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The meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae), is the main vector in Europe of the recently detected plant pathogen bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. (Xanthomonadales: Xanthomonadaceae). While the ecology of continental populations is well documented, nothing is known about the insular populations of P. spumarius, such as in Corsica, where the bacterium was detected in 2015. Hence, in an epidemiological context, the ecology of P. spumarius has been studied in a maquis landscape in the Ajaccio region between 2017 and 2019. Adults and nymphs were almost exclusively collected on Cistus monspeliensis L. (Cistaceae). However, very few specimens were collected in summer, suggesting a movement of the adults to sheltered habitats. Unfortunately, despite several trapping methods used, the location of adult summer habitat remains unknown for the studied population. It might be tempting to destroy the central plant host of P. spumarius populations. However, as spittlebug nymphs are highly polyphagous on low-growing plant species and as the females can lay eggs in any dead plant tissues, such practice could have limited the impact. Instead, the strong relationship between P. spumarius and C. monspeliensis could be used to monitor spittlebug populations, to limit/concentrate the means of insect control, or in an agronomic context to lure insects away from crops. Maintaining natural arboreal vegetation around agronomic systems could help decrease insect abundance – and potentially, pathogen load – on cultivated species. Such hypotheses need to be further studied by landscape experiments.
This study aimed to characterise food consumption among students at the University of Carthage (Tunisia), assessing quality of diet and main dietary patterns, and their association with potential conditioning factors.
Cross-sectional study. Participants self-reported food consumption in two 24-h recalls and information about sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics such as BMI, birthplace, physical activity, eating places or kitchen appliances. Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and the Nutrient Rich Foods (NRF) index (NRF9.3) were used to assess diet quality. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify eating patterns. Linear regression models were used to test the association of dietary patterns with the diet quality markers.
Students at the University of Carthage, Tunisia.
Almost 96 % of participants need shifts towards healthier food. Four main food patterns were identified ‘Traditional food’, ‘Transitional food’, ‘European breakfast’ and ‘Western food’. ‘Traditional food’ was the first dietary model, positively associated with MDS and NRF9.3. Women showed higher adherence to ‘European breakfast’ and higher quality of diet by NRF9.3. Students eating out of home showed higher adherence to ‘Western food’, those who never kept a regular schedule of meals consumed lower amount of vegetables and tubers, and sedentary or low active students had a higher intake of ready-to-eat products.
Diet quality of the participating Tunisian students is inadequate, but traditional Mediterranean diet remains the main pattern in spite of the advanced transitional nutrition. Some lifestyle risk behaviours affecting quality of diet were identified in this work, which supports the youth’s particular vulnerability.
The relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour and physical fitness levels has been analysed in several studies; however, there is mixed evidence among youth. Thus, this study aimed to meta-analyse the associations between adherence to the MD, PA, sedentary behaviour and physical fitness among children and adolescents. Three databases were systematically searched, including cross-sectional and prospective designs with a sample of healthy youth aged 3–18 years. Random effects inverse-variance model with the Hartung–Knapp–Sidik–Jonkman adjustment was used to estimate the pooled effect size (correlation coefficient (r)). Thirty-nine studies were included in the meta-analysis, yielding a total of 565 421 youth (mean age, 12·4 years). Overall, the MD had a weak-to-moderate positive relationship with PA (r 0·14; 95 % CI 0·11, 0·17), cardiorespiratory fitness (r 0·22; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·31) and muscular fitness (r 0·11; 95 % CI 0·03, 0·18), and a small-to-moderate negative relationship with sedentary behaviour (r –0·15; 95 % CI –0·20, –0·10) and speed–agility (r –0·06; 95 % CI –0·12, –0·01). There was a high level of heterogeneity in all of the models (I2 ≥ 75 %). Overall, results did not remain significant after controlling for sex and age (children or adolescents) except for PA. Improving dietary habits towards those of the MD could be associated with higher physical fitness and PA in youth, lower sedentary behaviours and better health in general.
This article argues that a holistic approach to documenting and understanding the physical evidence for individual cities would enhance our ability to address major questions about urbanisation, urbanism, cultural identities and economic processes. At the same time we suggest that providing more comprehensive data-sets concerning Greek cities would represent an important contribution to cross-cultural studies of urban development and urbanism, which have often overlooked relevant evidence from Classical Greece. As an example of the approach we are advocating, we offer detailed discussion of data from the Archaic and Classical city of Olynthos, in the Halkidiki. Six seasons of fieldwork here by the Olynthos Project, together with legacy data from earlier projects by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens and by the Greek Archaeological Service, combine to make this one of the best-documented urban centres surviving from the Greek world. We suggest that the material from the site offers the potential to build up a detailed ‘urban profile’, consisting of an overview of the early development of the community as well as an in-depth picture of the organisation of the Classical settlement. Some aspects of the urban infrastructure can also be quantified, allowing a new assessment of (for example) its demography. This article offers a sample of the kinds of data available and the sorts of questions that can be addressed in constructing such a profile, based on a brief summary of the interim results of fieldwork and data analysis carried out by the Olynthos Project, with a focus on research undertaken during the 2017, 2018 and 2019 seasons.
