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The width effect on contact angle hysteresis in a microchannel with patterned heterogeneous surfaces is systematically investigated. In the model, identical defects periodically appear on the background surface. To this end, a droplet's evaporation and condensation processes inside the microchannel are studied by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation based on a diffuse-interface lattice Boltzmann method. The microchannel width effect on the system's equilibrium properties is studied. The results demonstrate that the number of equilibrium configurations increases linearly with the microchannel width ($b$), and has a quadratic relationship with the cosine of the reference contact angle and the heterogeneity strength ($\varepsilon$). The average most stable contact angle is independent of $b$ and is always equal to the contact angle predicted by the Cassie–Baxter equation. For contact angle hysteresis ($H$), when the microchannels are narrow and wide, there are individual-effect-dominated hysteresis (IDH) and collective-effect-dominated hysteresis (CDH), respectively. The IDH and CDH are hysteresis modes corresponding to the jumping behaviour of contact lines affected by individual defects and two neighbouring defects, respectively. Based on the graphical force balance approach, we establish a scaling law to quantify the connection between $H$, $b$ and $\varepsilon$. Specifically, in the IDH mode, $H\sim b \varepsilon ^2$, while in the CDH mode, $H$ increases linearly with $\varepsilon$ but nonlinearly with $b$.
In dynamic outdoor environments characterized by turbulent airflow and intermittent odor plumes, robotic odor plume tracking remains challenging, because existing algorithms heavily rely on manually tuning or learning from expert experience, which are hard to implement in an unknown environment. In this paper, a multi-continuous-output Takagi–Sugeno–Kang fuzzy system was designed and tuned with reinforcement learning to solve the robotic odor source localization problem in dynamic odor plumes. Based on the Lévy Taxis plume tracking controller, the proposed fuzzy system determined the parameters of the controller based on the robot’s observation and guided the robot to turn and move towards the odor source at each searching step. The trained fuzzy system was tested in simulated filament-based odor plumes dispersed by a changing wind field. The results showed that the performance of the proposed fuzzy system-based controller trained with reinforcement learning can achieve a similar success rate and higher efficiency compared with a manually tuned and well-designed fuzzy system-based controller. The fuzzy system-based plume tracking controller was also validated through real robotic experiments.
With the excellent characteristic of intrinsic compliance, pneumatic artificial muscle can improve the interaction comfort of wearable robotic devices. This paper resolves the safety tracking control problem of a pneumatically actuated lower limb exoskeleton system. A single-parameter adaptive fuzzy control strategy is proposed with high control precision and full state constraints for the safe gait training tasks. Based on the barrier Lyapunov function, all signals in the closed-loop system can be bounded in finite time, which guarantees the deviation of the exoskeleton’s moving trajectory within a bounded range. Furthermore, with the proposed single-parameter adaptive law, the computational burden and the complexity of the control are reduced significantly. Finally, numerical simulations, no-load tracking experiments, and passive and active gait training experiments with healthy subjects validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
This 62-d research aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary lysine levels (DLL) and salinity on growth performance and nutrition metabolism of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) juveniles (Oreochromis niloticus). Six diets with lysine supplementation (1·34, 1·70, 2·03, 2·41, 2·72 and 3·04 % of DM) were formulated under different cultured salinities in a two-factorial design. The results indicated that supplemental lysine improved the specific growth rate (SGR) and weight gain (WG) and decreased the feed conversion ratio (FCR). Meanwhile, the fish had higher SGR and WG and lower FCR at 8 ‰ salinity. Except for moisture, the whole-body protein, lipid and ash content of GIFT were increased by 8 ‰ salinity, which showed that DLL (1·34 %) increased the whole-body fat content and DLL (2·41 %) increased whole-body protein content. Appropriate DLL up-regulated mRNA levels of protein metabolism-related genes such as target of rapamycin, 4EBP-1 and S6 kinase 1. However, 0 ‰ salinity reduced these protein metabolism-related genes mRNA levels, while proper DLL could improve glycolysis and gluconeogenesis mRNA levels but decrease lipogenesis-related genes mRNA levels in liver. 0 ‰ salinity improved GLUT2, glucokinase and G6 Pase mRNA levels; however, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase mRNA levels were higher at 8 ‰ salinity. Moreover, 8 ‰ salinity also increased plasma total protein and cholesterol levels and decreased glucose levels. These results indicated that the recommended range of lysine requirement under different salinity was 2·03–2·20 % (0 ‰) and 2·20–2·41 % (8 ‰) and 8 ‰ salinity resulted in higher lysine requirements due to changes in the related nutrient metabolism, which might provide useful information for designing more effective feed formulations for GIFT cultured in different salinity environment.
