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We describe a system for rapidly screening hundreds of nanoparticle samples using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The system uses a liquid handling robot to place up to 96 individual samples onto a single standard TEM grid at separate locations. The grid is then transferred into the TEM and automated software is used to acquire multiscale images of each sample. The images are then analyzed to extract metrics on the size, shape, and morphology of the nanoparticles. The system has been used to characterize plasmonically active nanomaterials.
Despite evidence for the effectiveness of structured psychological
therapies for bipolar disorder no psychological interventions have been
specifically designed to enhance personal recovery for individuals with
recent-onset bipolar disorder.
A pilot study to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a new
intervention, recovery-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT),
designed in collaboration with individuals with recent-onset bipolar
disorder intended to improve clinical and personal recovery outcomes.
A single, blind randomised controlled trial compared treatment as usual
(TAU) with recovery-focused CBT plus TAU (n = 67).
Recruitment and follow-up rates within 10% of pre-planned targets to
12-month follow-up were achieved. An average of 14.15 h (s.d. = 4.21) of
recovery-focused CBT were attended out of a potential maximum of 18 h.
Compared with TAU, recovery-focused CBT significantly improved personal
recovery up to 12-month follow-up (Bipolar Recovery Questionnaire mean
score 310.87, 95% CI 75.00–546.74 (s.e. = 120.34), P =
0.010, d=0.62) and increased time to any mood relapse
during up to 15 months follow-up (χ2 = 7.64,
P<0.006, estimated hazard ratio (HR) = 0.38, 95%
CI 0.18–0.78). Groups did not differ with respect to medication
Recovery-focused CBT seems promising with respect to feasibility and
potential clinical effectiveness. Clinical- and cost-effectiveness now
need to be reliably estimated in a definitive trial.
Background: Recent research has highlighted the importance of psychological interventions such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in improving outcomes and promoting recovery for people with experience of psychosis, although a lack of trained therapists means that availability of face-to-face CBT is low. Alternative modes of delivering CBT are being explored, such as telephone and self-help methods, although research to date on whether they can be implemented effectively is limited. Aims: The aims of the present study were to describe and evaluate a new therapy fidelity scale (ROSTA; Recovery Oriented Self-help and Telephone therapy Adherence). This scale was developed to assess fidelity to cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (CBTp) focused on improving recovery, with optional subscales for delivery over the telephone and alongside a self-help guide. Method: Experienced CBT therapists rated recorded therapy sessions using the ROSTA scale. The scores were used to assess internal consistency and inter-rater reliability, before being compared to scores from an independent expert rater using an alternative fidelity scale for cognitive therapy in psychosis (the CTS-Psy), to investigate concurrent validity. Results: The ROSTA scale demonstrated excellent internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and validity when evaluated as a whole, although findings were mixed in terms of the individual subscales and items. Conclusions: The ROSTA scale is, on the whole, a reliable and valid tool, which may be useful in training and supervision, a utility that would be further emphasized if the therapeutic intervention it assesses is deemed to be efficacious based on future work.
Milling behaviour is problematic when using hydroacoustics to estimate the
number of migrating fish in rivers. Milling behaviour was observed for adult
sockeye salmon migrating upstream in the Wannock River, to their spawning
grounds in the tributaries of Owikeno Lake in the central coast area of
British Columbia, Canada. We classified the acoustic salmon tracks to
separate the milling fish from the actively migrating fish in an attempt to
obtain an estimate of sockeye salmon flux as they migrate to their spawning
grounds. We used discriminant function analysis and found that three
variables measured on each track were sufficient for the classification of
the acoustic tracks into milling and non-milling categories with an
approximate classification accuracy of 98%. The method we present can
also be used to separate tracks of targets of interest from noise or debris
tracks that occur in the acoustic data, if discrete track characteristics
To investigate an outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia.
Observational study and chart review.
Adult non-cystic fibrosis (CF) patients.
Intensive care units (ICUs) at a university-affiliated teaching hospital.
As part of the epidemiological investigation, we conducted a chart review and collected environmental samples. A review of work schedules of healthcare workers also was performed. We used B cepacia selective agar for preliminary screening for all isolates, which subsequently were confirmed as members of the B cepacia complex by polyphasic analysis employing conventional biochemical reactions and genus- and species-specific polymerase chain reaction assays. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA typing, and automated ribotyping were used to genotype the isolates. As part of the intervention, contact isolation precautions were initiated for all patients identified as having had a culture positive for B cepacia.
Between September 1997 and September 1999, B cepacia was isolated from 31 adult patients without CF in ICUs at a university-affiliated teaching hospital. Based on geographic clustering and genotypic analysis, three distinct clusters were observed involving 20 patients. Isolates from 17 of these patients were available for testing and were found to be of the same strain (outbreak strain). Further taxonomic analysis indicated that the outbreak strain was B cepacia complex genomovar III. Twelve (71%) of the 17 patients were judged to be infected, and 5 (29%) were colonized with this strain. Six of 200 environmental cultures from multiple sources in the hospital's ICUs yielded B cepacia. Two of these isolates, both recovered from rooms of colonized patients, were the same genotype as the outbreak strain recovered from patients.
Despite an extensive investigation, the source of the B cepacia clone involved in this outbreak remains unknown. The spatial and temporal pattern of cases suggests that cross-transmission of a genetically related strain contributed to clustering among patients. The initiation of contact isolation may have limited the extent of this transmission. Additional studies are needed to elucidate better the epidemiology of nosocomial B cepacia infection among non-CF adult patients.
