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Decreased hemoglobin levels increase the risk of developing dementia among the elderly. However, the underlying mechanisms that link decreased hemoglobin levels to incident dementia still remain unclear, possibly due to the fact that few studies have reported on the relationship between low hemoglobin levels and neuroimaging markers. We, therefore, investigated the relationships between decreased hemoglobin levels, cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD), and cortical atrophy in cognitively healthy women and men.
Cognitively normal women (n = 1,022) and men (n = 1,018) who underwent medical check-ups and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were enrolled at a health promotion center. We measured hemoglobin levels, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) scales, lacunes, and microbleeds. Cortical thickness was automatically measured using surface based methods. Multivariate regression analyses were performed after controlling for possible confounders.
Decreased hemoglobin levels were not associated with the presence of WMH, lacunes, or microbleeds in women and men. Among women, decreased hemoglobin levels were associated with decreased cortical thickness in the frontal (Estimates, 95% confidence interval, −0.007, (−0.013, −0.001)), temporal (−0.010, (−0.018, −0.002)), parietal (−0.009, (−0.015, −0.003)), and occipital regions (−0.011, (−0.019, −0.003)). Among men, however, no associations were observed between hemoglobin levels and cortical thickness.
Our findings suggested that decreased hemoglobin levels affected cortical atrophy, but not increased CSVD, among women, although the association is modest. Given the paucity of modifiable risk factors for age-related cognitive decline, our results have important public health implications.
To identify antibiotic resistance trends and risk factors for resistance of Serratia species to third-generation cephalosporins.
Retrospective survey of medical records.
A 2,200-bed, tertiary-care hospital.
One hundred twenty-two patients with Serratia bacteremia between January 1991 and June 2001.
Infectious disease physicians collected data from medical records regarding patient demographics, underlying disease or condition, portal of entry, microorganism, antibiogram, complications, antibiotics received, and outcome.
Among 122 Serratia isolates, 117 (95.9%) were Serratia marcescens and 110 (90.2%) were of nosocomial origin. During the study period, the 122 isolates showed a high rate of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (45.9%) and extended-spectrum penicillins (56.6%). The resistance rate to ciprofloxacin was 32.0%. The resistance rate to third-generation cephalosporins increased from 31.7% for 1991 to 1995 to 54.9% for 1996 to 1998 and 50.0% for 1999 to 2001. In the multivariate analysis, prior use of a second-generation cephalosporin (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.90; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 1.41 to 24.6; P = .015) or a third-generation cephalosporin (OR, 3.26; CI95, 1.20 to 8.87; P = .020) was a strong independent risk factor for resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. The overall case-fatality rate was 25.4% (Serratia bacteremia-related case-fatality rate, 13.1%).
Prior use of a second- or third-generation cephalosporin was the most important risk factor for bacteremia with Serratia resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, suggesting the need for antibiotic control. The potential role of patient-to-patient spread could not be fully evaluated in this retrospective study.
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