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Many factors such as environment, herbicide rate, growth stage at application and days between sequential applications can influence response of a crop to herbicides. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl is a new broad-spectrum, POST herbicide commercialized in U.S. rice in 2018. Field experiments were conducted in 2018 at the Pine Tree Research Station (PTRS) near Colt, AR, and the Rice Research and Extension Center (RREC), near Stuttgart, AR, evaluating crop injury and yield response of three rice cultivars to sequential applications of florpyrauxifen-benzyl. Greenhouse and growth chamber experiments were conducted at the Altheimer Laboratory in Fayetteville, AR, evaluating cultivar responses when florpyrauxifen-benzyl was applied at 30 or 60 g ae ha -1 to rice exposed to different temperature regimes or at various growth stages. Three rice cultivars were used in all experiments: long-grain variety ‘CL111’, medium-grain variety ‘CL272’, and long-grain hybrid cultivar ‘CLXL745’. CL111 exhibited sufficient tolerance to florpyrauxifen-benzyl with only 10% visible injury and no effect on yield. CL272 showed 15% injury 3 wks after the second application in the field experiment when applications were made 14 d apart. Additionally, 12% injury was observed in the greenhouse when florpyrauxifen-benzyl was applied at 30 g ae ha -1, averaged over growth stages at application. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl did not reduce the yield of CL272 in the field, indicating CL272 can recover from florpyrauxifen-benzyl injury. As much as 64% injury was observed for CLXL745 at 3 weeks after application (WAA) when sequential herbicide applications were made 4 d apart. High levels of injury occurred in the growth chamber and greenhouse studies for this cultivar as well. Sequential applications of florpyrauxifen-benzyl reduced yields of CLXL745 in nearly all treatments. Data from these experiments suggest CL272 and CLXL745 are sensitive to sequential applications of florpyrauxifen-benzyl. Growers must follow the prescribed guidelines for using florpyrauxifen-benzyl in these cultivars and others like it.
Downy brome, feral rye, and jointed goatgrass are problematic winter annual grasses in central Great Plains winter wheat production. Integrated control strategies are needed to manage winter annual grasses and reduce selection pressure exerted on these weed populations by the limited herbicide options currently available. Harvest weed-seed control (HWSC) methods aim to remove or destroy weed seeds, thereby reducing seed-bank enrichment at crop harvest. An added advantage is the potential to reduce herbicide-resistant weed seeds that are more likely to be present at harvest, thereby providing a nonchemical resistance-management strategy. Our objective was to assess the potential for HWSC of winter annual grass weeds in winter wheat by measuring seed retention at harvest and destruction percentage in an impact mill. During 2015 and 2016, 40 wheat fields in eastern Colorado were sampled. Seed retention was quantified and compared per weed species by counting seed retained above the harvested fraction of the wheat upper canopy (15 cm and above), seed retained below 15 cm, and shattered seed on the soil surface at wheat harvest. A stand-mounted impact mill device was used to determine the percent seed destruction of grass weed species in processed wheat chaff. Averaged across both years, seed retention (±SE) was 75% ± 2.9%, 90% ± 1.7%, and 76% ± 4.3% for downy brome, feral rye, and jointed goatgrass, respectively. Seed retention was most variable for downy brome, because 59% of the samples had at least 75% seed retention, whereas the proportions for feral rye and jointed goatgrass samples with at least 75% seed retention were 93% and 70%, respectively. Weed seed destruction percentages were at least 98% for all three species. These results suggest HWSC could be implemented as an integrated strategy for winter annual grass management in central Great Plains winter wheat cropping systems.
To describe an outbreak of bacteremia caused by vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecalis (VSEfe).
An investigation by retrospective case control and molecular typing by whole-genome sequencing (WGS).
A tertiary-care neonatal unit in Melbourne, Australia.
Risk factors for 30 consecutive neonates with VSEfe bacteremia from June 2011 to December 2014 were analyzed using a case control study. Controls were neonates matched for gestational age, birth weight, and year of birth. Isolates were typed using WGS, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was determined.
