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It is not known whether associations between child problem behaviours and maternal depression can be accounted for by comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) dysfunction.
To examine the contributions of maternal depression and BPD symptoms to child problem behaviours.
Depression trajectories over the fist-year postpartum were generated using repeated measurement from a general population sample of 997 mothers recruited in pregnancy. In a stratified subsample of 251, maternal depression and BPD symptoms were examined as predictors of child problem behaviours at 2.5 years.
Child problem behaviours were predicted by a high maternal depression trajectory prior to the inclusion of BPD symptoms. This association was no longer significant after the introduction of BPD symptoms.
Risks for child problem behaviours currently attributed to maternal depression may arise from more persistent and pervasive difficulties found in borderline personality dysfunction.
Currently available treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are disappointing and their modest benefits do not reflect the increased understanding of the condition that has arisen from the last 50 years of research or the huge investments made by the pharmaceutical industry and academia in developing therapies. Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are evidence-based symptomatic treatments that offer benefits at the margins of clinical significance, but successive failures in trials of putative disease-modifying drugs have led researchers to investigate the potential efficacy of non-drug interventions. Exercise and cognitive-based interventions have received the most attention, but we are still a long way from understanding whether any can offer real benefit to patients with AD (Huntley et al., 2015).
Chunking is a powerful encoding strategy that significantly improves
working memory performance in normal young people.
To investigate chunking in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and in
a control group of elderly people without cognitive impairment.
People with mild Alzheimer's disease (n = 28) were
recruited and divided according to Mini-Mental State Examination score
into mild and very mild disease groups. A control group of 15 elderly
individuals was also recruited. All participants performed digit and
spatial working memory tasks requiring either unstructured sequences or
structured sequences (which encourage chunking of information) to be
The control group and both disease groups performed significantly better
on structured trials of the digit working memory tasks, indicating
successful use of chunking strategies to improve verbal working memory
performance. The control and very mild disease groups also performed
significantly better on structured trials of the spatial task, whereas
those with mild disease demonstrated no significant difference between
the structured and unstructured spatial conditions.
The ability to use chunking as an encoding strategy to improve verbal
working memory performance is preserved at the mild stage of Alzheimer's
disease, whereas use of chunking to improve spatial working memory is
impaired by this stage. Simple training in the use of chunking might be a
beneficial therapeutic strategy to prolong working memory functioning in
patients at the earliest stage of Alzheimer's disease.