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Glufosinate resistance in Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) was recently detected in three accessions from Arkansas, USA. Amaranthus palmeri is the first and only broadleaf weed species resistant to this herbicide, and the resistance mechanism is still unclear. A previous study characterized the glufosinate resistance level in the accessions from Arkansas. A highly glufosinate-resistant accession was further used to investigate the mechanism conferring glufosinate resistance in A. palmeri. Experiments were designed to sequence the herbicide target enzyme cytosolic and chloroplastic glutamine synthetase isoforms (GS1 and GS2, respectively) and quantify copy number and expression. Absorption, translocation, and metabolism of glufosinate using the 14C-labeled herbicide were also evaluated in the resistant and susceptible accessions. The glufosinate-resistant accession had an increase in copy number and expression of GS2 compared with susceptible plants. All accessions showed only one GS1 copy and no differences in expression. No mutations were identified in GS1 or GS2. Absorption (54% to 60%) and metabolism (13% to 21%) were not different between the glufosinate-resistant and glufosinate-susceptible accessions. Most residues of glufosinate (94% to 98%) were present in the treated leaf. Glufosinate translocation to tissues above the treated leaf and in the roots was not different among accessions. However, glufosinate translocation to tissues below the treated leaf (not including roots) was greater in the resistant A. palmeri (2%) compared with the susceptible (less than 1%) accessions. The findings of this paper strongly indicate that gene amplification and increased expression of the chloroplastic glutamine synthetase enzyme are the mechanisms conferring glufosinate resistance in the A. palmeri accession investigated. Thus far, no additional resistance mechanism was observed, but further investigations are ongoing.
Background: Aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) performed on COVID-19–positive patients raise concerns about the dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 via aerosols and droplets. Infectious aerosols and droplets generated by SARS-CoV-2–positive patient AGPs or through direct COVID-19 patient coughing or exhalation could potentially contaminate surfaces, leading to the indirect spread of SARS-CoV-2 via fomites within the emergency department (ED). We sampled surfaces of ED patient rooms occupied by known SARS-CoV-2–positive patients or patients under investigation for COVID-19 and undergoing an AGP to determine the frequency of room contamination with SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Methods: Swabs were collected from 5 room surfaces in the ED following AGPs performed on patients under investigation for COVID-19 or positive for SARS-CoV-2. High- and low-touch surfaces 6 feet (2 m) from the patient (door handle and return vent, respectively) and reusable medical equipment were swabbed. Swabs were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-qPCR; positive samples were cultured in Vero E6 cells. Patient COVID-19 results were confirmed through the electronic medical record. Results: In total, 203 rooms were sampled: 43 SARS-CoV-2–positive patients with an AGP, 44 SARS-CoV-2–positive patients who did not have an AGP, and 116 SARS-CoV-2–negative patients with an AGP, for a total of 1,015 swabs. Overall, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected on 36 (3.5%) surfaces from 29 rooms (14.3%) (Table 1). RNA contamination was detected more frequently in rooms occupied by SARS-CoV-2–positive patients who did not have an AGP than rooms occupied by COVID-19 patients (30% vs 14%). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was also detected in rooms occupied by SARS-CoV-2–negative patients undergoing an AGP (9%). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was most frequently detected on air vents (n = 15), bedrails (n = 10), equipment and vital signs monitors (n = 4 each), and door handles (n = 3). One bedrail was positive by culture and confirmed by an RT-qPCR cycle threshold reduction from >40 to 13. Conclusions: We detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA contamination on room surfaces in the ED, regardless of patient AGP or COVID-19 status; however, RNA contamination of room surfaces was most common in rooms occupied by SARS-CoV-2–positive patients who did not have an AGP, which may be attributable to stage of disease and viral shedding. SARS-CoV-2 RNA contamination was also present in rooms where APGs were performed on SARS-CoV-2–negative patients, suggesting carryover from previous patients. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found most often on room air-return vents, further emphasizing the importance of aerosols in the spread of SARS-CoV-2.
This study documents the COVID-19 disease-control measures enacted in rural China and examines the economic and social impacts of these measures. We conducted two rounds of surveys with 726 randomly selected village informants across seven provinces. Strict disease-control measures have been universally enforced and appear to have been successful in limiting disease transmission in rural communities. The infection rate in our sample was 0.001 per cent, a rate that is near the national average outside of Hubei province. None of the villages reported any COVID-19-related deaths. For a full month during the quarantine, the rate of employment of rural workers was essentially zero. Even after the quarantine measures were lifted, nearly 70 per cent of the villagers still were unable to work owing to workplace closures. Although action has been taken to mitigate the potential negative effects, these disease-control measures might have accelerated the inequality between rural and urban households in China.
Identifying the most effective ways to support career development of early stage investigators in clinical and translational science should yield benefits for the biomedical research community. Institutions with Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) offer KL2 programs to facilitate career development; however, the sustained impact has not been widely assessed.
