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The conjunction in our title requires some explanation, if not justification, in the context in which this book is published. This book aims to introduce the undergraduate, postgraduate and general reader to a literary and intellectual relationship which is richer in German than in any other European culture. That is the constant and reciprocal relationship in the German-speaking world since the Middle Ages between literary and religious practice and discourse.
Germany underwent in the nineteenth century an ‘objective’ process of secularization, yet religion maintained a forceful and generative ‘subjective’ presence as a determinant of individual consciousness. This tension in the historical structure of secularization expressed itself in disparate phenomena such as the ‘left-Hegelian’ political appropriation of Idealist theological language by the movement of Junges Deutschland (Young Germany), and the conservative theological aesthetic of Biedermeier. Meanwhile the classical distinctions made in post-Kantian theology continued to assert themselves. The novel from Karl Gutzkow to Gottfried Keller; lyric poetry from Heinrich Heine to Eduard Mörike; the short prose narrative in its deployment by Adalbert Stifter: all these variously distil, satirize and sometimes overcome the mismatch between residually Idealist subjectivity and objectively materialist reality. Nietzsche poses the question of how any representation of truth is possible when both Idealist philosophy and its attendant religious (or secular) culture have evacuated themselves of substance. This question is taken up at the turn of the twentieth century by Thomas Mann.
The relationship between literature and religion in German is unique in the European tradition. It is essential to the definition of German, Austrian and Swiss cultural identity in both the Protestant and Catholic traditions, and is crucial to our understanding of what has been called the 'special path' of German intellectual life. Offering in-depth essays by leading scholars, Literature and Religion in the German-Speaking World analyses this relationship from the beginnings of vernacular literature in German, via the Reformation, early-modern and Enlightenment periods, to the present day. It shows how such fundamental concepts as 'subjectivity', 'identity' and 'modernity' itself arise from the interrelation between religious and secular modes of understanding, and how this interrelation is inseparable from its expression in literature.
A common property regime was established at the founding of the Maya site of Actuncan, Belize, in the Terminal Preclassic period (175 BC–AD 300), which governed access to land until the Terminal Classic period (AD 780–1000). This interpretation is based on urban settlement patterns documented through household excavation and remote-sensing programs. Excavations of all visible patio-focused groups in the urban core provided data to reconstruct residential histories, and a 60,621 m2 gradiometer survey resulted in a magnetic gradient map that was used to document buried constructions. Twenty ground-truth testpits correlated types of magnetic signatures to buried patio-focused groups and smaller constructions, including walled plots in agricultural field systems that were later exposed more fully through large-scale excavations. Combined, these methods provided data to reconstruct four correlates of land tenure systems: (1) the spatial proximity of residential units to land and resources, (2) diachronic changes in community settlement patterns, (3) land subdivision and improvements, and (4) public goods. Spatial analyses documented that houselots did not cluster through time, but instead became gradually improved, lending evidence to suggest the transgenerational inheritance of property rights in the Late and Terminal Classic periods.
This article describes the well-developed and long-standing medical ethics teaching programs in both of New Zealand’s medical schools at the University of Otago and the University of Auckland. The programs reflect the awareness that has been increasing as to the important role that ethics education plays in contributing to the “professionalism” and “professional development” in medical curricula.
The number of people living with dementia in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is expected to increase rapidly in the coming decades. However, our understanding of how best to reduce dementia risk in the population is very limited. As a first step in developing intervention strategies to manage dementia risk in this setting, we investigated rates of cognitive decline in a rural population in Tanzania and attempted to identify associated factors.
The study was conducted in the rural Hai district of northern Tanzania. In 2014, community-dwelling people aged 65 years and over living in six villages were invited to take part in a cognitive screening program. All participants from four of the six villages were followed-up at two years and cognitive function re-tested. At baseline and follow-up, participants were assessed for functional disability, hypertension, and grip strength (as a measure of frailty). At follow-up, additional assessments of visual acuity, hearing impairment, tobacco and alcohol consumption, and clinical assessment for stroke were completed.
Baseline and follow-up data were available for 327 people. Fifty people had significant cognitive decline at two-year follow-up. Having no formal education, low grip strength at baseline, being female and having depression at follow-up were independently associated with cognitive decline.
This is one of the first studies of cognitive decline conducted in SSA. Rates of decline at two years were relatively high. Future work should focus on identification of specific modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline with a view to developing culturally appropriate interventions.
This paper introduces preliminary work on a UV-curable, environmentally benign and degradable elastomer, poly(glycerol sebacate itaconate), or PGSI, for use in soft robotics. A one-pot, solvent-free synthesis route using safe and inexpensive chemical reagents was developed to enable easy adoption into soft robotics labs. Material characterization of non-aged PGSI samples gave: ultimate tensile strength (UTS) ranging from 134 to 193 kPa with moduli ranging from 57 to 131 kPa and elongations at break ranging from 105 to 137 % (12 samples from 6 batches tested), and resilience values ranging from 73 to 82 % (3 samples from 3 batches tested). FTIR analysis showed a possible decrease in carbon-carbon double bonds after UV curing, evidencing a decrease in itaconic acid methylene groups from photoinitiated free radical cross-linking. NMR on the pre-polymer suggested incorporation of itaconic acid into the main polymer chain and evidence of heterogeneity of the polymer backbone resulting from glycerol bonding. An example molded soft pocket pneumatic actuator is created and briefly characterized. With further development, PGSI can be a degradable material to incorporate into temporary soft robots.
There is limited empirical information on service-level outcome domains and indicators for the large number of people with intellectual disabilities being treated in forensic psychiatric hospitals.
This study identified and developed the domains that should be used to measure treatment outcomes for this population.
A systematic review of the literature highlighted 60 studies which met eligibility criteria; they were synthesised using content analysis. The findings were refined within a consultation and consensus exercises with carers, patients and experts.
The final framework encompassed three a priori superordinate domains: (a) effectiveness, (b) patient safety and (c) patient and carer experience. Within each of these, further sub-domains emerged from our systematic review and consultation exercises. These included severity of clinical symptoms, offending behaviours, reactive and restrictive interventions, quality of life and patient satisfaction.
To index recovery, services need to measure treatment outcomes using this framework.
This paper reviews the evidence for environmental change during the Lateglacial period (c.14.7–11.7 ka), perhaps the most intensively studied episode in the Quaternary history of Scotland. It considers first the stratigraphic subdivision and nomenclature of the Lateglacial, before proceeding to a discussion of the various lines of proxy evidence that have been used to reconstruct the spatial and temporal patterns of environmental change during this time period. These include pollen and plant macrofossil data; coleopteran and chironomid records; diatom data; stable isotope and geochemical records; and evidence for human activity. The paper then considers the principal methods that have been employed to date and correlate Lateglacial events: radiocarbon dating; surface exposure dating; varve chronology; and tephrochronology. This is followed by an examination of the constraints imposed on environmental reconstructions, an account of the ways in which the evidence can be employed in the development of an event stratigraphy for the Lateglacial in Scotland, and a proposal for a provisional Lateglacial type sequence (stratotype) at Whitrig Bog in SE Scotland. Emphasis is placed throughout on the potential linkages between the Scottish records and the isotopic signal in the Greenland ice cores, which forms the stratigraphic template for the N Atlantic region. The paper concludes with a discussion of the strategies and approaches that should underpin future research programmes on Lateglacial environmental change in Scotland.
In the above article (Paddick, 2017) The corresponding author's details were previously listed incorrectly. The correct details are; contact number +44 191 293 2709 and email address William.email@example.com. The original article has been updated with the correct contact details. The publishers apologise for any inconvenience and confusion this error has caused.