Bacteremia for case patients occurred at a median time after delivery of 23.5 days (interquartile range, 14.9–35.8). Previous described risk factors for nosocomial bacteremia did not contribute to excess risk for VSEfe. WGS typing results designated 43% ST179 as well as 14 other sequence types, indicating a polyclonal outbreak. A multimodal intervention that included education, insertion checklists, guidelines on maintenance and access of central lines, adjustments to the late onset sepsis antibiotic treatment, and the introduction of diaper bags for disposal of soiled diapers after being handled inside the bed, led to termination of the outbreak.
Typing using WGS identified this outbreak as predominately nonclonal and therefore not due to cross transmission. A multimodal approach was then sought to reduce the incidence of VSEfe bacteremia.
The primary insect pests in Canadian carrot production are carrot rust fly (Psila rosae (Fabricius); Diptera: Psilidae) and carrot weevil (Listronotus oregonensis (LeConte); Coleoptera: Curculionidae). An integrated pest management programme for these pests exists in Québec and Ontario, where most Canadian carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus (Hoffmann) Schübler and Martens; Apiaceae) production occurs. As current carrot insect integrated pest management recommendations are decades old, laboratory and field trials were performed to evaluate the carrot insect integrated pest management recommendations. Carrot weevil populations were evaluated in the laboratory for resistance to the primary product used for control, phosmet. Ontario carrot weevils exhibited negligible mortality when exposed to phosmet compared with > 80% mortality in a susceptible strain. Using data from a carrot integrated pest management programme, weather data was correlated with monitoring and damage data of both pests from historical records. Increased carrot weevil captures were weakly related to increased damage. Carrot weevil damage was reduced by following integrated pest management recommendations in one of three trials. No strong relationship between weather and carrot rust fly captures was identified, suggesting the degree day model for carrot rust fly activity needs revision. In field trials, carrot rust fly damage was negligible despite integrated pest management recommendations for insecticide applications. Future research should include improving carrot weevil monitoring and control and increasing the carrot rust fly action threshold to optimise insecticide applications.
The increased use of insecticide seed treatments in rice has raised many questions about the potential benefits of these products. In 2014 and 2015, a field experiment was conducted near Stuttgart and Lonoke, AR, to evaluate whether an insecticide seed treatment could possibly lessen injury from acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicides in imidazolinone-resistant (IR) rice. Two IR cultivars were tested (a hybrid, ‘CLXL745’, and an inbred, ‘CL152’), with and without an insecticide seed treatment (thiamethoxam). Four different herbicide combinations were evaluated: a nontreated control, two applications of bispyribac-sodium (hereafter bispyribac), two applications of imazethapyr, and two applications of imazethapyr plus bispyribac. The first herbicide application was to two- to three-leaf rice, and the second immediately prior to flooding (one- to two-tiller). At both 2 and 4 wk after final treatment (WAFT), the sequential applications of imazethapyr or bispyribac plus imazethapyr were more injurious to CLXL745 than CL152. This increased injury led to decreased groundcover 3 WAFT. Rice treated with thiamethoxam was less injured than nontreated rice and had improved groundcover and greater canopy heights. Even with up to 32% injury, the rice plants recovered by the end of the growing season, and yields within a cultivar were similar with and without a thiamethoxam seed treatment across all herbicide treatments. Based on these results, thiamethoxam can partially protect rice from injury caused by ALS-inhibiting herbicides as well as increase groundcover and canopy height; that is, the injury to rice never negatively affected yield.
This paper compares the relative strengths of working longer vs. saving more in terms of increasing a household's affordable, sustainable standard of living in retirement. Both stylized households and actual households from the Health and Retirement Study are examined. We assume that workers commence Social Security benefits when they retire. The basic result is that delaying retirement by 3–6 months has the same impact on the retirement standard of living as saving an additional one-percentage point of labor earnings for 30 years. The relative power of saving more is even lower if the decision to increase saving is made later in the work life. For instance, increasing retirement saving by one percentage point 10 years before retirement has the same impact on the sustainable retirement standard of living as working between 1 and 2 months longer. The calculations of the relative power of working longer and saving more are done for a wide range of realized rates of returns on saving, for households with different income levels, and for singles as well as married couples. The results are quite invariant to these circumstances.
