In 1912, Max von Laue and collaborators first observed diffraction spots from a millimeter-sized crystal of copper sulfate using an X-ray tube. Crystallography was born of this experiment, and since then, diffraction by both X-rays and electrons has revealed a myriad of inorganic and organic structures, including structures of complex protein assemblies. Advancements in X-ray sources have spurred a revolution in structure determination, facilitated by the development of new methods. This review explores some of the frontier methods that are shaping the future of X-ray diffraction, including coherent diffractive imaging, serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography and small-angle X-ray scattering. Collectively, these methods expand the current limits of structure determination in biological systems across multiple length and time scales.