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A checklist of Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and Allied Fungi of Ecuador is presented with a total of 2599 species, of which 39 are reported for the first time from the country. The names of three species, Hypotrachyna montufariensis, H. subpartita and Sticta hypoglabra, previously not validly published, are validated. Pertusaria oahuensis, originally introduced by Magnusson as ‘ad interim’, is validated as Lepra oahuensis. The form Leucodermia leucomelos f. albociliata is validated. Two new combinations, Fissurina tectigera and F. timida, are made, and Physcia mobergii is introduced as a replacement name for the illegitimate P. lobulata Moberg non (Flörke) Arnold. In an initial step, the checklist was compiled by reviewing literature records of Ecuadorian lichen biota spanning from the late 19th century to the present day. Subsequently, records were added based on vouchers from 56 collections participating in the Consortium of Lichen Herbaria, a Symbiota-based biodiversity platform with particular focus on, but not exclusive to, North and South America. Symbiota provides sophisticated tools to manage biodiversity data, such as occurrence records, a taxonomic thesaurus, and checklists. The thesaurus keeps track of frequently changing names, distinguishing taxa currently accepted from ones considered synonyms. The software also provides tools to create and manage checklists, with an emphasis on selecting vouchers based on occurrence records that can be verified for identification accuracy. Advantages and limitations of creating checklists in Symbiota versus traditional ways of compiling these lists are discussed. Traditional checklists are well suited to document current knowledge as a ‘snapshot in time’. They are important baselines, frequently used by ecologists and conservation scientists as an established naming convention for citing species reported from a country. Compiling these lists, however, requires an immense effort, only to inadequately address the dynamic nature of scientific discovery. Traditional checklists are thus quickly out of date, particularly in groups with rapidly changing taxonomy, such as lichenized fungi. Especially in megadiverse countries, where new species and new occurrences continue to be discovered, traditional checklists are not easily updated; these lists necessarily fall short of efficiently managing immense data sets, and they rely primarily on secondary evidence (i.e. literature records rather than specimens). Ideally, best practices make use of dynamic database platforms such as Symbiota to assess occurrence records based both on literature citations and voucher specimens. Using modern data management tools comes with a learning curve. Systems like Symbiota are not necessarily intuitive and their functionality can still be improved, especially when handling literature records. However, online biodiversity data platforms have much potential in more efficiently managing and assessing large biodiversity data sets, particularly when investigating the lichen biota of megadiverse countries such as Ecuador.
The new species Aspicilia malvinae is described from the Falkland Islands. It is the first species of Megasporaceae to be discovered on the islands and only the seventh to be reported from South America. It is distinguished from other species of Aspicilia by the unusual secondary metabolite chemistry (hypostictic acid) and molecular sequence data. The collections of the new species support two lichenicolous fungi: Endococcus propinquus s. lat., which is new to the Falkland Islands, and a new species of Sagediopsis with small perithecia and 3-septate ascospores c. 18–20 × 4–5 μm, which is described here as S. epimalvinae. A total of 60 new DNA sequences obtained from species of Megasporaceae (mostly Aspicilia) are also introduced.
Three species of lichenicolous Opegrapha s. lat. are newly described, all apparently host-specific at genus level. Opegrapha arthoniicola Coppins & S. Y. Kondr. is described from western Britain and Ireland, where it grows on the thallus of Arthonia radiata on Corylus bark; it has small clustered ascomata, asci that are usually 6-spored and rather small ascospores (10.5–)12.5–14.5 μm in length. Opegrapha sawyeriana Coppins occurs on the thallus of Coniocarpon cinnabarinum, also on Corylus bark, from oceanic western parts of Scotland, Ireland and southern England; in comparison to O. arthoniicola it has smaller, often scattered ascomata with a pigmented basal layer, 8-spored asci and slightly larger ascospores 13–14.5(–16) μm in length. Opegrapha hochstetteri Coppins has been found on thalli of Verrucaria hochstetteri and V. muralis on calcareous rocks and stonework in southern England and Luxembourg; collections were formerly identified as Opegrapha rupestris Pers. but it differs from this species by narrower ascomata with a persistent narrow slit, normally 6- rather than 8-spored asci and ascospores with pigmentation in the spore wall rather than the perispore. Lifted from synonymy is Opegrapha opaca Nyl., which inhabits the thallus of Verrucaria nigrescens and V. viridula on calcareous rocks and stonework, and is so far recorded from southern England, Luxembourg, France, northern Spain and Israel. The hosts of the European species of lichenicolous Opegrapha on Verrucaria s. lat. on calcareous rocks (O. hochstetteri, O. opaca and O. rupestris) belong to different phylogenetic lineages within the Verrucariaceae. A key is also provided to the lichenicolous species of Opegraphaceae currently known from Great Britain and Ireland.
