.2%). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the type of antipsychotic prescribed at baseline was the most important predictor of medication maintenance. Alcohol dependency, taking mood stabilizers, compulsory admission or arrest in the previous 6 months, greater clinical severity, and changing antipsychotic medication due to lack of effectiveness at baseline predicted a higher frequency of medication discontinuation in the subsequent 12 months. In contrast, medication maintenance was higher among patients who were treatment naïve at baseline, socially active or who had loss of libido at baseline. The findings from this study should be interpreted conservatively because of its non-randomized observational design.
This article presents the long-term results in terms of antipsychotic medication maintenance and factors influencing it in a representative sample of patients with schizophrenia recruited in the SOHO study within Spain.
The SOHO was a prospective, 3-year observational study of the outcomes of schizophrenia treatment in outpatients who initiated therapy or changed to a new antipsychotic performed in 10 European countries with a focus on olanzapine. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to analyse the time to treatment discontinuation and the Cox proportional hazards model to investigate correlates of discontinuation.
Results and conclusions
In total, 1688 patients were included in the analyses. Medication maintenance at 3 years varied with the antipsychotic prescribed, being highest with clozapine (57.6%, 95% CI 39.2–74.5), followed by olanzapine (48.3%, 95% CI 45.1–51.5); and lowest with quetiapine (19.0%, 95% CI 13.0–26.3). Treatment discontinuation was significantly less frequent with olanzapine than with risperidone (p = 0.015), depot typical (p = 0.001), oral typical antipsychotics (p < 0.001) or quetiapine (p < 0.001); but not than with clozapine (p = 0.309). Longer maintenance was also associated with higher social abilities and better cognitive status at baseline; in contrast, a shorter time to discontinuation was associated with the need for mood stabilisers during follow-up. This study emphasises the different value of antipsychotics in day-to-day clinical practice, as some of them were associated with longer medication maintenance periods than others. This study has some limitations because of possible selection and information biases derived from the non-systematic, non-randomised allocation to treatments and the existence of unobserved covariates that may influence the outcome.
Non-heterosexual individuals are at high risk for a variety of factors associated with the emergence of psychotic experiences (PEs) (e.g. common mental disorders, substance use, and stress). However, there is a scarcity of data on the association between sexual orientation and PEs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the sexual orientation-PE relationship, and to identify potential mediators in this relationship.
This study used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Sexual orientation was dichotomized into heterosexual and non-heterosexual. Past 12-month PE was assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. Regression and mediation analyses were conducted to analyze the association between sexual orientation and PEs, and to identify potential mediators involved in this relationship.
The final sample consisted of 7275 individuals aged ⩾16 years. The prevalence of non-heterosexual orientation and any PE was 7.1% and 5.5%, respectively. After adjusting for sex, age, and ethnicity, non-heterosexual orientation was positively associated with any PE (odds ratio 1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.34–2.93). The strongest mediators involved in this relationship were borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits (mediated percentage = 33.5%), loneliness (29.1%), and stressful life events (25.4%).
These findings suggest that there is a positive relationship between sexual orientation and PEs in the general population in England, and that underlying mechanisms may involve BPD traits, loneliness, and stressful life events. Future studies with a longitudinal design are warranted to shed more light on how these factors are implicated in the association between sexual orientation and PEs.
To identify, in caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia, factors associated with subjective (personal, physical, emotional, and social) and objective (informal caregiver time and costs) caregiver burden.
Prospective longitudinal European observational study: post-hoc analysis.
Community-dwelling patients in France and Germany aged ≥ 55 years (n = 969) with probable AD and their informal caregivers.
Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study—Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL), 12-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-12), Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), informal caregiver basic and instrumental ADL hours (Resource Utilization in Dementia instrument), and informal caregiver costs. Mixed-effect models of repeated measures (MMRM) were run, including baseline and time-dependent covariates (change from baseline [CFB] to 18 months in MMSE, ADCS-ADL, and NPI-12 scores) associated with CFB in ZBI score/informal caregiver time over 36 months (analyzed using linear regression models) and informal caregiver costs over 36 months (analyzed using generalized linear models).
Greater decline in patient function (ADCS-ADL) over 18 months was associated with increased subjective caregiver burden (ZBI), hours, and costs over 36 months. Increased behavioral problems (NPI-12) over 18 months also negatively impacted ZBI. Cognitive decline (MMSE) over 18 months did not affect change in caregiver burden.
Long-term informal caregiver burden was driven by worsening functional abilities and behavioral symptoms but not cognitive decline, over 18 months in community-dwelling patients with AD dementia. Identifying the drivers of caregiver burden could highlight areas in which interventions may benefit both caregivers and patients.