Each year there are multiple reports of drift occurrences, and the majority of drift complaints in rice are from imazethapyr or glyphosate. In 2014 and 2015, multiple field experiments were conducted near Stuttgart, AR, and near Lonoke, AR, to evaluate whether insecticide seed treatments would reduce injury from glyphosate or imazethapyr drift or decrease the recovery time following exposure to a low rate of these herbicides. Study I was referred to as the “seed treatment study,” and Study II was the “drift timing study.” In the seed treatment study the conventional rice cultivar ‘Roy J’ was planted, and herbicide treatments included imazethapyr at 10.5 g ai ha–1, glyphosate at 126 g ae ha–1, or no herbicide. Each plot had either a seed treatment of thiamethoxam, clothianidin, chlorantraniliprole, or no insecticide seed treatment. The herbicides were applied at the two- to three-leaf growth stage. Crop injury was assessed 1, 3, and 5 wk after application. Averaged over site-years, thiamethoxam-treated rice had less injury than rice with no insecticide seed treatment at each rating, along with an increased yield. Clothianidin-treated rice had an increased yield over no insecticide seed treatment, but the reduction in injury for both herbicides was less pronounced than in the thiamethoxam-treated plots. Overall, chlorantraniliprole was generally the least effective of the three insecticides in reducing injury from either herbicide and in protecting rice yield potential. A second experiment conducted at Stuttgart, AR, was meant to determine whether damage to rice from glyphosate and imazethapyr was influenced by the timing (15, 30, and 45 d after planting) of exposure to herbicides for thiamethoxam-treated and nontreated rice. There was an overall reduction in injury with the use of thiamethoxam, but the reduction in injury was not dependent on the timing of the drift event. Reduction in damage from physical drift of glyphosate and imazethapyr as well as increased yields over the absence of an insecticide seed treatment appear to be an added benefit.
The evolution of herbicide resistance is making it extremely difficult for US rice producers to use chemical control on weed species such as barnyardgrass and red rice. To combat herbicide resistance, it is imperative that alternative herbicide sites of action (SOAs) be incorporated into rice whenever possible. There are currently no very-long-chain fatty acid–inhibiting herbicides (WSSA Group 15) labeled for use in US rice; however, pethoxamid is one such herbicide currently under development. If appropriate rice tolerance and weed control can be established, pethoxamid would represent a unique herbicide SOA for use in US rice. We conducted field trials near Stuttgart, AR, in 2015 and near Colt and Lonoke, AR, in 2016 to assess selectivity of pethoxamid and weed control alone and in combination with other herbicides as a delayed preemergence (DPRE) application in drill-seeded rice. Pethoxamid was applied at 0, 420, or 560 g ai ha–1 alone and in combination with clomazone, imazethapyr, pendimethalin, and quinclorac. Minimal rice injury occurred with any treatment assessed. A reduction in rice shoot density and plant height compared to the nontreated control followed the use of pethoxamid; however, no decrease in yield resulted. The highest levels of barnyardgrass control followed the use of imazethapyr at 91% and quinclorac at 89% regardless of the presence of pethoxamid near Lonoke; however, pethoxamid applied at both rates in combination with clomazone and quinclorac increased barnyardgrass control compared to clomazone and quinclorac applied alone. Near Colt, barnyardgrass control of 92% and 96% resulted from pethoxamid alone, averaged over the high and low rates. Based on these data, rice can tolerate pethoxamid when applied DPRE, and adequate levels of barnyardgrass control can be achieved at the rates evaluated within a program; hence, pethoxamid appears to be a viable option for use in rice to allow for increased rotation of herbicide SOAs to combat herbicide-resistant and difficult-to-control weeds.
