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Increasing a parent’s ability to influence a child’s vegetable intake may require reducing the parent’s use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices. The present study was designed to understand the psychosocial influences on ineffective vegetable parenting practices.
A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted to model use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices using validated scales from a Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices.
The dependent variable was a composite ineffective vegetable parenting practices index. The independent variables included validated subscales of intention, habit, perceived barriers, desire, competence, autonomy, relatedness, attitudes, norms, perceived behavioural control and anticipated emotions. Models were analysed using block regression with backward deletion.
Parents of 307 pre-school children (3–5 years old).
Variables significantly positively related to ineffective vegetable parenting practices in order of relationship strength included habit of controlling vegetable practices (standardized β=0·349, P<0·0001) and desire (standardized β=0·117, P=0·025). Variables significantly negatively related to ineffective vegetable parenting practices in order of relationship strength included perceived behavioural control of negative parenting practices (standardized β=–0·215, P<0000), the habit of active child involvement in vegetable selection (standardized β=–0·142, P=0·008), anticipated negative parent emotional response to child vegetable refusal (standardized β=–0·133, P=0·009), autonomy (standardized β=–0·118, P=0.014), attitude about negative effects of vegetables (standardized β=–0·118, P=0·015) and descriptive norms (standardized β=–0·103, P=0·032). The model accounted for 40·5 % of the variance in use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices.
The present study is the first report of psychometrically tested scales to predict use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices. Innovative intervention procedures will need to be designed and tested to reduce ineffective vegetable parenting practices.
To test the effect of image size and presence of size cues on the accuracy of portion size estimation by children.
Children were randomly assigned to seeing images with or without food size cues (utensils and checked tablecloth) and were presented with sixteen food models (foods commonly eaten by children) in varying portion sizes, one at a time. They estimated each food model’s portion size by selecting a digital food image. The same food images were presented in two ways: (i) as small, graduated portion size images all on one screen or (ii) by scrolling across large, graduated portion size images, one per sequential screen.
Laboratory-based with computer and food models.
Volunteer multi-ethnic sample of 120 children, equally distributed by gender and ages (8 to 13 years) in 2008–2009.
Average percentage of correctly classified foods was 60·3 %. There were no differences in accuracy by any design factor or demographic characteristic. Multiple small pictures on the screen at once took half the time to estimate portion size compared with scrolling through large pictures. Larger pictures had more overestimation of size.
Multiple images of successively larger portion sizes of a food on one computer screen facilitated quicker portion size responses with no decrease in accuracy. This is the method of choice for portion size estimation on a computer.
To examine the relationship of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity to BMI while statistically controlling for demographic characteristics in two age groups of children: 9–10 years and 17–18 years (n 1551).
Cross-sectional design with a multi-ethnic (White, African-American, Hispanic, Other) sample of 813 children aged 9–10 years and 738 children aged 17–18 years. Children were recruited from local elementary and high schools with at least 30 % minority ethnic enrolment. Children’s height, weight and waist circumference were measured along with their PROP taster status. PROP was measured using two paper discs, one impregnated with NaCl (1·0 mol/l) and the other with PROP solution (0·50 mmol/l).
A significant PROP sensitivity by socio-economic status (SES) interaction term (P = 0·010) was detected wherein supertasters had the largest BMI percentile and Z-score, but only among the group with highest SES.
The results suggest that other factors overwhelmed the influence of PROP sensitivity on adiposity in lower-SES groups. The percentage of variance accounted for by the interaction term was about 1 %. Thus, PROP supertasters had the largest BMI percentile and Z-score, but only among the highest-SES group.
Parents may influence children’s fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in many ways, but research has focused primarily on counterproductive parenting practices, such as restriction and pressure to eat. The present study aimed to assess the association of diverse parenting practices to promote F&V and its consumption among pre-school children.
An exploratory analysis was performed on cross-sectional data from 755 Head Start pre-school children and their parents collected in 2004–5. Data included parent practices to facilitate child F&V consumption (grouped into five categories); parent-reported dietary intake of their child over 3 d; and a number of potential correlates. K-means cluster analysis assigned parents to groups with similar use of the food parenting practice categories. Stepwise linear regression analyses investigated the association of parent clusters with children’s consumption of F&V, after controlling for potential confounding factors.
A three-cluster solution provided the best fit (R2 = 0·62), with substantial differences in the use of parenting practices. The clusters were labelled Indiscriminate Food Parenting, Non-directive Food Parenting and Low-involved Food Parenting. Non-directive parents extensively used enhanced availability and teachable moments’ practices, but less firm discipline practices than the other clusters, and were significantly associated with child F&V intake (standardized β = 0·09, P < 0·1; final model R2 = 0·17) after controlling for confounders, including parental feeding styles.
Parents use a variety of parenting practices, beyond pressuring to eat and restrictive practices, to promote F&V intake in their young child. Evaluating the use of combinations of practices may provide a better understanding of parental influences on children’s F&V intake.
Psychosocial and demographic correlates of fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) consumption were investigated to guide how to increase FJV intake.
Hierarchical multiple regression analysis of FJV consumption on demographics and psychosocial variables.
Houston, Texas, USA.
Boys aged 11–14 years (n = 473).
FJV preference and availability were both significant predictors of FJV consumption, controlling for demographics and clustering of Boy Scout troops. Vegetable self-efficacy was associated with vegetable consumption. The interaction of preference by home availability was a significant predictor of FJV. The interaction of self-efficacy by home availability showed a trend towards significantly predicting vegetable consumption. No significant interactions were found between body mass index and the psychosocial variables.
Findings suggest that future interventions emphasising an increase in preference, availability and efficacy may increase consumption of FJV in similar populations.
To examine the association between fruit and vegetable (F&V) availability and consumption, the possible influences on this association, research gaps, and implications for developing strategies to increase F&V consumption.
Systematic review of studies that have examined associations between F&V availability and consumption.
Qualitative studies conducted among children and adults indicated that greater availability was associated with greater consumption. This finding was supported by cross-sectional studies among children. Availability was associated with dietary psychosocial variables such as preferences, and it appears that availability may moderate the relationship between these psychosocial variables and consumption. Intervention studies attempting to increase availability have resulted in increased consumption, and availability has predicted change in consumption over an 18-month period.
Availability appears to be a key proximal determinant of consumption, especially of F&V, and thereby provides a target for change. However, the mechanisms that relate these variables are unclear and there is a need to clarify the direction of causality. We suggest that the possible causal mechanisms may include: (1) availability simply facilitates increased consumption; (2) the visual cues of available food may stimulate consumption; and (3) available food exposure may increase preference, which leads to increased consumption. Each of these possibilities requires close examination, as do policy-level interventions.
F&V availability is associated with increased consumption. Research that elucidates the mechanisms between availability and intake, and tests policy-level interventions, is needed to advance increased availability as a public health procedure.
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