To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The eastern North Atlantic (ENA) has many highly productive areas where several species of cetaceans have been recorded, with the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) being one of the most frequently sighted species. However, its spatial and temporal distribution in high seas is poorly known. The study presents the results from 5 years of cetacean monitoring in the ENA (2012–2016) aboard cargo ships that follow the routes from Continental Portugal to the Macaronesian archipelagos and north-west Africa. Common dolphin was the most frequently sighted cetacean with 192 occurrences registered on effort and an overall encounter rate of 0.36 sightings/100 nmi. The species was distributed in coastal and offshore waters, but absent from the Canaries and Cape Verde islands. Statistical ‘habitat’ models were developed to describe and explain the occurrence of sightings of the species: variables affecting detection of dolphins had a small impact and there were clear spatiotemporal distribution patterns, influenced to some degree by environmental variables. Predicted probability of occurrence was highest in coastal waters of continental Portugal and around the Azores. The models, combined with maps of distribution, were useful to identify important areas for the species, which could be the focus of future conservation efforts. Common dolphin presence was related to depth, distance to coast and seamounts, seabed slope, chlorophyll concentration, sea-surface temperature and sea level anomalies; the possible ecological significance of these relationships is explored.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction ability of models that cope with longevity phenotypic expression as uncensored and censored in Nellore cattle. Longevity was defined as the difference between the dates of last weaned calf and cow birth. There were information of 77 353 females, being 61 097 cows with uncensored phenotypic information and 16 256 cows with censored records. These data were analyzed considering three different models: (1) Gaussian linear model (LM), in which only uncensored records were considered; and two models that consider both uncensored and censored records: (2) Censored Gaussian linear model (CLM); and (3) Weibull frailty hazard model (WM). For the model prediction ability comparisons, the data set was randomly divided into training and validation sets, containing 80% and 20% of the records, respectively. There were considered 10 repetitions applying the following restrictions: (a) at least three animals per contemporary group in the training set; and (b) sires with more than 10 progenies with uncensored records (352 sires) should have daughters in the training and validation sets. The variance components estimated using the whole data set in each model were used as true values in the prediction of breeding values of the animals in the training set. The WM model showed the best prediction ability, providing the lowest χ2 average and the highest number of sets in which a model had the smallest value of χ2 statistics. The CLM and LM models showed prediction abilities 2.6% and 3.7% less efficient than WM, respectively. In addition, the accuracies of sire breeding values for LM and CLM were lower than those obtained for WM. The percentages of bulls in common, considering only 10% of sires with the highest breeding values, were around 75% and 54%, respectively, between LM–CLM and LM–WM models, considering all sires, and 75% between LM–CLM and LM–WM, when only sires with more than 10 progenies with uncensored records were taken into account. These results are indicative of reranking of animals in terms of genetic merit between LM, CLM and WM. The model in which censored records of longevity were excluded from the analysis showed the lowest prediction ability. The WM provides the best predictive performance, therefore this model would be recommended to perform genetic evaluation of longevity in this population.
Critical to the development of improved HIV elimination efforts is a greater understanding of how social networks and their dynamics are related to HIV risk and prevention. In this paper, we examine network stability of confidant and sexual networks among young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). We use data from uConnect (2013–2016), a population-based, longitudinal cohort study. We use an innovative approach to measure both sexual and confidant network stability at three time points, and examine the relationship between each type of stability and HIV risk and prevention behaviors. This approach is consistent with a co-evolutionary perspective in which behavior is not only affected by static properties of an individual's network, but may also be associated with changes in the topology of his or her egocentric network. Our results indicate that although confidant and sexual network stability are moderately correlated, their dynamics are distinct with different predictors and differing associations with behavior. Both types of stability are associated with lower rates of risk behaviors, and both are reduced among those who have spent time in jail. Public health awareness and engagement with both types of networks may provide new opportunities for HIV prevention interventions.