Pennsylvania smartweed [Persicaria pensylvanica (L.) M. Gómez] is a common weed of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the midsouthern United States and has recently become a concern for farmers because of reduced tillage systems. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors have been extensively used for controlling smartweeds in imidazolinone-resistant and conventional rice. In the present study, we confirmed resistance to commonly used ALS inhibitors in rice and characterized the underlying resistance mechanism in a P. pensylvanica biotype from southeast Missouri. A dose–response experiment was conducted in the greenhouse using bensulfuron-methyl, imazethapyr, and bispyribac-sodium to determine the resistance index (resistance/susceptibility [R/S]) based on GR50 estimates. The target-site ALS gene was amplified from R and S plants, and sequences were analyzed for mutations known to confer ALS-inhibitor resistance. The P. pensylvanica biotype in question was found to be resistant to bensulfuron-methyl (R/S=2,330), imazethapyr (R/S=12), and bispyribac-sodium (R/S=6). Sequencing of the ALS gene from R plants revealed two previously known mutations (Pro-197-Ser, Ala-122-Ser) conferring resistance to sulfonylureas and imidazolinones. This is the first report of ALS-inhibitor resistance in P. pensylvanica.
Herbicide resistance to several of the most common weed species in US rice production, such as barnyardgrass and red rice, has made weed control extremely difficult with available herbicide options. No very-long-chain fatty acid–inhibiting herbicides are labeled for use in US rice; however, pethoxamid is one such herbicide under development for soil-applied use to control grasses and small-seeded broadleaves in rice and various row crops. Field trials were conducted in 2015 and 2016 near Stuttgart, AR, for rice tolerance and in 2016 near Colt, AR, and Lonoke, AR, for weed control with the use of pethoxamid-containing rice herbicide programs. Pethoxamid was applied alone and in a program at 420 and 560 g ai ha–1 with other herbicides labeled in rice including clomazone, quinclorac, propanil, imazethapyr, and carfentrazone POST. Injury less than 10% was seen for all treatments 2 wk after application in 2015 and 2016, except for pethoxamid at 420 g ha–1 to clomazone to one-leaf rice. Rice injury dissipated to less than 5% following all treatments by 4 wk after flood establishment. Barnyardgrass was controlled 95% or more near Colt and 93% or more near Lonoke for herbicide programs including clomazone PRE followed by pethoxamid plus quinclorac or imazethapyr at three- to four-leaf stage rice. Considering the minimal injury and high levels of barnyardgrass control associated with pethoxamid-containing weed control programs, pethoxamid provides a unique and effective site of action for use in US rice production.
Conventional approaches to evidence that prioritise randomised controlled trials appear increasingly inadequate for the evaluation of complex mental health interventions. By focusing on causal mechanisms and understanding the complex interactions between interventions, patients and contexts, realist approaches offer a productive alternative. Although the approaches might be combined, substantial barriers remain.
Declaration of interest
All authors had financial support from the National Institute for Health Research Health Services and Delivery Research Programme while completing this work. The views and opinions expressed therein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Health Service, the National Institute for Health Research, the Medical Research Council, Central Commissioning Facility, National Institute for Health Research Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, the Health Services and Delivery Research Programme or the Department of Health. S.P.S. is part funded by Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care West Midlands. K.B. is editor of the British Journal of Psychiatry.
Benzobicyclon will be the first 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)–inhibiting herbicide available in US rice production pending registration completion. An observation of benzobicyclon controlling weedy rice in two field trials prompted a greenhouse and field evaluation to determine if benzobicyclon would control weedy rice accessions from Arkansas, Mississippi, and southeastern Missouri. A total of 100 accessions were screened in the greenhouse and field. Percentage mortality was determined in the greenhouse, and percentage control was recorded in the field. Benzobicyclon at 371 g ai ha–1 caused at least 80% mortality of 22 accessions in the greenhouse and at least 80% control of 30 accessions in the field. For most accessions, individual plants within the accession varied in response to benzobicyclon. Based on these results, the sensitivity of weedy rice to benzobicyclon varies across accessions collected in the midsouthern United States, and it may provide an additional control option for weedy rice in some fields.
Traumatic stressors during childhood and adolescence are associated with psychopathology, mostly studied in the context of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. We investigated broader associations of traumatic stress exposure with psychopathology and cognition in a youth community sample.
The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (N = 9498) is an investigation of clinical and neurobehavioral phenotypes in a diverse (56% Caucasian, 33% African American, 11% other) US youth community population (aged 8–21). Participants were ascertained through children's hospital pediatric (not psychiatric) healthcare network in 2009–2011. Structured psychiatric evaluation included screening for lifetime exposure to traumatic stressors, and a neurocognitive battery was administered.