Data on the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and violence perpetration are scarce and nationally representative data from the UK adult population is lacking. Therefore, our goal was to examine the relationship between IQ and violence perpetration using nationally representative community-based data from the UK.
We analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. IQ was estimated using the National Adult Reading Test (NART). Violence perpetration referred to being in a physical fight or having deliberately hit anyone in the past 5 years. We conducted logistic regression analysis to assess the association between IQ (exposure variable) and violence perpetration (outcome variable).
There were 6872 participants aged ⩾16 years included in this study. The prevalence of violence perpetration decreased linearly with increasing IQ [16.3% (IQ 70–79) v. 2.9% (IQ 120–129)]. After adjusting for demographic and behavioral factors, childhood adversity, and psychiatric morbidity, compared with those with IQ 120–129, IQ scores of 110–119, 100–109, 90–99, 80–89, and 70–79 were associated with 1.07 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63–1.84], 1.90 (95% CI 1.12–3.22), 1.80 (95% CI 1.05–3.13), 2.36 (95% CI 1.32–4.22), and 2.25 (95% CI 1.26–4.01) times higher odds for violence perpetration, respectively.
Lower IQ was associated with violence perpetration in the UK general population. Further studies are warranted to assess how low IQ can lead to violence perpetration, and whether interventions are possible for this high-risk group.
It is well known that negative ageing perceptions have various detrimental effects on indicators of successful ageing, but less is known about the role of social support networks and loneliness in ageing perceptions. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the association of social networks, relationship quality and loneliness with negative ageing perceptions in late life. Cross-sectional data on 6,912 adults aged ⩾50 years from the first wave of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analysed. Ageing perceptions were assessed with the Brief Ageing Perceptions Questionnaire. Information on social support networks, loneliness and socio-demographics were obtained using standard questions. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Multivariable linear regression was conducted to assess the associations. Social isolation, poor relationship quality (with spouse, children, other family members or friends) and loneliness were all significantly associated with negative ageing perceptions even after adjustment for all potential confounders including depressive symptoms. Our study indicates that targeting integration into social support networks and improving relationship quality may potentially reduce the extent to which older individuals adopt negative ageing perceptions. Future studies with prospective design are warranted to understand the temporal direction and causal association of social support networks and loneliness with negative ageing perceptions.
Traumatic events are associated with increased risk of psychotic experiences, but it is unclear whether this association is explained by mental disorders prior to psychotic experience onset.
To investigate the associations between traumatic events and subsequent psychotic experience onset after adjusting for post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental disorders.
We assessed 29 traumatic event types and psychotic experiences from the World Mental Health surveys and examined the associations of traumatic events with subsequent psychotic experience onset with and without adjustments for mental disorders.
Respondents with any traumatic events had three times the odds of other respondents of subsequently developing psychotic experiences (OR=3.1, 95% CI 2.7–3.7), with variability in strength of association across traumatic event types. These associations persisted after adjustment for mental disorders.
Exposure to traumatic events predicts subsequent onset of psychotic experiences even after adjusting for comorbid mental disorders.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide.
To examine the: (a) 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV MDD; (b) proportion aware that they have a problem needing treatment and who want care; (c) proportion of the latter receiving treatment; and (d) proportion of such treatment meeting minimal standards.
Representative community household surveys from 21 countries as part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.
Of 51 547 respondents, 4.6% met 12-month criteria for DSM-IV MDD and of these 56.7% reported needing treatment. Among those who recognised their need for treatment, most (71.1%) made at least one visit to a service provider. Among those who received treatment, only 41.0% received treatment that met minimal standards. This resulted in only 16.5% of all individuals with 12-month MDD receiving minimally adequate treatment.
Only a minority of participants with MDD received minimally adequate treatment: 1 in 5 people in high-income and 1 in 27 in low-/lower-middle-income countries. Scaling up care for MDD requires fundamental transformations in community education and outreach, supply of treatment and quality of services.
We assessed specificity protein 1 (SP1) and 4 (SP4) transcription factor levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and conducted a voxel-based morphometry analysis on brain structural magnetic resonance images from 11 patients with first-episode psychosis and 14 healthy controls. We found lower SP1 and SP4 levels in patients, which correlated positively with right hippocampal volume. These results extend previous evidence showing that such transcription factors may constitute a molecular pathway to the development of psychosis.