The relationship between social vulnerabilities and the effectiveness of behavioral interventions to prevent obesity in children is poorly understood. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the association between parental employment and the effectiveness of IDEFICS, a multilevel behavioral intervention aiming to prevent obesity among children (2 to 9.9 years old) in eight European countries. Data from 9,901 children and their parents was included in the analysis. We determined the Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score mean difference as the measurement of the intervention effectiveness and we calculated it as the follow-up (T1) BMI z-score mean minus baseline (T0) BMI z-score mean. Parents self-reported their employment status at T0 and T1. Children were classified, at both study times (T0 and T1), as children with employed parents (both parents employed) or as children with unemployed parents (one or both parents unemployed or receiving social assistance). We calculated unadjusted and adjusted multilevel mixed model analyses to evaluate if the employment status at T0 and the evolution of the employment status within a two-year period (from T0 to T1) predicted the BMI z-score mean difference among boys and girls. In boys, parental unemployment at T0 and throughout a two-year period (T0 to T1) predicted an increase of BMI z-score mean difference when compared to boys with employed parents (unemployment at T0: adjusted β = 0.12; p = 0.028; and unemployment from T0 to T1: adjusted β = 0.20; p = 0.031). We found no difference in the effectiveness of the IDEFICS intervention among girls with unemployed parents at T0 and from T0 to T1 when compared to girls with employed parents (unemployment at T0: adjusted β = 0.04; p = 0.337; and unemployment from T0 to T1: adjusted β = 0.10; p = 0.216, respectively). Our results suggest that the influence of parental unemployment in the IDEFICS outcome is different for boys and girls. Employment of both parents, which is related to a higher income, could contribute the families to engage healthier eating and physical activity behaviors among boys. Future multilevel interventions should include a combination of community-based and school-based components, as well as family-centered components, specifically on those families with parents out of the labor force, to address specific barriers or vulnerabilities that prevent them from improving behavior and weight status.
Introduction: Childhood obesity is rising in all countries. Dietary habits are modifiable factors which develop early in life. During growth, several factors, such as peer- influence and food availability, determine the development of food preferences and eating behaviour. Parents play also a key role model by influencing their own food intake.
Objetives: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of parental role modelling, as predictor of fruits and vegetables intake in European pre-schoolers.
Methods: The present study included a sample of 6633 preschool children (51.9% boys) from six European centres (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain), 3.5 to 5.5 years of age, participating in the ToyBox-study. Data on parental role modelling related with their own fruits and vegetables intake (portions/day) and children's fruits and vegetables intake (portions/day) were collected via standardized proxy-administered questionnaires. Linear regression model was used to assess this association. The adjusted model included socioeconomic status and weight status.
Results: In the unadjusted model, boys whose parents consumed fruits, showed a mean intake of 0.09 (95% CI: 0.08–0.11; p ≤ 0.001) portions of fruits more than the boys whose parents did not consume fruits. Also, girls whose parents consumed fruits, had intake of 0.10 (95% CI: 0.08–0.12; p ≤ 0.001) portions of fruits more than the girls whose parents did not consume fruits.
Moreover, boys whose parents consumed vegetables, showed a mean intake of 0.09 (95% CI: 0.07–0.11; p ≤ 0.001) portions of vegetables more than the boys whose parents did not consume vegetables. Also, girls whose parents consumed fruits, had intake of 0.11 (95% CI: 0.09–0.13; p ≤ 0.001) portions of vegetables more than the girls whose parents did not consume vegetables.
Finally, parental role related with fruits consumption explained 19.3% of fruits intake in European pre-schoolers and the 17.8% of vegetables intake in boys and 21.9% of vegetable intake in girls taking into consideration the potential effect of socioeconomic status of the family and the weight status of the children.
Conclusions: Parental role model of fruit intake has moderate effect on the pre-schooler's dietary intake. However, home environment characteristics such as family rules or availability and accessibility of foods should be considered as potential factors related to food intake in pre-schoolers.