Exposure rate to traumatic stressful events was high (none, N = 5204; one, N = 2182; two, N = 1092; three or more, N = 830). Higher stress load was associated with increased psychopathology across all clinical domains evaluated: mood/anxiety (standardized β = .378); psychosis spectrum (β = .360); externalizing behaviors (β = .311); and fear (β = .256) (controlling for covariates, all p < 0.001). Associations remained significant controlling for lifetime PTSD and depression. Exposure to high-stress load was robustly associated with suicidal ideation and cannabis use (odds ratio compared with non-exposed 5.3 and 3.2, respectively, both p < 0.001). Among youths who experienced traumatic stress (N = 4104), history of assaultive trauma was associated with greater psychopathology and, in males, vulnerability to psychosis and externalizing symptoms. Stress load was negatively associated with performance on executive functioning, complex reasoning, and social cognition.
Traumatic stress exposure in community non-psychiatric help-seeking youth is substantial, and is associated with more severe psychopathology and neurocognitive deficits across domains, beyond PTSD and depression.
With the widespread occurrence of herbicide-resistant weeds in midsouthern U.S. rice, new technologies are needed to achieve adequate weed control. A new non–genetically modified rice trait has been commercialized that is resistant to quizalofop, an acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicide. The addition of quizalofop-resistant rice to production systems will increase the use of quizalofop, possibly increasing the risk for injury to other grass crops. Experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to determine the sensitivity of corn, grain sorghum, and conventional rice to low rates of quizalofop (1/10× to 1/200× of 160 g ai ha–1). Conventional rice was not affected by quizalofop rate or application timing. Corn displayed the greatest response to the 1/10× quizalofop rate at the two- to three-leaf stage, with 50% to 65% injury and 35% to 37% relative yield compared to the nontreated check. Grain sorghum was injured 31% to 34% by the 1/10× quizalofop rate applied at the two- to three-leaf stage, and there was 20% to 26% injury at the panicle exertion growth stage. The highest rate of quizalofop at the panicle exertion stage reduced yields 28% to 46%. Overall, risk for injury to any of the three evaluated crops from quizalofop appears low, with greatest injury observed at the highest quizalofop drift rate, with minimal injury at lower rates.
Field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 in Fayetteville, Arkansas, to evaluate the residual activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase)–inhibiting herbicides for monocot crop injury and weed control. Conventional rice, quizalofop-resistant rice, grain sorghum, and corn crops were evaluated for tolerance to soil applications of six herbicides (quizalofop at 80 and 160 g ai ha–1, clethodim at 68 and 136 g ai ha–1, fenoxaprop at 122 g ai ha–1, cyhalofop at 313 g ai ha–1, fluazifop at 210 and 420 g ai ha–1, and sethoxydim at 140 and 280 g ai ha–1). Overhead sprinkler irrigation of 1.3 cm was applied immediately after treatment to half of the plots, and the crops planted into the treated plots at 0, 7, and 14 d after herbicide treatment. In 2014, injury from herbicide treatments increased with activation for all crops evaluated, except for quizalofop-resistant rice. At 14 d after treatment (DAT) in 2014, corn and grain sorghum were injured 19% and 20%, respectively, from the higher rate of sethoxydim with irrigation activation averaged over plant-back dates. Conventional rice was injured 13% by the higher rate of fluazifop in 2014. Quizalofop-resistant rice was injured no more than 4% by any of the graminicides evaluated in either year. In 2015, a rainfall event occurred within 24 h of initiating the experiment; thus, there were no differences between activation via irrigation or by rainfall. However, as in 2014, grain sorghum and corn were injured 16% and 13%, respectively, by the higher rate of sethoxydim, averaged over plant-back dates. All herbicides provided little residual control of grass weeds, mainly broadleaf signalgrass and barnyardgrass. These findings indicate the need to continue allowing a plant-back interval to rice following a graminicide application, unless quizalofop-resistant rice is to be planted. The plant-back interval will vary by graminicide and the amount of moisture received following the application.