This 52-year-old right-handed female presented with a 10-year history of cognitive decline, heralded by difficulty concentrating, along with mild depression and anxiety. Despite improvement of her mood with antidepressant medication, her ability to focus continued to deteriorate. Within a few years, she exhibited difficulty with multitasking, affecting her performance at work as a petrographer. She could still manage her basic activities of daily living, but they demanded more effort than before. Relevant medical history included migraines with aura and hypertension, which had been under good control for the past eight years. She was taking bupropion 450 mg and amlodipine 5 mg daily. Her family history was relevant for stroke in her mother in fifties and migraine in her mother and sister. The neurological examination was remarkable for brisk reflexes and difficulties with tandem gait. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed impairment of executive abilities, including processing speed, task switching and working memory, as well as impairments in memory encoding and retrieval. Brain MRI showed extensive, symmetric, white matter changes (Figure 41.1).
There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation.
We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls.
The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: −0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465).
The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.
This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
Background: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) causes infections associated with high mortality rates among hospitalized patients. CPE transmission occurs frequently, and prevention of patient-to-patient transmission is a priority. However, transmission pathways are not yet completely understood. The colonization of the respiratory tract with a CPE may lead to a higher risk of contamination of the patient’s environment increasing the spread of CPE. Objective: We estimated the rate of CPE spread when respiratory tract infection or colonization is present. Methods: We studied CPE dissemination analyzing a cohort of patients admitted between January 2013 and December 2018 at the university hospital complex of A Corua, a tertiary-care hospital. All patients who were hospitalized in the same room as a patient colonized or infected with a CPE (index case) for at least 24 hours were screened for CPE carriage. The microbiological screening was performed with conventional culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identified possible CPE patient-to-patient transmission. The screening test included several samples: rectal swab, perineal swab, wound or drainage swab, and low respiratory tract sample. Results: Active screening for CPE carriage was performed in 84 contact patients. Men represent 57.1% of the sample, and the mean age was 78.5 years (men, 68.0 years and women, 80.8 years), with significant differences between sexes (12.9; 95% CI, 19.6 to 6.1). The major group of cases (86.9%) were hospitalized in medical wards. Transmission confirmed by PCR occurred in 13 (15.5%) of 84 contact patients, after a mean exposure to the index case of 13.3 days. No significant differences were detected in terms of mean exposure to index cases between those contact patients who result negative and those who result positive. The 35 index cases (41.7%) tested positive for CPE on the respiratory sample, and exposure to them led to 8 positive contact patients (61.5%). Conclusions: CPE transmission in a tertiary-care hospital occurred frequently. The spread rate is even higher when CPE is present at the respiratory level. Understanding the mode of spread is important for designing effective control measures and adding a respiratory sample to CPE screening could be a key consideration.
During menopause, women undergo a series of physiological changes that include a redistribution of fat tissue. This study was designed to investigate the effect of adding 10 g of cocoa-rich chocolate to the habitual diet of postmenopausal women daily on body composition. We conducted a 6-month, two-arm randomised, controlled trial. Postmenopausal women (57·2 (sd 3·6) years, n 132) were recruited in primary care clinics. Participants in the control group (CG) did not receive any intervention. Those of the intervention group (IG) received 10 g daily of 99 % cocoa chocolate in addition to their habitual diet for 6 months. This quantity comprises 247 kJ (59 kcal) and 65·4 mg of polyphenols. The primary outcomes were the between-group differences in body composition variables, measured by impendancemetry at the end of the study. The main effect of the intervention showed a favourable reduction in the IG with respect to the CG in body fat mass (–0·63 kg (95 % CI –1·15, –0·11), P = 0·019; Cohen’s d = –0·450) and body fat percentage (–0·79 % (95 % CI –1·31, –0·26), P = 0·004; Cohen’s d = –0·539). A non-significant decrease was also observed in BMI (–0·20 kg/m2 (95 % CI –0·44, 0·03), P = 0·092; Cohen’s d = –0·345). Both the body fat mass and the body fat percentage showed a decrease in the IG for the three body segments analysed (trunk, arms and legs). Daily addition of 10 g of cocoa-rich chocolate to the habitual diet of postmenopausal women reduces their body fat mass and body fat percentage without modifying their weight.
