The genus Rhabdias Stiles & Hassal, 1905 includes about 83 species of nematodes parasitic in amphibians and reptiles worldwide. Herein, we describe Rhabdias glaurungi sp. nov. from the hylid frog Scinax gr. ruber (Laurenti, 1768) in the Gunma Ecological Park, Santa Bárbara municipality, state of Pará, Brazil. This species has six small lips, an inflated cuticle along the entire body and a cup-shaped buccal capsule with smooth internal surface of its anterior part and irregularly folded internal surface of its posterior part in apical view. From the 17 valid species recognized in the Neotropical realm, the new species can be distinguished by the number of lips, the morphology and size of its buccal capsule, as well as the extent and shape of its cuticular inflation; in addition, there are molecular differences. Sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I gene strongly support the status of this form as a separate species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis shows R. glaurungi sp. nov. nested within the R. pseudosphaerocephala Kuzmin, Tkach & Brooks, 2007 species complex. Rhabdias glaurungi sp. nov. is the second species of the genus described from hosts of the family Hylidae in the Neotropical realm. We conclude that the diversity of Rhabdias within the Neotropics is likely largely underestimated.