The new lichenicolous fungus Capronia suijae growing on the thallus of corticolous Xanthoria parietina is described from Belarus and compared with similar species. In addition to its host selection, the species is characterized by comparatively small ascomata, 40–80 μm diam., and (0–1–)3-septate ascospores, 9·5–11·5×4·0–5·0 μm. A key to the lichenicolous fungi growing on Xanthoria s. str. is provided.
The following 46 new species of Trypetheliaceae are described: Astrothelium aenascens Aptroot from Papua New Guinea, which is similar to A. aenoides but differs by the hamathecium which is not inspersed; A. alboverrucoides Aptroot from Indonesia with globose ascomata with constricted base, internally similar to A. megaspermum; A. clypeatum Aptroot & Gueidan from Vietnam with black conical ascomata in which the pseudostroma is reminiscent of a clypeus, a rimose thallus, and 3-septate ascospores, 85–95×22–25 µm; A. colombiense Aptroot from Colombia with 1 muriform ascospore of 240–300×45–50 µm per ascus, and an inspersed hamathecium; A. condoricum Aptroot from Ecuador with a bright orange thallus and contrasting bright scarlet internal pigment, and muriform ascospores, 38–42×18–21 µm; A. corallinum Aptroot from Guyana, which is most similar to A. ochroleucoides but the thallus is without lichexanthone; A. dicoloratum Aptroot from Venezuela with an orange thallus and more yellowish pseudostromata with usually only 1 ascoma, and 9–11-septate ascospores; A. ecuadoriense Aptroot from Ecuador with ascospores 2 per ascus, muriform, 80–175×25–50 µm, and an inspersed hamathecium; A. flavomaculatum Aptroot from Ecuador, Guyana and Venezuela which is similar to A. graphicum, but with ascospores 50–75×12–25 µm; A. flavomeristosporum Aptroot from the Philippines and Ecuador with mostly simple ascomata with an orange to yellow, inspersed hamathecium and muriform ascospores 140–200×25–30 µm; A. flavostiolatum Aptroot from Ecuador with bright yellow ostioles and a very irregular thallus, and muriform ascospores, 175–230×35–45 µm; A. guianense Aptroot from Guyana with a very irregular thallus, eccentric, fused ostioles and ascospores 4 per ascus, muriform, 70–80×20–25 µm; A. inspersogalbineum Aptroot & Weerakoon from Singapore which is similar to A. macrocarpum but with the hamathecium inspersed; A. komposchii Aptroot from Venezuela with chimney-like ostioles and a very irregular, almost squamulose thallus and muriform ascospores, 130–180×35–45 µm; A. laurerosphaerioides Aptroot from Guyana with aggregated ascomata with internally and partly (when abraded) also superficially orange anthraquinone pigment, ascospores 2 per ascus, muriform, 110–130×30–35 µm; A. lucidomedullatum Aptroot from Ecuador with lichexanthone in the medulla of the thallus, ascospores 4 per ascus, muriform, 80–115×25–35 µm; A. lucidostromum Aptroot from Guyana which is similar to A. eustomuralis but lichexanthone is present in the whole pseudostroma; A. lucidothallinum Aptroot from Guyana with the thallus containing lichexanthone, ascomata in pseudostromata without lichexanthone, ostioles apical, hamathecium not inspersed, ascospores muriform, 70–90×18–20 µm; A. mediocrassum Aptroot from Guyana which resembles A. octosporum but without lichexanthone in the thallus or pseudostromata, muriform ascospores, 70–80×22–25 µm, with median septum strongly thickened; A. megatropicum Aptroot from Guyana with 3-septate ascospores 100–120×33–35 µm, and hemispherical dark brown pseudostromata; A. megochroleucum Aptroot from El Salvador with 3-septate ascospores 60–70×16–18 µm and lichexanthone in the thallus and pseudostromata; A. neoinspersum Aptroot from El Salvador which is similar to A. aenascens but with bright yellow pseudostromata; A. perspersum Aptroot & Ertz from Gabon which is similar to A. scoria but with ascospores 26–38×7–9 µm; A. philippinense Aptroot & Schumm from the Philippines without pseudostromata, ostiole apical, hamathecium inspersed, ascospores muriform, 125–170×30–35 µm, 4 per ascus; A. pseudannulare Aptroot & Etayo from Ecuador with the appearance of the A. puiggarii-group, but differing from all other species of it by the 3-septate ascospores 80–88×32–36 µm, which are 2–4 per ascus; A. pseudodissimulum Aptroot from Papua New Guinea with K+ red crystals in the ascoma wall and 5-septate ascospores of 25–33×9–11 µm; A. pseudoferrugineum Aptroot from Indonesia, of the A. conicum-group with an orange thallus and pseudostroma pruina, differing from A. ferrugineum by the