Shallow water studies of fish behavior have used various methods for tracking fish. A new technique is shown to be promising because it can combine acoustic sizing with fish behavior studies. The principle of radar tracking, aligning the antenna beam with a target, was applied with an acoustic splitbeam transducer and dual-axis rotators for tracking individual fish over long periods of time. Deviation of the target from the beam axis produces a correction to point the axis toward the target. Initial studies with active acoustics have also evolved an acoustic tag tracking method. The system has successfully tracked several different types of fish, from juvenile salmon to sharks. The high speed of the rotators allows observations to be made at very short ranges. Much of the development of the tracking transducer targeted fish movement through dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. In a recent experiment, adult salmon, returning to the Fraser River, Canada were tracked to measure avoidance to surveying vessels. The feasibility for tracking sharks was shown at the Tacoma WA Point Defiance Aquarium. A proposed method for tracking salmon, sharks or other species with echoes and/or using acoustic tags will allow the determination of behavior, acoustic size, abundance, and associated pelagic assemblages.
Experiments conducted at the Qualark Creek acoustic site on the Fraser River have shown unexpected systematic errors in the split-beam angle measurement. A tethered dead salmon with a target strength of approximately –30 dB was used as a target at 3.7 m range. A signal-to-noise ratio of ~12 dB was observed. This target strength and signal-to-noise ratio are typical in some rivers where migrating adult salmon are observed. The target's location was measured both from the frame used to position the target in the beam and from the acoustic data. Comparison of these two sets of measurements demonstrated a bias that increased with the target's distance off the beam axis. The acoustically measured target locations were closer to the beam axis than the actual locations. Each acoustic estimate represented the mean location obtained after 3 000 pings. Results from a simulation model that includes the effects of random noise on the split-beam angle measurement reproduce the systematic underestimate of these angles. This bias increases rapidly with increasing off-axis target location and decreasing signal-to-noise ratio. The bias has been observed for circular and elliptical beams and the model accurately predicts the magnitude and direction of the systematic part of the angle measurement error in both cases. Results for a circular transducer are used here to illustrate the situation. The presence of this bias can affect measurements of fish density and migration speed. At the low signal-to-noise ratios often obtained in riverine environments, those who use a split-beam system for observation or estimation of fish should be aware of this phenomenon.
5-HT2A receptor antagonism may be crucial to the action of atypical antipsychotics. Previous work has related 5-HT2A receptor blockade to clinical efficacy and protection from extrapyramidal side-effects.
We developed a SPET imaging protocol for assessing 5-HT2A receptor binding using the selective ligand 1231-5-1-R91150. Six healthy volunteers, five clozapine- and five risperidone-treated subjects with DSM–IV schizophrenia were studied. Multi-slice SPET was performed on each subject.
Cortex: cerebellum ratios were significantly lower in both clozapine-and risperidone-treated subjects compared with the healthy volunteers in all cortical regions. There was no difference in occupancy between the two drug-treated groups. No correlation was found between the percentage change in the Global Assessment Scale (GAS) and 5-HT2A receptor binding indices in the drug-treated groups.
Clozapine and risperidone potently block 5-HT2A receptors in vivo. The lack of relationship between receptor binding indices and change in GAS suggests that 5-HT2A receptor blockade may be unrelated to clinical improvement. Future studies will substantiate this finding by studying 5-HT2A receptor binding in large groups of patients treated with both typical and novel atypical antipsychotics.
Objective: The objective of this study was to analyse general practice referrals to psychiatric out-patient clinics and their relation to practice and patient variables.
Method: Retrospective analysis of new episode attendances at out-patient services over a three year period was undertaken. Referring practices were examined for referral rates, single or group practice and the presence of Vocational/Psychiatric training within the practice.
Results: Referral rates were similar to national rates, but were lower than other jurisdictions. There was a tendency for group practices to have lower referral rates.
Conclusions: There was considerable difference between practices in referral rates. These differences were significantly related to GP vocational training.
A system is described for forming three-dimensional parts from a
polymerizable slurry. This liquid is delivered from a fine nozzle to build
up the component as a series of layers described from a CAD drawing of the
part. This is one of a family of solid freebody forming methods. The
layerwise process lends itself particularly to chemically syntheized
materials where shrinkage and mass transport are major problems. The
technique also has considerable potential for combining various materials
into a single component.
Like many of his contemporaries, John Locke was concerned with the problems inherent in both the communication and the recovery of an author's meaning. Language and its proper use was of the utmost significance for him. He was in no doubt that God had granted language to man to act as ‘the great Instrument, and common Tye of Society’, but though God-given, language as man had used it had not proved an unmitigated blessing:
he that shall well consider the Errors and Obscurity, the Mistakes and Confusion, that is spread in the World by an ill use of Words, will find some reason to doubt, whether Language, as it has been employ'd, has contributed more to the improvement or hindrance of Knowledge amongst Mankind.
The publication of Christopher Hill's Winstanley: The Law of Freedom and Other Writings was an exciting event for students of mid-seventeenth-century England. It provides a readily available edition of Winstanley's most important writings. To these Hill offers a compelling introduction which has much to stimulate and interest, but in his interpretation of Winstanley there are also invitations to misunderstanding. Ultimately, Hill's interest in Winstanley arises from his perception of the seventeenth-century writer as ‘modern’ and, if another recent article is any guide, this continues to be the common factor for studies of Winstanley. It is the purpose of this article to argue that this ‘modern’ view of Winstanley misconstrues his intellectual sources and historical significance by minimising the part theology played in his theories of social and moral change. The result of such a view is to misrepresent Winstanley's meaning, and his relationship to his contemporary world.
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