We aimed to obtain a better understanding of how different aspects of patient functioning affect key cost and caregiver outcomes in Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Baseline data from a prospective observational study of community-living AD patients (GERAS) were used. Functioning was assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study – Activities of Daily Living Scale. Generalized linear models were conducted to analyze the relationship between scores for total activities of daily living (ADL), basic ADL (BADL), instrumental ADL (IADL), ADL subdomains (confirmed through factor analysis) and individual ADL questions, and total societal costs, patient healthcare and social care costs, total and supervision caregiver time, and caregiver burden.
Four distinct ADL subdomains were confirmed: basic activities, domestic/household activities, communication, and outside activities. Higher total societal costs were associated with impairments in all aspects of ADL, including all subdomains; patient costs were associated with total ADL and BADL, and basic activities subdomain scores. Both total and supervision caregiver hours were associated with total ADL and IADL scores, and domestic/household and outside activities subdomain scores (greater hours associated with greater functional impairments). There was no association between caregiver burden and BADL or basic activities subdomain scores. The relationship between total ADL, IADL, and the outside activities subdomain and outcomes differed between patients with mild and moderate-to-severe AD.
Identification of ADL subdomains may lead to a better understanding of the association between patient function and costs and caregiver outcomes at different stages of AD, in particular the outside activities subdomain within mild AD.
Previous research suggests that many people receiving mental health
treatment do not meet criteria for a mental disorder but are rather ‘the
To examine the association of past-year mental health treatment with
The World Health Organization's World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys
interviewed community samples of adults in 23 countries
(n = 62 305) about DSM-IV disorders and treatment in
the past 12 months for problems with emotions, alcohol or drugs.
Roughly half (52%) of people who received treatment met criteria for a
past-year DSM-IV disorder, an additional 18% for a lifetime disorder and
an additional 13% for other indicators of need (multiple subthreshold
disorders, recent stressors or suicidal behaviours). Dose–response
associations were found between number of indicators of need and
The vast majority of treatment in the WMH countries goes to patients with
mental disorders or other problems expected to benefit from
Painful physical symptoms (PPS) are prevalent among elderly patients with depression. We describe the impact of PPS on depression outcomes and quality of life (QOL) of elderly Asian patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
This post hoc analysis of data from a three-month prospective observational study of East Asian MDD in- or out-patients focused on elderly patients aged ≥60 years. Depression severity was evaluated using the Hamilton depression (HAMD-17) and clinical global impression of severity (CGI-S) scales, while QOL was measured using EuroQOL (EQ-5D and EQ-VAS) instruments. PPS were rated using the modified somatic symptom inventory (SSI).
At baseline, depression was moderate to severe and 49% of the 146 elderly patients were painful physical symptom positive (PPS+). Bivariate analysis showed significant correlations between PPS and depression severity and QOL at baseline. Linear regression models showed the baseline factor most significantly associated with depression severity at three months was baseline PPS status. PPS+ patients had a mean increase of 2.87 points in their HAMD-17 rating and 0.77 points in their CGI-S score. Response and remission were significantly lower in PPS+ patients; response was 60% and remission was 40% in PPS+ patients while 82% and 66% in painful physical symptom negative (PPS−) patients. QOL at endpoint was lower in PPS+ patients.
PPS are common in elderly Asian patients with MDD and negatively influence depression outcomes and QOL. Patients with PPS had lower QOL at baseline, lower response and remission rates, higher severity of depression, and lower QOL after three months of treatment.
Continuous population aging has raised international policy interest in promoting active aging (AA). AA theoretical models have been defined from a biomedical or a psychosocial perspective. These models may be expanded including components suggested by lay individuals. This paper aims to study the correlates of AA in three European countries, namely, Spain, Poland, and Finland using four different definitions of AA.
The EU COURAGE in Europe project was a cross-sectional general adult population survey conducted in a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of Finland, Poland, and Spain. Participants (10,800) lived in the community. This analysis focuses on individuals aged 50 years old and over (7,987). Four definitions (two biomedical, one psychosocial, and a complete definition including biomedical, psychosocial, and external variables) of AA were analyzed.
Differences in AA were found for country, age, education, and occupation. Finland scored consistently the highest in AA followed by Spain and Poland. Younger age was associated with higher AA. Higher education and occupation was associated with AA. Being married or cohabiting was associated with better AA compared to being widowed or separated in most definitions. Gender and urbanicity were not associated with AA, with few exceptions. Men scored higher in AA only in Spain, whereas there was no gender association in the other two countries. Being widowed was only associated with lower AA in Poland and not being married was associated with lower AA in Poland and Finland but not Spain.
Associations with education, marital status, and occupation suggest that these factors are the most important components of AA. These association patterns, however, seem to vary across the three countries. Actions to promote AA in these countries may be addressed at reducing inequalities in occupation and education or directly tackling the components of AA lacking in each country.