The previously reported non-equilibrium dissipation law is investigated in turbulent flows generated by various regular and fractal square grids. The flows are documented in terms of various turbulent profiles which reveal their differences. In spite of significant inhomogeneity and anisotropy differences, the new non-equilibrium dissipation law is observed in all of these flows. Various transverse and longitudinal integral scales are measured and used to define the dissipation coefficient
. It is found that the new non-equilibrium dissipation law is not an artefact of a particular choice of the integral scale and that the usual equilibrium dissipation law can actually coexist with the non-equilibrium law in different regions of the same flow.
Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais and d'Orbigny, 1844) is an endangered small cetacean endemic to South America with four Franciscana Management Areas (FMA) recognized as different population stocks. The role of the intestinal parasite Synthesium pontoporiae (Digenea: Brachycladiidae) as a possible biological marker to differentiate P. blainvillei stocks was evaluated using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers. Internal transcribed sequence 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) regions of S. pontoporiae did not show intraspecific variability. The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (ND3) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences suggested lack of population structure in S. pontoporiae and population expansion. The apparent panmixia of S. pontoporiae may be due to the high mobility of one or more of its intermediary hosts. Alternatively, it may be due to the small sample size. This result is incongruent with the previously proposed FMA.
A new experimental investigation of decaying turbulence generated by a low-blockage space-filling fractal square grid is presented. We find agreement with previous works by Seoud & Vassilicos (Phys. Fluids, vol. 19, 2007, 105108) and Mazellier & Vassilicos (Phys. Fluids, vol. 22, 2010, 075101) but also extend the length of the assessed decay region and consolidate the results by repeating the experiments with different probes of increased spatial resolution. It is confirmed that this moderately high Reynolds number turbulence (up to here) does not follow the classical high Reynolds number scaling of the dissipation rate and does not obey the equivalent proportionality between the Taylor-based Reynolds number and the ratio of integral scale to the Taylor microscale . Instead we observe an approximate proportionality between and during decay. This non-classical behaviour is investigated by studying how the energy spectra evolve during decay and examining how well they can be described by self-preserving single-length-scale forms. A detailed study of homogeneity and isotropy is also presented which reveals the presence of transverse energy transport and pressure transport in the part of the turbulence decay region where we take data (even though previous studies found mean flow and turbulence intensity profiles to be approximately homogeneous in much of the decay region). The exceptionally fast turbulence decay observed in the part of the decay region where we take data is consistent with the non-classical behaviour of the dissipation rate. Measurements with a regular square mesh grid as well as comparisons with active-grid experiments by Mydlarski & Warhaft (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 320, 1996, pp. 331–368) and Kang, Chester & Meveneau (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 480, 2003, pp. 129–160) are also presented to highlight the similarities and differences between these turbulent flows and the turbulence generated by our fractal square grid.
The synthesis of the superconducting perovskite YBa2Cu3O7 using hydroxides as starting precursors has been investigated. Hydroxides are homogeneously coprecipitated from mixed alcohol-water solutions without loss of barium. Upon heat-treatment the perovskite phase rapidly forms around 750°C. However, it remains tetragonal even after long time annealing in oxygen ambient. This is related to an unusual microtwinning in the (ac) plane.
In TiSi2 metallized devices, the second distribution of leakage current (I>lμA) is caused by the Si/TiSi2 interface roughness. In this work, 40gm thick Ti films are sputtered onto Si waters. RTA was done in N2 atmosphere. Heating rates of 0, 0.5, 1, 5, and 100°C S−-1 are examined. Samples are characterized by AFM, RBS, XRD and laser light scattering methods. The parameters related to roughness are heating rate sensitivity and oxygen contamination which decreases the roughness on the interface.
Ab initio local-density- functional- theory calculations of formation energies, surface stress, and multilayer relaxations are reported for the (111), (100), and (110) surfaces of Rh. The study is performed using ultrasoft pseudopotentials and plane waves in a parallel implementation.