Athetis lepigone Möschler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) is a common maize pest in Europe and Asia. However, there is no long-term effective management strategy is available yet to suppress its population. Adults rely heavily on olfactory cues to locate their optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are believed to be responsible for recognizing and transporting different odorant molecules to interact with receptor membrane proteins. In this study, the ligand-binding specificities of two AlepPBPs (AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3) for sex pheromone components and host plant (maize) volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assay. The results demonstrated that AlepPBP2 had a high affinity with two pheromones [(Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.11 ± 0.1 μM, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.32 ± 0.15 μM] and ten plant volatiles, including (-)-limonene, α-pinene, myrcene, linalool, benzaldehyde, nonanal, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. In contrast, we found that none of these chemicals could bind to AlepPBP3. Our results clearly show no significant differences in the functional characterization of the binding properties between AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3 to sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. Furthermore, molecular docking was employed for further detail on some crucial amino acid residues involved in the ligand-binding of AlepPBP2. These findings will provide valuable information about the potential protein binding sites necessary for protein-ligand interactions which appear as attractive targets for the development of novel technologies and management strategies for insect pests.
Efficiently solving inverse kinematics (IK) of robot manipulators with offset wrists remains a challenge in robotics due to noncompliance with Pieper criteria. In this paper, an improved method to solve the IK for 6-DOF robot manipulators with offset wrists is proposed. This method is based on the Newton iteration technique, but it does not require a selection of initial estimation of joint variables. The solution is divided into two parts: the first part is to reconstruct a simplified structure with analytical IK solution, and the second part is to obtain a numerical solution by iteration. Further, a robot manipulator HSR-BR606 with an offset wrist is used as an example to specifically elaborate the mathematical procedure of the method and to investigate the algorithm in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and application of motion planning. A comparative experiment is conducted with a typical IK algorithm, which demonstrates a higher accuracy and shorter calculation time of the proposed method. The mean calculation time for a single IK solution required for this algorithm is only 4% of the comparison algorithm.
Primitive lamprophyres in orogenic belts can provide crucial insights into the nature of the subcontinental lithosphere and the relevant deep crust–mantle interactions. This paper reports a suite of relatively primitive lamprophyre dykes from the North Qiangtang, central Tibetan Plateau. Zircon U–Pb ages of the lamprophyre dykes range from 214 Ma to 218 Ma, with a weighted mean age of 216 ± 1 Ma. Most of the lamprophyre samples are similar in geochemical compositions to typical primitive magmas (e.g. high MgO contents, Mg no. values and Cr, with low FeOt/MgO ratios), although they might have experienced a slightly low degree of olivine crystallization, and they show arc-like trace-element patterns and enriched Sr–Nd isotopic composition ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70538–0.70540, ϵNd(t) = −2.96 to −1.65). Those geochemical and isotopic variations indicate that the lamprophyre dykes originated from partial melting of a phlogopite- and spinel-bearing peridotite mantle modified by subduction-related aqueous fluids. Combining with the other regional studies, we propose that slab subduction might have occurred during Late Triassic time, and the rollback of the oceanic lithosphere induced the lamprophyre magmatism in the central Tibetan Plateau.
The aim of the present study was to compare the rate of preterm birth (PTB) and growth from birth to 18 years between twins conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and twins conceived by spontaneous conception (SC) in mainland China. The retrospective cohort study included 1164 twins resulting from IVF and 25,654 twins conceived spontaneously, of which 494 from IVF and 6338 from SC were opposite-sex twins. PTB and low birth weight (LBW), and growth, including length/height and weight, were compared between the two groups at five stages: infancy (0 year), toddler period (1–2 years), preschool (3–5 years), primary or elementary school (6–11 years), and adolescence (10–18 years). Few statistically significant differences were found for LBW and growth between the two groups after adjusting for PTB and other confounders. Twins born by IVF faced an increased risk of PTB compared with those born by SC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 8.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] [3.19, 21.13], p < .001 in all twins and aOR 10.12, 95% CI [2.32, 44.04], p = .002 in opposite-sex twins). Twins born by IVF experienced a similar growth at five stages (0–18 years old) when compared with those born by SC. PTB risk, however, is significantly higher for twins conceived by IVF than those conceived by SC.
To investigate the safety and feasibility of midazolam for conscious sedation in transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defects guided solely by transthoracic echocardiography.