We evaluated the effects of fermentation time and acid casein content on the microbial rennet obtained by solid-state fermentation using wheat bran as the carbon source. The experiments used two fermentation times (72 and 96 h), while acid casein content was 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 g. Rennet strength from eight enzymatic extracts was measured using pasteurized whole milk. Rennet strength of samples from 72 h of fermentation showed an increase when acid casein content increased. The rennet strength increased at 96 h of fermentation with increasing amount of casein (up to 2.5 g), and then decreased with the largest addition (3.0 g) of casein. Coagulation time for the sample with highest rennet strength was 420 s.
Here we extend the results in Gordillo et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 866, 2019, pp. 298–315), where the spreading of drops impacting perpendicularly a solid wall was analysed, to predict the time-varying flow field and the thickness of the liquid film created when a spherical drop of a low viscosity fluid, like water or ethanol, spreads over a smooth dry surface at arbitrary values of the angle formed between the drop impact direction and the substrate. Our theoretical results accurately predict the time evolving asymmetric shape of the border of the thin liquid film extending over the substrate during the initial instants of the drop spreading process. In addition, the particularization of the ordinary differential equations governing the unsteady flow when the rim velocity vanishes provides an algebraic equation for the asymmetric final shapes of the liquid stains remaining after the impact, valid for low values of the inclination angle. For larger values of the inclination angle, the final shape of the drop can be approximated by an ellipse whose major and minor semiaxes can also be calculated by making use of the present theory. The predicted final shapes agree with the observed remaining stains, excluding the fact that a liquid rivulet develops from the bottom part of the drop. The limitations of the present theory to describe the emergence of the rivulet are also discussed.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To assess the impact of FLTCs on CTR on S and F from health professions and basic science academic programs island wide in Puerto Rico. Cycles supported by the Title V Cooperative Project at University of Puerto Rico-Medical Sciences Campus (UPRMSC) and Universidad Central del Caribe (UCC)(Title V). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: After offering FLTCs in CTR to S and F from UPRMSC and UCC, Title V expanded it to S and F from other institutions island wide in PR. These FLTCs were offered the 2nd semester of 2018 and consisted of 20 hours of interdisciplinary sessions in: introduction to and definition of CTR; preparation of a CTR-presentation; how to interview/share a presentation of a CT researcher and to prepare a research question in CTR. To assess the knowledge of S and F in the above-mentioned skills and their continuation in the 2nd level of CTR training, surveys were administered: pre-test, at the beginning, post-test, sometime during the FLTCs, and satisfaction at the end of the FLTCs. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Fifty eight (58) S/F from UPRMSC, UCC and 7 other institutions participated. Forty two (42,72%) answered a pre-test and 31/42 (74%) completed the post-test. Results showed that S/F: who correctly defined CTR increased from 7% to 77 %; their ability to identify a CT researcher increased from 10% to 83%. Fifty five percent (55 %) (21/38) S/F that were certified in the FLTCs, answered the satisfaction survey. One hundred percent (100%) indicated that the materials offered contributed in the identification of a CT researcher and a topic in CTR; 100% answered that the FLTCs contributed higher knowledge in and provided new skills in CTR. Moreover, 31/38 (82%) S/F started the 2nd level of training. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The FLTCs were successful in increasing S/F knowledge of CTR and to further engage in 2nd level of trainings. Title V impact extended island wide, increasing the diversity of represented health professions and science fields among participants. The interventions were deemed to be of high quality.
Infertility is defined as a failure of spontaneous conception after one year of regular sexual intercourse in the absence of contraceptive measures . This entity represents a rising medical complaint since one out of eight couples find it difficult to conceive a child for the first time, and up to one in six find it difficult to conceive twice. Currently, 70 million couples of reproductive age suffer from infertility worldwide, accounting for an estimated overall prevalence of 15% .
This study assessed psychiatric medications and their potential lethality in a representative sample of suicide attempts.
Materials and methods.
During 1996–98, 563 suicide attempts were studied in a general hospital in Madrid (Spain). Medication overdose was used in 456 suicide attempts (81%). The ratio between dose taken and maximum prescription dose recommended was used to evaluate the medication toxicity.
Benzodiazepines were the drugs most often used in self-poisoning (65% of overdoses), followed by new antidepressants (11%), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) (10%), and antipsychotics (8%). An overdose with any of the three latter psychiatric medications was significantly more frequent in patients prescribed those medications. The overdoses for TCA were potentially lethal in 47% of the cases. However, all patients who overdosed on psychiatric medications recovered well and were discharged without any sequelae.
This study suggests that psychiatric medications, particularly benzodiazepines, new antidepressants and antipsychotics, are relatively safe when they are used for self-poisoning. If patients with mental illnesses are under treated, there is a clear and documented higher risk for suicide.
