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Heiiλ1640 emission in the absence of other metal lines is the most sought-after emission line to detect and characterize metal free stellar populations. However, even recent stellar population models with sophisticated treatment of stellar evolution also lack sufficient He+ ionising photons to reproduce observed He 0.1em ii fluxes. We use VLT/MUSE GTO observations to compile a catalogue of 15 z ∼ 2–4 He ii λ1640 emitters from ∼10–30 hour pointings. We show that both He ii λ1640 detections and non-detections occupy similar distribution in UV absolute magnitudes. Rest-UV emission line analysis of our sample shows that the emission lines of our He ii λ1640 emitters are driven by star-formation in solar to moderately sub-solar (∼1/20th) metallicity conditions. However, we find that even after considering effects from binary stars, we are unable to reproduce the He ii λ1640 equivalent widths. Alternative mechanisms are necessary to compensate for the missing He+ ionising photons.
Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a concept for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission that will achieve ground-breaking science in the fields of galaxy evolution, cosmology, Milky Way, and the Solar System. It is the follow-up space mission to Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), boosting its scientific return by obtaining deep 1–4 μm slit spectroscopy for ∼70% of all galaxies imaged by the ∼2 000 deg2 WFIRST High Latitude Survey at z > 0.5. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy will measure accurate and precise redshifts for ∼200 M galaxies out to z < 7, and deliver spectra that enable a wide range of diagnostic studies of the physical properties of galaxies over most of cosmic history. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe and WFIRST together will produce a 3D map of the Universe over 2 000 deg2, the definitive data sets for studying galaxy evolution, probing dark matter, dark energy and modifications of General Relativity, and quantifying the 3D structure and stellar content of the Milky Way. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe science spans four broad categories: (1) Revolutionising galaxy evolution studies by tracing the relation between galaxies and dark matter from galaxy groups to cosmic voids and filaments, from the epoch of reionisation through the peak era of galaxy assembly; (2) Opening a new window into the dark Universe by weighing the dark matter filaments using 3D weak lensing with spectroscopic redshifts, and obtaining definitive measurements of dark energy and modification of General Relativity using galaxy clustering; (3) Probing the Milky Way’s dust-enshrouded regions, reaching the far side of our Galaxy; and (4) Exploring the formation history of the outer Solar System by characterising Kuiper Belt Objects. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a 1.5 m telescope with a field of view of 0.4 deg2, and uses digital micro-mirror devices as slit selectors. It has a spectroscopic resolution of R = 1 000, and a wavelength range of 1–4 μm. The lack of slit spectroscopy from space over a wide field of view is the obvious gap in current and planned future space missions; Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy fills this big gap with an unprecedented spectroscopic capability based on digital micro-mirror devices (with an estimated spectroscopic multiplex factor greater than 5 000). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy is designed to fit within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission cost envelope; it has a single instrument, a telescope aperture that allows for a lighter launch vehicle, and mature technology (we have identified a path for digital micro-mirror devices to reach Technology Readiness Level 6 within 2 yr). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe will lead to transformative science over the entire range of astrophysics: from galaxy evolution to the dark Universe, from Solar System objects to the dusty regions of the Milky Way.
We present results on the stellar population properties of massive galaxies at z = 0.7 based on deep, medium-resolution IMACS spectra for a sample of ~ 70 galaxies in the ECDFS with M* > 1010M⊙. The age–mass and stellar metallicity–mass relations for the population as a whole have a similar shape as the local relations over the probed mass range, but offset to ages younger by ~ 4 Gyr and metallicities lower by ~ 0.13 dex. Quiescent galaxies alone have stellar ages and metallicities consistent with passive evolution onto the local quiescent galaxies relations. The evolution in metallicity is driven by star-forming galaxies. However a significant fraction of massive star-forming galaxies have metallicities comparable to those of local quiescent galaxies. If quenched at z < 0.7 they can provide the necessary population to reproduce the scatter in age and metallicity of local quiescent galaxies.
Detailed studies of the stellar populations of intermediate-redshift galaxies can shed light onto the processes responsible for the significant evolution of the massive galaxy population since z < 1. We have undertaken such a study by means of deep rest-frame optical spectroscopy with IMACS on Magellan on a sample of ~80 galaxies selected from CDFS to have stellar masses > 1010M⊙ and redshift 0.65 < z < 0.75. We analyse stellar absorption line strengths and interpret them with a Monte Carlo library of star formation histories to derive constraints on mean stellar ages, metallicities and stellar masses. We present here the first characterization of the stellar mass–metallicity and stellar mass–age relations at z~0.7 and their evolution to the present-day.
We have discovered eight relatively strong radio sources that have no optical counterparts. A NIR follow-up has detected faint (17–20 mag) host galaxies in all targets. In general, the radio properties are similar to those observed in 3CRR sources but the optical-radio slopes are consistent with moderate to high redshift (z < 4) GHz-peaked spectrum sources. Our results suggest that these are galaxies whose black hole has been recently re-ignited into activity but that retain large-scale radio structures, signatures of previous AGN activity.
The stellar populations of galaxies contain a wealth of detailed information. From the youngest, most massive stars, to almost invisible remnants, the history of star formation is encoded in the stars that make up a galaxy. Extracting some, or all, of this information has long been a goal of stellar population studies. This was achieved in the last couple of decades and it is now a routine task, which forms a crucial ingredient in much of observational galaxy evolution, from our Galaxy out to the most distant systems found. In many of these domains we are now limited not by sample size, but by systematic uncertainties and this will increasingly be the case in the future.
The aim of this review is to outline the challenges faced by stellar population studies in the coming decade within the context of upcoming observational facilities. I will highlight the need to better understand the near-IR spectral range and outline the difficulties presented by less well understood phases of stellar evolution such as thermally pulsing AGB stars, horizontal branch stars and the very first stars. The influence of rotation and binarity on stellar population modelling is also briefly discussed.
The amount and spatial distribution of dark matter in elliptical galaxies are poorly known, despite extensive observations with multi-object spectrographs on 4-10m-class telescopes. We examine the prospects for measuring the structure of dark matter halos in elliptical galaxies — and the orbital properties of their planetary nebula and globular cluster systems — from radial velocity measurements made with WFOS, a wide-field optical spectrograph operating on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT).
We present the results of a study to determine the co-evolution of the virial and stellar masses for a sample of 83 disk galaxies between redshifts z = 0.2 − 1.2. the virial masses of these disks are computed using measured maximum rotational velocities from Keck spectroscopy and scale lengths from Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We compute stellar masses based on stellar population synthesis model fits to spectral energy distributions including K(2.2μm) band magnitudes. We find no apparent evolution with redshift from z = 0.2 − 1.2 in the relationship between stellar masses and maximum rotational velocities through the stellar mass Tully-Fisher relationship. We also find no evolution when comparing disk stellar and virial masses. Massive disk galaxies therefore appear to be already in place, in terms of their virial and stellar masses, out to the highest redshifts where they can be morphologically identified.
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