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Eight new species of Pyrenulaceae are described as new to science from Brazil, Guyana and Puerto Rico. Pyrenula sanguineomeandrata Aptroot & Mercado Diaz (with a thallus with red, KOH+ purple pigmentation of lines or a reticulum, simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, a deep red inspersed, KOH+ orange hamathecium, and dark brown 3-septate ascospores 25–29×10–12 μm) and P. sanguineostiolata Aptroot & Mercado Diaz (with a thallus with deeply immersed simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, which are superficial and bright red, and 3-septate ascospores 25–28×9–12 μm) are described from submontane evergreen forests in Puerto Rico. Pyrenula biseptata Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, an inspersed hamathecium and 2-septate ascospores 11–12×4·5–5·0 μm) and P. xanthinspersa Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with an ecorticate thallus containing lichexanthone, simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, not inspersed hamathecium and 3-septate ascospores 14–17×6·0–7·5 μm) are described from rainforest in Amazonian Brazil. Pyrenula subvariabilis Aptroot & Sipman (with fused ascomata with lateral ostioles and submuriform ascospores 17–20(–25)×6–9 μm) and Sulcopyrenula biseriata Aptroot & Sipman (with a thallus containing lichexanthone, simple ascomata with lateral ostioles and lozenge-shaped ascospores with 8 locules, (13–)15–17(–20)×8–10 (width)×6–7 (thickness) μm) are described from savannahs in Guyana. Special attention is paid to the genus Pyrgillus: two new species from the 3-septate core group of this small genus are described from Brazil, viz. P. aurantiacus Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with a corticate thallus containing lichexanthone, mazaedium with orange, KOH+ violet, UV+ red pruina and ascospores of 13–16×6·0–7·5 μm) and P. rufus Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with a corticate thallus containing lichexanthone, mazaedium with dark red, KOH+ orange, UV+ red pruina and ascospores of 15·0–17·5×5·0–6·5 μm). An updated key to the 3-septate species of Pyrgillus is provided.
The following 46 new species of Trypetheliaceae are described: Astrothelium aenascens Aptroot from Papua New Guinea, which is similar to A. aenoides but differs by the hamathecium which is not inspersed; A. alboverrucoides Aptroot from Indonesia with globose ascomata with constricted base, internally similar to A. megaspermum; A. clypeatum Aptroot & Gueidan from Vietnam with black conical ascomata in which the pseudostroma is reminiscent of a clypeus, a rimose thallus, and 3-septate ascospores, 85–95×22–25 µm; A. colombiense Aptroot from Colombia with 1 muriform ascospore of 240–300×45–50 µm per ascus, and an inspersed hamathecium; A. condoricum Aptroot from Ecuador with a bright orange thallus and contrasting bright scarlet internal pigment, and muriform ascospores, 38–42×18–21 µm; A. corallinum Aptroot from Guyana, which is most similar to A. ochroleucoides but the thallus is without lichexanthone; A. dicoloratum Aptroot from Venezuela with an orange thallus and more yellowish pseudostromata with usually only 1 ascoma, and 9–11-septate ascospores; A. ecuadoriense Aptroot from Ecuador with ascospores 2 per ascus, muriform, 80–175×25–50 µm, and an inspersed hamathecium; A. flavomaculatum Aptroot from Ecuador, Guyana and Venezuela which is similar to A. graphicum, but with ascospores 50–75×12–25 µm; A. flavomeristosporum Aptroot from the Philippines and Ecuador with mostly simple ascomata with an orange to yellow, inspersed hamathecium and muriform ascospores 140–200×25–30 µm; A. flavostiolatum Aptroot from Ecuador with bright yellow ostioles and a very irregular thallus, and muriform ascospores, 175–230×35–45 µm; A. guianense Aptroot from Guyana with a very irregular thallus, eccentric, fused ostioles and ascospores 4 per ascus, muriform, 70–80×20–25 µm; A. inspersogalbineum Aptroot & Weerakoon from Singapore which is similar to A. macrocarpum but with the hamathecium inspersed; A. komposchii Aptroot from Venezuela with chimney-like ostioles and a very irregular, almost squamulose thallus and muriform ascospores, 130–180×35–45 µm; A. laurerosphaerioides Aptroot from Guyana with aggregated ascomata with internally and partly (when abraded) also superficially orange anthraquinone pigment, ascospores 2 per ascus, muriform, 110–130×30–35 µm; A. lucidomedullatum Aptroot from Ecuador with lichexanthone in the medulla of the thallus, ascospores 4 per ascus, muriform, 80–115×25–35 µm; A. lucidostromum Aptroot from Guyana which is similar to A. eustomuralis but