It is better to prescribe psychiatric medications, particularly the new ones, rather than withhold them due to an exaggerated fear of a lethal overdose
The treatment of anxiety disorders is subject to multiple factors (biological and environmental), this creates a complex situation while trying to achieve effective treatment of anxiety disorders.
This is the reason why in the current study, we decided to evaluate the effectiveness of specific relaxation techniques as an additional therapeutic measure.
To determine whether there is therapeutic benefit in the application of relaxation techniques among patients undergoing Pharmacological and psychological anxiety disorder treatment in comparison with patients with anxiety disorders receiving only the latter.
Firstly the process involved a pre and post intervention assessment using a psychometric equipment the Hamilton rating Scale for -HARS anxiety (HARS), the anxiety Inventory-STAI State (STAI-S) and Trait (STAI-T), which allowed us to perform an objective assessment of anxiety levels
Significant reductions in post intervention levels were obtained in comparison with pre anxiety levels, in HARS (30.56 and 22.75), in STAI-S (64.93 and 46.62) and in STAI-T (83.75 and 63.56).
Additionally the size effect (SE) was considerable, in the HARS (SE= 0,70), en STAI-S (SE=0.59) and STAI-T (SE =0.69).
From the obtained results, we can affirm there are benefits of introducing therapeutic relaxation techniques as a complement to pharmacological / psychological treatment in patients with anxiety disorders.
However more studies should be carried out to evaluate the maintenance of these results in the Long-term.
To investigate the possible associations between the food environment and dietary intake in the Mexican population.
Four databases (PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Science and SCIelo) were used to retrieve relevant articles using an open timeframe. Articles were reviewed if they contained a systematic measure (i.e. food checklist) of the food environment (e.g. food availability) and dietary intake.
Urban and rural communities in Mexico.
Population-based studies of Mexican communities.
Twenty studies that assessed at least one food environment level, and at least one dietary outcome, were reviewed. Findings from these studies showed that changes in the Mexican food environment seem to be associated with higher availability of energy-dense foods. Energy-dense foods can be linked to a high consumption in household, environment and community food environments. When both nutrient-dense and energy-dense foods were present, individuals were more likely to consume foods with added sugars, fats and salt options than nutrient-dense items.
The various levels of the food environment (i.e. household, school, community) exposed participants to energy-dense foods. Although nutrient-dense foods were present in all three levels, individuals were more likely to consume energy-dense food items. Not all three levels of the food environment are well represented in the urban and rural settings. Most studies on the community food environment were done in rural areas, whereas most studies on the school food environment were done in urban settings. Additional rigorously designed studies are needed to document the relationship between the food environment and dietary intake in the Mexican population.
The functional assessment of cancer therapy-bone marrow transplant (FACT-BMT) is a widely used instrument to assess quality of life (QOL) in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients, but there is little evidence of its validity in Latin American populations. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Spanish language version of the FACT-BMT in Mexican patients.
First, the original version was piloted with 15 HSCT patients to obtain an adequate cultural version, resulting in the adaptation of one item. After that, the new version was completed by 139 HSCT patients.
The results showed a FACT factor structure that explains 70.84% of the total variance, a factor structure similar to the original FACT structure, and with a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.867). For the BMT subscale, the best factor structure included 17 items which explain 61.65% of the total variance with an adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.696).
Significance of the results
The FACT-BMT was found to be a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate QOL in Mexican patients. Our results constitute new FACT-BMT empirical evidence that supports its clinical and research uses.
Motor abnormalities (MAs) are the primary manifestations of schizophrenia. However, the extent to which MAs are related to alterations of subcortical structures remains understudied.
We aimed to investigate the associations of MAs and basal ganglia abnormalities in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and healthy controls. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 48 right-handed FEP and 23 age-, gender-, handedness-, and educational attainment-matched controls, to obtain basal ganglia shape analysis, diffusion tensor imaging techniques (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity), and relaxometry (R2*) to estimate iron load. A comprehensive motor battery was applied including the assessment of parkinsonism, catatonic signs, and neurological soft signs (NSS). A fully automated model-based segmentation algorithm on 1.5T MRI anatomical images and accurate corregistration of diffusion and T2* volumes and R2* was used.
FEP patients showed significant local atrophic changes in left globus pallidus nucleus regarding controls. Hypertrophic changes in left-side caudate were associated with higher scores in sensory integration, and in right accumbens with tremor subscale. FEP patients showed lower fractional anisotropy measures than controls but no significant differences regarding mean diffusivity and iron load of basal ganglia. However, iron load in left basal ganglia and right accumbens correlated significantly with higher extrapyramidal and motor coordination signs in FEP patients.
Taken together, iron load in left basal ganglia may have a role in the emergence of extrapyramidal signs and NSS of FEP patients and in consequence in the pathophysiology of psychosis.