A survey comprised of quantitative and qualitative questions was sent to 2144 individuals that had previously received support through CTSA KL2 mechanisms. The 547 responses were analyzed with identifying information redacted.
Respondents held MD (47%), PhD (36%), and MD/PhD (13%) degrees. After KL2 support was completed, physicians’ time was divided 50% to research and 30% to patient care, whereas PhD respondents devoted 70% time to research. Funded research effort averaged 60% for the cohort. Respondents were satisfied with their career progression. More than 95% thought their current job was meaningful. Two-thirds felt confident or very confident in their ability to sustain a career in clinical and translational research. Factors cited as contributing to career success included protected time, mentoring, and collaborations.
This first large systematic survey of KL2 alumni provides valuable insight into the group’s perceptions of the program and outcome information. Former scholars are largely satisfied with their career choice and direction, national recognition of their expertise, and impact of their work. Importantly, they identified training activities that contributed to success. Our results and future analysis of the survey data should inform the framework for developing platforms to launch sustaining careers of translational scientists.
A national survey characterized training and career development for translational researchers through Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) T32/TL1 programs. This report summarizes program goals, trainee characteristics, and mentorship practices.
A web link to a voluntary survey was emailed to 51 active TL1 program directors and administrators. Descriptive analyses were performed on aggregate data. Qualitative data analysis used open coding of text followed by an axial coding strategy based on the grounded theory approach.
Fifty out of 51 (98%) invited CTSA hubs responded. Training program goals were aligned with the CTSA mission. The trainee population consisted of predoctoral students (50%), postdoctoral fellows (30%), and health professional students in short-term (11%) or year-out (9%) research training. Forty percent of TL1 programs support both predoctoral and postdoctoral trainees. Trainees are diverse by academic affiliation, mostly from medicine, engineering, public health, non-health sciences, pharmacy, and nursing. Mentor training is offered by most programs, but mandatory at less than one-third of them. Most mentoring teams consist of two or more mentors.
CTSA TL1 programs are distinct from other NIH-funded training programs in their focus on clinical and translational research, cross-disciplinary approaches, emphasis on team science, and integration of multiple trainee types. Trainees in nearly all TL1 programs were engaged in all phases of translational research (preclinical, clinical, implementation, public health), suggesting that the CTSA TL1 program is meeting the mandate of NCATS to provide training to develop the clinical and translational research workforce.
To achieve the elimination of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), sustained and sufficient levels of HCV testing is critical. The purpose of this study was to assess trends in testing and evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to diagnose people living with HCV. Data were from 12 primary care clinics in Victoria, Australia, that provide targeted services to people who inject drugs (PWID), alongside general health care. This ecological study spanned 2009–2019 and included analyses of trends in annual numbers of HCV antibody tests among individuals with no previous positive HCV antibody test recorded and annual test yield (positive HCV antibody tests/all HCV antibody tests). Generalised linear models estimated the association between count outcomes (HCV antibody tests and positive HCV antibody tests) and time, and χ2 test assessed the trend in test yield. A total of 44 889 HCV antibody tests were conducted 2009–2019; test numbers increased 6% annually on average [95% confidence interval (CI) 4–9]. Test yield declined from 2009 (21%) to 2019 (9%) (χ2P = <0.01). In more recent years (2013–2019) annual test yield remained relatively stable. Modest increases in HCV antibody testing and stable but high test yield within clinics delivering services to PWID highlights testing strategies are resulting in people are being diagnosed however further increases in the testing of people at risk of HCV or living with HCV may be needed to reach Australia's HCV elimination goals.
BASF Corp. has developed p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitor–resistant cotton and soybean that will allow growers to use isoxaflutole in future weed management programs. In 2019 and 2020, a multi-state non-crop research project was conducted to examine weed control following isoxaflutole applied preemergence alone and with several tank-mix partners at high and low labeled rates. At 28 d after treatment (DAT), Palmer amaranth was controlled ≥95% at six of seven locations with isoxaflutole plus the high rate of diuron or fluridone. These same combinations provided the greatest control 42 DAT at four of seven locations. Where large crabgrass was present, isoxaflutole plus the high rate of diuron, fluridone, pendimethalin, or S-metolachlor or isoxaflutole plus the low rate of fluometuron controlled large crabgrass ≥95% in two of three locations 28 DAT. In two of three locations, isoxaflutole plus the high rate of pendimethalin or S-metolachlor improved large crabgrass control 42 DAT when compared to isoxaflutole alone. At 21 DAT, morningglory was controlled ≥95% at all locations with isoxaflutole plus the high rate of diuron and at three of four locations with isoxaflutole plus the high rate of fluometuron. At 42 DAT at all locations, isoxaflutole plus diuron or fluridone and isoxaflutole plus the high rate of fluometuron improved morningglory control compared to isoxaflutole alone. These results suggest that isoxaflutole applied preemergence alone or in tank mixture is efficacious on a number of cross-spectrum annual weeds in cotton, and extended weed control may be achieved when isoxaflutole is tank-mixed with several soil-residual herbicides.