Selective breeding is an effective tool to improve livestock. Several selection experiments have been conducted to study direct selection responses as well as correlated responses in traits of skeletal muscle growth and function. Moreover, comparisons of domestic with wild-type species and of extreme breeds provide information on the genetic background of the skeletal muscle phenotype. Structural muscular components that differed with increasing distance in lean growth or meat quality in mammals were found to be myofibre number, myofibre size, proportions of fibre types as well as the numbers and proportions of secondary and primary fibres. Furthermore, markers of satellite cell proliferation, metabolic enzyme activities, glycogen and fat contents, the expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms, of activated AMPKα and other proteins in skeletal muscle tissue and circulating IGF1 and IGF-binding proteins have been identified to be involved in selection responses observed in pigs, cattle and/or chicken. The use of molecular methods for selective breeding of fish has only recently been adopted in aquaculture and studies of the genetic basis of growth and flesh quality traits are scarce. Some of the molecular markers of muscle structure/metabolism in livestock have also been identified in fish, but so far no studies have linked them with selection response. Genome scans have been applied to identify genomic regions exhibiting quantitative trait loci that control traits of interest, for example, muscle structure and meat quality in pigs and growth rate in chicken. As another approach, polymorphisms in candidate genes reveal the relationship between genetic variation and target traits. Thus, in large-scale studies with pigs’ associations of polymorphisms in the HMGA2, CA3, EPOR, NME1 and TTN genes with traits of carcass and meat quality were detected. Other studies revealed the significance of mutations in the IGF2 and RYR1 genes for carcass lean and muscle fibre traits in pigs. Mutations in the myostatin (MSTN) gene in fish were also examined. Advances in research of the genetic and environmental control of traits related to meat quality and growth have been made by the application of holistic ‘omics’ techniques that studied the whole muscle-specific genome, transcriptome and proteome in relation to muscle and meat traits, the development of new methods for muscle fibre typing and the adaptation of biophysical measures to develop parameters of muscle fibre traits as well as the application of in vitro studies. Finally, future research priorities in the field are defined.
Skeletal muscle development in vertebrates – also termed myogenesis – is a highly integrated process. Evidence to date indicates that the processes are very similar across mammals, poultry and fish, although the timings of the various steps differ considerably. Myogenesis is regulated by the myogenic regulatory factors and consists of two to three distinct phases when different fibre populations appear. The critical times when myogenesis is prone to hormonal or environmental influences depend largely on the developmental stage. One of the main mechanisms for both genetic and environmental effects on muscle fibre development is via the direct action of the growth hormone–insulin-like growth factor (GH–IGF) axis. In mammals and poultry, postnatal growth and function of muscles relate mainly to the hypertrophy of the fibres formed during myogenesis and to their fibre-type composition in terms of metabolic and contractile properties, whereas in fish hyperplasia still plays a major role. Candidate genes that are important in skeletal muscle development, for instance, encode for IGFs and IGF-binding proteins, myosin heavy chain isoforms, troponin T, myosin light chain and others have been identified. In mammals, nutritional supply in utero affects myogenesis and the GH–IGF axis may have an indirect action through the partitioning of nutrients towards the gravid uterus. Impaired myogenesis resulting in low skeletal myofibre numbers is considered one of the main reasons for negative long-term consequences of intrauterine growth retardation. Severe undernutrition in utero due to natural variation in litter or twin-bearing species or insufficient maternal nutrient supply may impair myogenesis and adversely affect carcass quality later in terms of reduced lean and increased fat deposition in the progeny. On the other hand, increases in maternal feed intake above standard requirement seem to have no beneficial effects on the growth of the progeny with myogenesis not or only slightly affected. Initial studies on low and high maternal protein feeding are published. Although there are only a few studies, first results also reveal an influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle development in fish and poultry. Finally, environmental temperature has been identified as a critical factor for growth and development of skeletal muscle in both fish and poultry.