lichexanthone is present in the whole pseudostroma; A. lucidothallinum Aptroot from Guyana with the thallus containing lichexanthone, ascomata in pseudostromata without lichexanthone, ostioles apical, hamathecium not inspersed, ascospores muriform, 70–90×18–20 µm; A. mediocrassum Aptroot from Guyana which resembles A. octosporum but without lichexanthone in the thallus or pseudostromata, muriform ascospores, 70–80×22–25 µm, with median septum strongly thickened; A. megatropicum Aptroot from Guyana with 3-septate ascospores 100–120×33–35 µm, and hemispherical dark brown pseudostromata; A. megochroleucum Aptroot from El Salvador with 3-septate ascospores 60–70×16–18 µm and lichexanthone in the thallus and pseudostromata; A. neoinspersum Aptroot from El Salvador which is similar to A. aenascens but with bright yellow pseudostromata; A. perspersum Aptroot & Ertz from Gabon which is similar to A. scoria but with ascospores 26–38×7–9 µm; A. philippinense Aptroot & Schumm from the Philippines without pseudostromata, ostiole apical, hamathecium inspersed, ascospores muriform, 125–170×30–35 µm, 4 per ascus; A. pseudannulare Aptroot & Etayo from Ecuador with the appearance of the A. puiggarii-group, but differing from all other species of it by the 3-septate ascospores 80–88×32–36 µm, which are 2–4 per ascus; A. pseudodissimulum Aptroot from Papua New Guinea with K+ red crystals in the ascoma wall and 5-septate ascospores of 25–33×9–11 µm; A. pseudoferrugineum Aptroot from Indonesia, of the A. conicum-group with an orange thallus and pseudostroma pruina, differing from A. ferrugineum by the ascospores 28–31×9–11 µm and the more glossy thallus; A. pseudomegalophthalmum Aptroot from Colombia, similar to A. megaspermum but differing by the 7-septate ascospores 152–166×32–37 µm; A. rimosum Aptroot from Guyana and Colombia with 7–11-septate ascospores 110–150×30–37 µm and a rimose thallus with yellow medulla; A. sanguineoxanthum Aptroot from Brazil with the thallus containing lichexanthone and pseudostromata with numerous immersed round ascomata, the whole inside of which is full of red, K+ green pigment; A. septemseptatum Aptroot from Guyana and Venezuela with the thallus and pseudostromata UV+ yellow and 7–9-septate ascospores 50–55×12–17 µm; A. sexloculatum Aptroot from Guyana and Papua New Guinea with 5-septate ascospores 25–27×7–11 µm and lichexanthone in the thallus and pseudostromata; A. sipmanii Aptroot from Guyana with simple ascomata with 5-septate ascospores 100–150×35–40 µm and an inspersed hamathecium; A. trypethelioides Aptroot from Venezuela with fused ostioles, an inspersed hamathecium and 7–9-septate ascospores 49–52×13–16 µm; A. ultralucens Aptroot from Venezuela with lichexanthone in the thallus and pseudostromata, fused ostioles and 3-septate ascospores over 105–130×35–42 µm; A. vulcanum from Guyana, of the A. nitidiusculum-group with simple ascomata, an inspersed hamathecium and lichexanthone; A. zebrinum Aptroot from Guyana with fused ostioles and 7-septate ascospores 60–70 µm long, without lichexanthone, anthraquinones and inspersion; Polymeridium rhodopruinosum Aptroot from Puerto Rico with red pruina on the ascomata and 3-septate ascospores 17–19×3·5–5·0 µm; Pseudopyrenula americana Aptroot from Guyana with 3-septate ascospores 26–32×7–10 µm, without inspersion and without lichexanthone; P. guianensis Aptroot from French Guiana and Surinam with a hyaline hamathecium with inspersion, a thallus with lichexanthone and 3-septate ascospores 21–25×6–9 µm; P. hexamera Aptroot from Venezuela with 5-septate ascospores 16–21×6–7 µm, lumina clearly diamond-shaped; P. thallina Lücking & Aptroot from Costa Rica with a greenish corticate thallus and 3-septate ascospores, 21–25×6–9 µm; Trypethelium infraeluteriae Aptroot & Gueidan from Vietnam which is similar to T. subeluteriae but with lower pseudostromata and ascospores 7–9-septate, 37–42×9–11 µm; Viridothelium inspersum Aptroot from Papua New Guinea with solitary, immersed ascomata, an inspersed hamathecium, and 12–14-septate ascospores, 60–75×12–17 µm; V. kinabaluense Aptroot from Sabah which is similar to V. indutum with emergent black ascomata, but with 17–25-septate ascospores 100–150×18–23 µm; and V. solomonense Aptroot from the Solomon Islands having ascomata with lateral, partly fused ostioles and black clypeus, and ascospores 15–19-septate, 75–98×17–20 µm. The new species are known from Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Gabon, Guyana, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Sabah, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Surinam, Venezuela and/or Vietnam.
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