A retrospective analysis was performed on 55 patients who underwent transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defects from October, 2019 to May, 2020. All patients received intravenous midazolam and local anesthesia with lidocaine to maintain sedation. A group of previous patients with unpublished data who underwent the same procedure with general anesthesia was set as the control group. The relevant clinical parameters, the Ramsay sedation scores, the numerical rating scale, and the post-operative satisfaction questionnaire were recorded and analyzed.
In the midazolam group, the success rate of atrial septal defect closure was 98.2%. Hemodynamic stability was observed during the procedure. None of the patients needed additional endotracheal intubation for general anesthesia. Compared with the control group, the midazolam group had no statistically significant differences in the Ramsay sedation score and numerical rating scale scores. Patients in the midazolam group experienced more post-operative satisfaction than those in the control group.
Conscious sedation using midazolam is a safe and effective anesthetic technique for transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defects guided solely by transthoracic echocardiography.
With the characteristics of full autonomy and no accumulated errors, polarisation navigation shows tremendous prospects in underwater scenarios. In this paper, inspired by the polarisation vision of aquatic organisms, a novel point-source polarisation sensor with high spectral adaptability (400 nm–760 nm) is designed for underwater orientation. To enhance the environmental applicability of the underwater polarisation sensor, a novel sensor model based on the underwater light intensity attenuation coefficient and optical coupling coefficient is established. In addition, concerned with the influence of light intensity uncertainty on sensor performance underwater, an antagonistic polarisation algorithm is adopted for the first time, to improve the accuracy of angle of polarisation and degree of polarisation in the low signal-to-noise ratio environment underwater. Finally, indoor and outdoor experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the designed polarisation sensor. The results show that the designed point-source polarisation sensor can acquire polarised light and be used for heading determination underwater.
The aim of this study was to assess the current status of disease-related knowledge and to analyze the relationship among the general condition, illness perception, and psychological status of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 118 patients using convenience sampling. The general questionnaire, disease-related knowledge questionnaire of COVID-19, Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) were used to measure the current status of participants.
The overall average score of the disease-related knowledge of patients with COVID-19 was (79.19 ± 14.25), the self-care situation was positively correlated with knowledge of prevention and control (r = 0.265; P = 0.004) and total score of disease-related knowledge (r = 0.206; P = 0.025); the degree of anxiety was negatively correlated with the knowledge of diagnosis and treatment (r = −0.182; P = 0.049). The score of disease-related knowledge was negatively correlated with negative cognition (volatility, consequences, emotional statements) and negative emotions (tension, fatigue, depression) (P < 0.05); positively correlated with positive cognition (disease coherence) and positive emotion (self-esteem) (P < 0.05).
It was recommended that we should pay more attention to the elderly and low-income groups, and increase the knowledge about diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 and self-care in the future health education for patients.
A southern population (S) from Xiushui County (29°1′N, 114°4′E) and a northern population (N) from Shenyang city (41°48′N, 123°23′E) of the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi vary greatly in their life-history traits, and may serve as an excellent model with which to study the inheritance of life-history traits. In the present study, we performed intraspecific hybridization using the two populations, comparing the key life-history traits (fecundity, development time, body weight, growth rate, and sexual size dimorphism (SDD)) between the two populations (S♀ × S♂ and N♀ × N♂) and their two hybrid populations (S♀ × N♂ and N♀ × S♂ populations) at 19, 22, 25, and 28°C. Our results showed that there were significant differences in life-history traits between the two parental populations, with the S population having a significantly higher fecundity, shorter larval development time, larger body weight, higher growth rate, and greater weight loss during metamorphosis than the N population at almost all temperatures. However, these life-history traits in the two hybrid populations were intermediate between those of their parents. The life-history traits in the S × N and N × S populations more closely resembled those of the maternal S population and N population, respectively, showing maternal effects. Weight loss for both sexes was highest in the S population, followed by the S × N, N × S, and N populations at all temperatures, suggesting that larger pupae lost more weight during metamorphosis. The changes in SSD with temperature were similar between the S and the S × N populations and between the N and the N × S populations, also suggesting a maternal effect. Overall, our results showed no drastic effect of hybridization on C. bowringi, being neither negative (hybrid inferiority) nor positive (heterosis). Rather, the phenotypes of hybrids were intermediate between the phenotypes of their parents.
Hypertension represents one of the most common pre-existing conditions and comorbidities in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. To explore whether hypertension serves as a risk factor for disease severity, a multi-centre, retrospective study was conducted in COVID-19 patients. A total of 498 consecutively hospitalised patients with lab-confirmed COVID-19 in China were enrolled in this cohort. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association between hypertension and the likelihood of severe illness with adjustment for confounders. We observed that more than 16% of the enrolled patients exhibited pre-existing hypertension on admission. More severe COVID-19 cases occurred in individuals with hypertension than those without hypertension (21% vs. 10%, P = 0.007). Hypertension associated with the increased risk of severe illness, which was not modified by other demographic factors, such as age, sex, hospital geological location and blood pressure levels on admission. More attention and treatment should be offered to patients with underlying hypertension, who usually are older, have more comorbidities and more susceptible to cardiac complications.