The effects of graded levels (0 %, 0·5 %, 0·75 and 1 %) of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were assessed on 97 g rainbow trout. Fish were fed to satiation twice a day for 12 weeks. At the end of the experiment, all groups of fish weighed more than 250 g and no significant differences were detected in growth performance, feed conversion, nutrient or energy utilisation or body composition between treatments. A decrease in liver lipid content resulted from including CLA and was accompanied by a reduction in malic enzyme activity. The muscle saturated acid and PUFA content did not vary between dietary treatments, despite the increasing concentration of stearic acid and CLA. In the liver, however, both fractions increased significantly with dietary CLA. Moreover, the MUFA decreased significantly in both muscle and liver. CLA was incorporated into tissue lipids, with levels in flesh (2·1–4·2 %) being 2-fold higher than in liver (0·8–1·9 %). In muscle, the percentage of cis-9, trans-11 isomer ranged from 39·5 % to 41·8 % and that of trans-10, cis-12 isomer from 31·4 % to 33·4 % of total CLA. The incorporation of CLA isomers in the liver varied with dietary treatment, and the cis-9, trans-11 isomer seemed to be more efficiently incorporated than trans-10, cis-12. Sensory data indicated slight-to-moderate differences between the trout fed with and without CLA. The present results suggest that 250 g rainbow trout can incorporate CLA in both muscle and liver, contributing to the production of a functional food.
To precede the energy and environmental demands, a follow-up of
the coke oven batteries was made, to identify the probable causes
of pollutants generation and thermal losses. The results of the
follow-up of the in/out gases of the coke ovens led to a change of
the traditional operational practices, aiming at reducing the air
emissions and the energy consumption of the coke ovens.
Nanocrystalline boehmite obtained by limited hydrolysis of aluminum tri-sec-butoxide or aluminum chloride was aged under different conditions before being calcined above the dehydroxylation temperature. When aging was carried out under hydrothermal conditions, the condensation of the structural units obeyed a first-order kinetic law with apparent activation energy of 12.2 kcal/mol. Under dehydroxylation conditions, the boehmite fragmentation is accounted for by a simple power law that links its volume to that of the resulting γ-alumina. The main variable is the volatile compounds content (water for instance) in the fresh sample. In terms of texture, a better organization of the initial nanoparticles in the boehmite means a lower surface area and larger pore diameter in the corresponding γ-alumina.
The Operational Criteria Checklist (OPCRIT) generates diagnoses according to 12 operational diagnostic systems (e. g. DSM–III, DSM–III–R, Research Diagnostic Criteria, ICD–10)
To examine the agreement between diagnoses generated by the OPCRIT, as completed by the interviewer, with a best-estimate lifetime procedure using the OPCRIT.
Subjects came from large mufti-generational bipolar or schizophrenia pedigrees (n=100), and from a sample of unrelated subjects with schizophrenia (n=40). We analysed the diagnostic agreement between OPCRIT diagnoses generated by the interviewer and our best-estimate OPCRIT diagnoses, according to DSM–III–R and ICD–10, using Cohen kappa statistics.
Excellent agreement was found between interviewer OPCRIT diagnoses and OPCRIT diagnoses made by the best-estimate lifetime consensus procedure for DSM–III–R (κ=0.83) and ICD-10 (κ=0.81)
Results suggest that this procedure for diagnostic assessment is an efficient alternative to classic best-estimate diagnosis procedures.
Genetic variation within triatomine bugs was investigated by amplification of a 400 bp portion of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using evolutionarily conserved primers, from a selection of species representative of the genera Rhodnius, Triatoma and Panstrongylus. Amplification products were subsequently screened for sequence variation using single strand conformational polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and also subjected to direct sequencing. Single strand conformational polymorphism analysis could detect variation within and between genera; intraspecific variation was also detected and SSCP profiles appear to be useful for identification purposes at the inter- and intraspecific levels. A 290 bp multiple alignment of 15 sequences obtained from nine species was generated, phylogenetic inference subsequently used three methods; a distance estimate, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood. This 16S region exhibited considerable variation which ranged from intergeneric to intraspecific levels. Phylogenies from these three methods of inference were in broad agreement. Triatoma and Panstrongylus were more closely related to each other than either was to Rhodnius, in keeping with the current taxonomic appraisal.