ascospores 28–31×9–11 µm and the more glossy thallus; A. pseudomegalophthalmum Aptroot from Colombia, similar to A. megaspermum but differing by the 7-septate ascospores 152–166×32–37 µm; A. rimosum Aptroot from Guyana and Colombia with 7–11-septate ascospores 110–150×30–37 µm and a rimose thallus with yellow medulla; A. sanguineoxanthum Aptroot from Brazil with the thallus containing lichexanthone and pseudostromata with numerous immersed round ascomata, the whole inside of which is full of red, K+ green pigment; A. septemseptatum Aptroot from Guyana and Venezuela with the thallus and pseudostromata UV+ yellow and 7–9-septate ascospores 50–55×12–17 µm; A. sexloculatum Aptroot from Guyana and Papua New Guinea with 5-septate ascospores 25–27×7–11 µm and lichexanthone in the thallus and pseudostromata; A. sipmanii Aptroot from Guyana with simple ascomata with 5-septate ascospores 100–150×35–40 µm and an inspersed hamathecium; A. trypethelioides Aptroot from Venezuela with fused ostioles, an inspersed hamathecium and 7–9-septate ascospores 49–52×13–16 µm; A. ultralucens Aptroot from Venezuela with lichexanthone in the thallus and pseudostromata, fused ostioles and 3-septate ascospores over 105–130×35–42 µm; A. vulcanum from Guyana, of the A. nitidiusculum-group with simple ascomata, an inspersed hamathecium and lichexanthone; A. zebrinum Aptroot from Guyana with fused ostioles and 7-septate ascospores 60–70 µm long, without lichexanthone, anthraquinones and inspersion; Polymeridium rhodopruinosum Aptroot from Puerto Rico with red pruina on the ascomata and 3-septate ascospores 17–19×3·5–5·0 µm; Pseudopyrenula americana Aptroot from Guyana with 3-septate ascospores 26–32×7–10 µm, without inspersion and without lichexanthone; P. guianensis Aptroot from French Guiana and Surinam with a hyaline hamathecium with inspersion, a thallus with lichexanthone and 3-septate ascospores 21–25×6–9 µm; P. hexamera Aptroot from Venezuela with 5-septate ascospores 16–21×6–7 µm, lumina clearly diamond-shaped; P. thallina Lücking & Aptroot from Costa Rica with a greenish corticate thallus and 3-septate ascospores, 21–25×6–9 µm; Trypethelium infraeluteriae Aptroot & Gueidan from Vietnam which is similar to T. subeluteriae but with lower pseudostromata and ascospores 7–9-septate, 37–42×9–11 µm; Viridothelium inspersum Aptroot from Papua New Guinea with solitary, immersed ascomata, an inspersed hamathecium, and 12–14-septate ascospores, 60–75×12–17 µm; V. kinabaluense Aptroot from Sabah which is similar to V. indutum with emergent black ascomata, but with 17–25-septate ascospores 100–150×18–23 µm; and V. solomonense Aptroot from the Solomon Islands having ascomata with lateral, partly fused ostioles and black clypeus, and ascospores 15–19-septate, 75–98×17–20 µm. The new species are known from Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Gabon, Guyana, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Sabah, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Surinam, Venezuela and/or Vietnam.
The new obligately lichenicolous fungus, Melaspilea tucumana Flakus, Etayo & Kukwa, inhabiting thalli of saxicolous Pertusaria s. lat. is described from Tucumano-Boliviano vegetation in Bolivia. The species is characterized by the gall formation and superficial, lirelliform to branched, aggregated apothecioid ascomata with widely exposed discs. The ascomata of M. tucumana are initially perithecioid and immersed in the host thallus, but become superficial and apothecioid when mature, and thus resemble the genus Buelliella. This may suggest the placement of the new species in Dothideomycetes.
Two new genera and four new species of bulbil-forming basidiomycetes are described. Phylogenetic analyses of nuLSU and ITS sequences place them in Cantharellales. A facultative lichenicolous species with yellow to orange-yellow bulbils from South America groups with the type of Burgella and is consequently described as B. lutea. The new species and genus Burgellopsis nivea is introduced for material from Scotland with white bulbils overgrowing saxicolous lichens. An obligate lichenicolous species with particularly large, applanate bulbils developing over Peltigerales in South America could not be placed accurately using ITS sequences and is described as the new species and genus Bulbilla applanata. A European species with brown, facultatively lichenicolous bulbils grouped with Ceratobasidium and Thanatephorus species and is described as the new Ceratobasidium bulbillifaciens.