The negative regulation effect of tumor microenvironment (TME) greatly compromised the efficacy of various cancer treatments, especially cancer immunotherapy. As a result, it is generally recognized that remodeling of TME along with the treatment is a promising way to realize satisfactory cancer therapy. Here, in our study, a drug delivery system (DDS) composed cancer cell membrane (CCM) vehicle loaded mitoxantrone (Mit) and sorafenib (Sfn) was proposed with the aim to combine TME regulation and chemotherapy-induced immunotherapy in one platform. Our results confirmed that after treating with this DDS, the Mit induced immunogenic cell death (ICD) could be augmented by Sfn-based TME regulation to realize effective cancer immunotherapy. The Sfn was shown to downregulate of the regulatory T cells (Treg) level while activating the effector T cells of TME. The synergetic TME regulation along with cancer immunotherapy might be a promising way for advanced cancer treatment.
We aimed to describe the clinical features in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. We studied 134 critically ill COVID-19 cases from 30 December 2019 to 20 February 2020 in an intensive care unit (ICU) at Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital. Demographics, underlying diseases, therapy strategies and test results were collected and analysed from patients on admission, admission to the ICU and 48 h before death. The non-survivors were older (65.46 (s.d. 9.74) vs. 46.45 (s.d. 11.09)) and were more likely to have underlying diseases. The blood group distribution of the COVID-19 cases differed from that of the Han population in Wuhan, with type A being 43.85%; type B, 26.92%; type AB, 10% and type O, 19.23%. Non-survivors tend to develop more severe lymphopaenia, with higher C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, procalcitonin, D-dimer levels and gradually increased with time. The clinical manifestations were non-specific. Compared with survivors, non-survivors more likely to have organ function injury, and to receive mechanical ventilation, either invasively or noninvasively. Multiple organ failure and secondary bacterial infection in the later period is worthy of attention.
The clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 were analysed to determine the factors influencing the prognosis and virus shedding time to facilitate early detection of disease progression. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationships among prognosis, clinical characteristics and laboratory indexes. The predictive value of this model was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, calibration and internal validation. The viral shedding duration was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method, and the prognostic factors were analysed by univariate log-rank analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. A retrospective study was carried out with patients with COVID-19 in Tianjin, China. A total of 185 patients were included, 27 (14.59%) of whom were severely ill at the time of discharge and three (1.6%) of whom died. Our findings demonstrate that patients with an advanced age, diabetes, a low PaO2/FiO2 value and delayed treatment should be carefully monitored for disease progression to reduce the incidence of severe disease. Hypoproteinaemia and the fever duration warrant special attention. Timely interventions in symptomatic patients and a time from symptom onset to treatment <4 days can shorten the duration of viral shedding.
This paper presents a comprehensive study of the zircon geochronology, geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotope geology of Devonian mafic rocks developed in the East Kunlun orogenic belt, northern Tibetan Plateau, and reveals their mantle sources, petrogenesis and geodynamic implications for continental exhumation. The zircon geochronology of typical samples indicates that these mafic rocks crystallized at 406∼408 Ma. They can be classified into two different groups based on petrographic observations and geochemical compositions. Group 1 rocks exhibit low TiO2 and FeOt contents and Nb/Y ratios and have enriched mid-ocean ridge basalt (E-MORB)-like compositions with slight negative Nb and Ta anomalies. However, Group 2 rocks have distinctly high TiO2 and FeOt contents and Nb/Y ratios, comparable to typical Fe–Ti-rich mafic rocks worldwide. All the samples exhibit weak enrichments in light rare earth elements, Nb and Ta relative to the primitive mantle. Based on geochemical and isotopic studies, Group 1 rocks are suggested to be derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle that was metasomatized by c. 3–5 % continental crustal components, while Group 2 rocks originated from partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle. The high contents of Fe, Ti and Nb for Group 2 rocks could be attributed to a high degree of olivine crystallization under low fO2 conditions with delayed nucleation of Fe–Ti oxides. Combining those results with other geological data, we conclude that slab break-off was the key factor causing exhumation of eclogites and triggering flare-up of the Devonian magmatism, and that continental collision or continental subduction may have initiated at 431∼436 Ma.