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Our Commission decided to proceed as before, with a rather comprehensive report, while focusing on the subjects where most progress has been achieved during the past three years. The colleagues who kindly contributed to it are W. Dziembowski (helio- and aster-oseismology), J. Guzik (intermediate-mass stars), G. Meynet (massive stars), G. Michaud (atomic diffusion), D. VandenBerg (low mass stars), G. Vauclair (white dwarfs), J.-P. Zahn (convection, rotational mixing).
This report of Commission 35, as in past reports, consists of some details of only a few selected topics. This is necessary because a survey of the entire field of stellar formation, structure, stability, evolution, pulsation, and explosions for the three year period from mid-1981 to mid-1984 would be excessively long. Our topics here, in order from the most massive stellar classes to the least are: Massive Stars (R.M. Humphreys), Rotation in Late Type Stars (W. Benz), Helioseismology (J. Christensen-Dalsgaard), Planetary Nebula Central Stars (E.M. Sion), Pulsations in Hot Degenerate Dwarf Stars (A.N. Cox and S.D. Kawaler), and White Dwarfs (V. Weidemann). There is some overlap in the reviewing of these last three reports because the topics are very closely related. Concentration in this dying stage of stellar evolution seems appropriate because of the great current interest in these matters.
We review briefly the different prescriptions which have been proposed to predict the extent of convective penetration (or overshoot) in stellar interiors, and we confront them with the results of numerical simulations and with helioseismic data. It appears that the penetrative motions are structured in plumes, and that thermal diffusion plays an important role in controlling the temperature stratification in the stable domain. The most recent high-resolution simulations suggest that these plumes are less space-filling than thought before, and that they are therefore less efficient in establishing an adiabatic temperature profile. This property is compatible with the solar profiles obtained through acoustic sounding.
Penetrative convection is expected below stellar convection sones, where it should achieve a nearly adiabatic stratification. A theoretical prediction of the penetration depth has been recently made by Zahn (1991) which includes an arbitrary parameter ζ depending on the properties of the convective motions. We use the helioseismological constraints to calibrate the value of this parameter.
This review focuses on the transport of matter and angular momentum in the radiative zones of stellar interiors. The two main causes of such transport are the convective overshooting in the vicinity of convection zones, and the slow motions (meridional circulation and turbulence) due to the rotation of the star. In addition, momentum can be transfered through waves (generated by the motions above) and through magnetic stresses. The characteristics of those processes are examined, with special emphasis on turbulent diffusion.
A well established property of late-type stars is that their rotation rate and their lithium abundance both decline with age. We understand why such stars are spun down while losing so little mass (Schatzman 1962), but we are still working on a theory which would explain all aspects of the observed lithium depletion. Although most agree that some kind of mixing must occur below the convective envelope of late-type stars, which transports 7Li to the depth where it is destroyed through nuclear burning, the physical process which is responsible for this transport is still in debate. However the most recent observations of the lithium abundance in close binary stars clearly show that there is a causal link between the destruction of lithium and the loss of angular momentum: consistently, tidally-locked binaries tend to display more lithium than single stars of the same effective temperature, as observed in the Hyades (Soderblom et al. 1990, Thorburn et al. 1993) and among old disk stars and halo stars (Spite et al. 1994).
Making use of detached eclipsing binaries with B-type components discovered by the OGLE and MACHO teams in the SMC and in the LMC, we give the value of the fractional radius above which circularization occurs. This critical radius is around 0.24 to 0.26, regardless of the mass, surface gravity or metallicity, and is consistent with that found by Giuricin et al. (1984) for galactic binaries. These empirical facts are shown to be consistent with Zahn’s (1975) theory of tidal dissipation. This work confirms and extends that of North & Zahn (2003), thanks to a sample of 448 binaries taken from the recent OGLE catalogue of 2580 eclipsing binaries in the LMC (Wyrzykowski et al. 2003) and a more homogeneous interpretation of the lightcurves of the 148 SMC binaries.
Prosocial emotions related to self-blame are important in guiding human altruistic decisions. These emotions are elevated in major depressive disorder (MDD), such that MDD has been associated with guilt-driven pathological hyper-altruism. However, the impact of such emotional impairments in MDD on different types of social decision-making is unknown.
In order to address this issue, we investigated different kinds of altruistic behaviour (interpersonal cooperation and fund allocation, altruistic punishment and charitable donation) in 33 healthy subjects, 35 patients in full remission (unmedicated) and 24 currently depressed patients (11 on medication) using behavioural-economical paradigms.
We show a significant main effect of clinical status on altruistic decisions (p = 0.04) and a significant interaction between clinical status and type of altruistic decisions (p = 0.03). More specifically, symptomatic patients defected significantly more in the Prisoner's Dilemma game (p < 0.05) and made significantly lower charitable donations, whether or not these incurred a personal cost (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Currently depressed patients also reported significantly higher guilt elicited by receiving unfair financial offers in the Ultimatum Game (p < 0.05).
Currently depressed individuals were less altruistic in both a charitable donation and an interpersonal cooperation task. Taken together, our results challenge the guilt-driven pathological hyper-altruism hypothesis in depression. There were also differences in both current and remitted patients in the relationship between altruistic behaviour and pathological self-blaming, suggesting an important role for these emotions in moral and social decision-making abnormalities in depression.