The new lichenicolous Capronia paranectrioides Etayo, Flakus & Kukwa, inhabiting thalli of Erioderma leylandii, is described from Bolivia. The species is characterized by pale brown, submuriform and bicaudate ascospores, subglobose to barrel-shaped perithecia and I+ red, K/I+ pale blue hymenial gelatine. It is the first known Capronia species producing ascospores with long apical appendages.
Niesslia echinoides Etayo, Flakus & Kukwa sp. nov. is described from Bolivia from the corticolous thallus of Erioderma barbellatum. The fungus is characterized by large ascospores usually breaking into halves within the asci, strongly setose and aggregated ascomata, usually simple setae, and no damage caused to the host thallus.
A new gall-inducing lichenicolous fungus, Plectocarpon stereocaulicola Kukwa, Etayo and Flakus, is described from Bolivia from the thalli of Stereocaulon sp. The new species is characterized by black, epruinose rounded ascomata with a carbonized surface and a thalline pseudo-margin, as well as a non-carbonized, light brown sterile stromatic tissue in the lower part and 3-septate ascospores becoming brown and ornamented when mature.
The new lichenicolous fungus Llimoniella cinnabarinae growing on Ramboldia cinnabarina from Alaska is described. The lack of excipular or epihymenial K+ purplish, violet or green pigments places it near the recently described L. phaeophysciae group. Its affinity with Llimoniella and other members of lichenicolous Helotiales is discussed.
Buellia rhizocarpica is described from Mexico. This corticolous species is characterized by a yellowish, granulose thallus, the presence of rhizocarpic acid and an unknown pulvinic acid derivative, apothecia containing large amounts of micromera-green together with yellow crystals which react K+ pinkish and by the presence of very small, Buellia-type ascospores. It grows in a well-preserved Pinus hartwegii forest at c. 4000 m altitude at the base of the volcano Popocatepetl.
The new conidial lichenicolous fungus Calongia gibelluloides gen. sp. nov. is described from discoloured soredial patches on thalli of Flavoparmelia caperata and discoloured squamules of a Cladonia species collected in northern Spain. It is especially unusual in its minute size, the solitary conidiophores reaching at most 45 μm and bearing a cluster of conidiogenous cells that are at first enclosed by a membranous sheath, and produce 1-septate narrowly ellipsoid to elongate-reniform or elongate-soleiform fuscous conidia. The fungus has some features that recall the entomogenous hypocrealean genus Gibellula, but species of that genus have synnematous conidiomata, ornamented conidiophores, phialidic conidiogenous cells, no membranous vesicle, and non-septate conidia produced in chains. The phylogenetic placement remains uncertain in the absence of a teleomorph or molecular evidence.
The new genus Labrocarpon is introduced for the species Melaspilea canariensis based on the presence of excipular periphysoids. In addition, Buelliella protoparmeliopsis is described from Chile, the twelfth species of the genus. Notes on the two new taxa and related species are provided.
The new lichenicolous Llimoniella phaeophysciae, known from Italy, Spain and the USA (Arizona) on Phaeophyscia, resembles Geltingia associata in the subcylindrical asci with uniseriate, shortly ellipsoid ascospores, but is distinguished by several important characters. Gelatinopsis acarosporicola, G. heppiae, Geltingia groenlandiae and Psorotichia terricola (syn. nov. Gelatinopsis leptogii) are considered to be congeneric with L. phaeophysciae, although some of them have elongate clavate and not subcylindrical asci and they are consequently combined in Llimoniella. These five species are distinguished from Llimoniella s.str. by a different excipular and epihymenial pigmentation not reacting with KOH and are treated as the informal L. phaeophysciae group. The new L. placopsidis is described from Placopsis in New Zealand. More complex pigmentation patterns are documented for L. pyrenulae and L. ramalinae. A revised key to the species of Llimoniella is presented. Gelatinopsis ericetorum and G. roccellae are combined in Rhymbocarpus. A redescription of Geltingia associata is given.
Pertusaria aceroae and Pertusaria calderae from the Canary Islands are described as new to science. A description of each species is given together with notes on their chemistry, distribution, ecology and taxonomy. Related lichen taxa are discussed.