This article addresses three related questions. Does voicing a political ideology in class make a professor less appealing to students? Does voicing an ideology in class make a professor less appealing to students with opposing views? Does the intensity of professors’ ideology affect their appeal? We conducted survey experiments in two public national universities to provide evidence of the extent to which students may tolerate or even prefer that professors share their political views and under which conditions these preferences may vary. Results from the experiments indicate that expressing a political opinion did not make a professor less appealing to students—and, in fact, made the professor more appealing to some students—but the perception that a professor’s ideology is particularly intense makes the class much less favorable for students with opposing views. Students are indifferent between moderately political and nonpolitical professors.
In our age of disposable pens and plentiful paper, writing by hand is an unremarkable and often unglamorous activity, even if the rise of digital technology has started to give it a certain retro chic. In the sixteenth century, the business of setting words on paper was by no means straightforward. Typically, before one could begin, quills needed to be cut or sharpened, ink had to be hand-made, and paper required smoothing or sizing to render it receptive to the ink. Writing came with its own distinctive paraphernalia, including sloping desks, candles with snuffers and wick-trimmers, bookrests, inkstands and pounce-pots (which held pounce or pin-dust to dry the ink). Despite this profusion of materials and the physical labour that might be needed to manipulate them, reading and writing were viewed as enfranchising activities which exercised the higher mental faculties and created plentiful opportunities for the ostentatious display of civility. The study became a privileged space in the home, to be decked out with appropriate finery, with bespoke cabinets and inkstands in the form of classical statuary. Across Europe, artists produced images of scholars and saints that lovingly documented their material surroundings, as if striving to connect their beautiful writing materials with the glories of their works and of their lives. This context provides a frame for our understanding of the two pen-cases that appear on the Eglantine Table now at Hardwick Hall (Plate 2).
Pen-cases – known in the period as ‘penners’ – were small (typically between 15 and 20 cm in length) and compact devices for holding quills and other implements of writing, and were attached with strings to a portable inkwell with a stopper. The examples depicted on the Eglantine Table appear on frieze C in an area otherwise devoted to music and to games, including cards, dicing, chess and backgammon. The cases are sharply differentiated in their depiction. The one between the violin and the chessboard is shown with both penner and inkwell closed up, and lies horizontally, as if resting on the surface of the Table (Figure 4.1, top; Plates 5, 15). Its rectilinearity is emphasised by horizontal lines, suggestive of grooves or ridges in the surface of the case, which is relieved by the flowing contours of the heart-shaped inkwell and of the strings that connect to it.
We sought to provide the first point prevalence estimates of muscle dysmorphia (MD), a form of body dysmorphic disorder characterized by a preoccupation with perceived insufficient muscularity, in adolescents.
Data were taken from a survey of 3618 Australian adolescents (11.172–19.76 years; 49.3% girls). Measures captured demographic characteristics, symptoms of MD and eating disorders, psychological distress and functional impairment. Diagnostic criteria for MD developed by Pope et al. (1997, Psychosomatics, 38(6), 548–557) were applied, entailing preoccupation with insufficient muscularity causing significant levels of distress or disability that cannot be better accounted for by an eating disorder.
The point prevalence of MD was 2.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–3.0%] among boys and 1.4% (95% CI 0.9–2.0%) among girls. Prevalence was not associated with gender (V = 0.031) or socioeconomic status (SES) (partial η2< 0.001), but was marginally associated with older age (partial η2 = 0.001). Boys with MD were more likely than girls with MD to report severe preoccupation with muscularity (V = 0.259) and a weight-lifting regime that interfered with their life (V = 0.286), whereas girls with MD were more likely to report discomfort with body exposure (V = 0.380).
While future epidemiological research using diagnostic interviews is needed to verify these estimates, the findings suggest that MD is relatively common from early to late adolescence. Gender differences in MD prevalence may be minimal; however, the symptom profile appears to diverge between boys and girls. These findings provide a platform for future, analytical research designed to inform clinical and public health interventions.
Introduction to Education provides pre-service teachers with an overview of the context, craft and practice of teaching in Australian schools as they commence the journey from learner to classroom teacher. Each chapter poses questions about the nature of teaching students, and guides readers though the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. Incorporating recent research and theoretical literature, Introduction to Education presents a critical consideration of the professional, policy and curriculum contexts of teaching in Australia. The book covers theoretical topics in chapters addressing assessment, planning, safe learning environments, and working with colleagues, families, carers and communities. More practical chapters discuss professional experience and building a career after graduation. Rigorous in conception and practical in scope, Introduction to Education welcomes new educators to the theory and practical elements of teaching, learning, and professional practice.