The standard model of stellar structure is unable to account for various observational facts, such as anomalies in the surface composition, and there is now a broad consensus that some extra mixing must occur in the radiation zones, in addition to the always present convective overshoot or penetration. The search for the causes of this extra mixing started in the late seventies, and it was quickly realized – in particular by Sylvie Vauclair and her co-workers – that some mild turbulence must be present to counteract the effect of gravitational settling and radiative levitation. What could be responsible for this turbulence? One suggestion was the internal gravity waves emitted at the boundary of convection zones, but it is still not established whether these waves will lead to true mixing. However they transport angular momentum, and therefore they generate differential rotation, which may be shear-unstable and thus lead to turbulence. Another way to transport angular momentum and produce an unstable rotation profile is through the large-scale circulation which is induced by the structural adjustments as the star evolves, or by the torques applied to it (due to stellar wind, accretion, tides). These processes participate in what is called the “rotational mixing”; their implementation in stellar evolution codes – again under Sylvie's impulse – has given birth to a new generation of stellar models, which agree much better with the observational constraints, although there is still room for improvement.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with abnormalities in financial reward processing. Previous research suggests that patients with MDD show reduced sensitivity to frequency of financial rewards. However, there is a lack of conclusive evidence from studies investigating the evaluation of financial rewards over time, an important aspect of reward processing that influences the way people plan long-term investments. Beck's cognitive model posits that patients with MDD hold a negative view of the future that may influence the amount of resources patients are willing to invest into their future selves.
We administered a delay discounting task to 82 participants: 29 healthy controls, 29 unmedicated participants with fully remitted MDD (rMDD) and 24 participants with current MDD (11 on medication).
Patients with current MDD, relative to remitted patients and healthy subjects, discounted large-sized future rewards at a significantly higher rate and were insensitive to changes in reward size from medium to large. There was a main effect of clinical group on discounting rates for large-sized rewards, and discounting rates for large-sized rewards correlated with severity of depressive symptoms, particularly hopelessness.
Higher discounting of delayed rewards in MDD seems to be state dependent and may be a reflection of depressive symptoms, specifically hopelessness. Discounting distant rewards at a higher rate means that patients are more likely to choose immediate financial options. Such impairments related to long-term investment planning may be important for understanding value-based decision making in MDD, and contribute to ongoing functional impairment.
We report studies of the interface formed when InSb is deposited onto a CdTe substrate in a molecular beam epitaxy chamber and elucidate conditions under which epitaxial growth is possible. We find that a necessary condition for epitaxy at a substrate temperature Ts is that the growth rate exceed a minimum value Ωmin(Ts). Reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns taken in situ and transmission electron micrographs taken ex situ show that interfaces formed when Ω > Ωmin have a short period roughness which is independent of the Sb/In flux ratio and which diminishes with increasing Ω. Raman spectra show no evidence of interfacial compounds. An analysis of Auger spectra of thin layers of InSb grown on CdTe indicates the existence of Te at the surface of the InSb but not in the layer itself. The Te concentration is found to decrease with InSb layer thickness. We propose a model based on a competition between the reaction of free In and Sb with the CdTe surface and the nucleation and growth of InSb. We use this model to account for the existence of Omin, interface roughness, and the presence of Te at the surface of the InSb epilayer.
Crystal damage of GaAs(100) caused by Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) using a mixture of Cl2 and Ar gas has been assessed using Surface Roughness (Ra), Resonant Raman Spectroscopy (RRS), Schottky diodes, and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE). Plasma conditions for minimum induced damage have been determined and compared to optimised RIE processes using plasma gases SiCl4, CH4-H2, CCl2F2 and Ar. The SiCl4 plasma was found to produce the least crystal damage.
The Dynamics* perspective including the observation of the deep solar magnetism
The stellar internal magnetism is presently poorly known, even we have now some evidence that it plays a crucial role in different stages of stellar evolution.
I first recall the helioseismic results coming from the SOHO mission on the deep interior. Then I show how we hope to observe directly or indirectly the deep solar magnetism by the simultaneous detection of gravity modes, acoustic modes and other phenomena. The two following sections compare the different techniques of observation and show the interest of a multichannel resonant spectrometer both for studying the deep dynamics of the core and for putting some constraints on the stellar atmospheric models. The last section describes the DynaMICCS mission submitted to ESA in the framework of Cosmic Vision 2015–2025 and the observations of the coming decade with the GOLF–NG instrument dedicated to the magnetism of the core and to the region located between photosphere and chromosphere.
Whereas the understanding of most phases of stellar evolution made
considerable progress throughout the whole of the twentieth century, stellar
formation remained rather enigmatic and poorly constrained by observations
until about three decades ago, when major discoveries (e.g., that protostars
are often associated with highly collimated jets) revolutionized the field.
At this time, it became increasingly clearer that magnetic fields were
playing a major role at all stages of stellar formation. We describe herein a quick overview of the main breakthroughs that observations
and theoretical modelling yielded for our understanding of how stars (and their
planetary systems) are formed and on how much these new worlds are shaped by
the presence of magnetic fields, either those pervading the interstellar medium
and threading molecular clouds or those produced through dynamo processes in
the convective envelopes of protostars or in the accretion discs from which
In this chapter I present methods to measure stellar magnetic fields, in
particular the regression method used with low-resolution spectropolarimeters
and the Least Square Deconvolution method used with high-resolution
spectropolarimeters. I discuss the advantages and inconvenients of each method
and the various instruments available as of today. I conclude on the best
polarimeter to use depending on the science goal and type of studied objects,
and provide a short summary of the two ongoing large programmes MaPP and MiMeS.
Magnetic fields have been detected at the surface of many stars, where they are responsible for various activity phenomena, and presumably they are present also in their deep interior. They channel stellar winds to large distance, thus increasing the loss of angular momentum. In stably stratified radiation zones, they tend to impose uniform rotation, and may thus interfere with the rotational mixing operating in these regions and influence the evolution of the host star. Moreover, certain magnetic configurations are known to be unstable, and they could produce some mixing of their own. We shall discuss these problems in the light of the latest developments.