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This paper reports on attempts to fabricate transparent electrically conductive p-type ZnO by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and sputtering using N2, N2O and NO gases. Expanding on the work of Kawai and coworkers [1,2], we used an ion source, rather than an ECR source in the PLD chamber to dissociate N2O gas, and explored the use of aluminum in addition to gallium as potential co-dopants. The most promising results have been obtained with DC reactive sputtering of gallium-doped zinc metal targets. A three to six order of magnitude reduction in n-type carrier density was observed when 2% of the argon sputtering gas was replaced with NO.
In this work, we discuss the combinatorial deposition and analysis of transparent conducting oxides along the ZnO-SnO2 composition tie line. Libraries were deposited by co-sputtering from ZnO and Sn-metal targets. The production and analysis of Zn-Sn-O libraries has already produced significant results, confirming the properties of the 2:1 (Zn2SnO4) region and revealing a second region of interest, the 1:1(ZnSnO3) composition. Subsequent film growth of these stochiometries by pulsed laser deposition has confirmed the potential for both of these stochiometries. Work is currently underway to optimize both Zn2SnO4 and ZnSnO3. Planned future work includes a combinatorial investigation of ternary metal systems such as Zn-In-Sn-O.
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