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The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
The chapter develops two complexes in political and social life – restraint and actionism. It introduces and draws from Carl Jung’s understanding of the libido as psychic energy, as well as his analytical concept of synchronicity.
This chapter reviews the historical asymmetric application of restraint across groups based on race, gender, and class. It revisits Elias's Established/Outsider dynamic that illustrates these tensions, as well as the historiographic works of Historical IR scholars regarding the dynamic as it played out in the emerging field of International Relations.
The chapter provides a definitional overview of restraint vis-à-vis the related concept of constraint, and situates forms of restraint on a spectrum. This spectrum helps to define and identify the spatial and temporal conditions that influence restraint that are further engaged throughout this book. The chapter explores how social structures influence restraint. From this the chapter reviews forms of restraint in IR theory.
The chapter explores restraint in the context of security. It examines two cases where restraint proved difficult or even unsatisfying: (1) the 2013 US decision to avoid military action against Syria following the latter’s 2013 chemical weapons attack and (2) the 2014 ISIS beheadings that drew the USA into a limited use of military strikes against that transnational terrorist organization. It also applies the complexes to different Islamic movements over time. It concludes via ontological security and securitization with the reasons restraint appears to be so unsatisfying in the context of security policies.
This chapter explores how restraint functions within, through, and from democracies. It delineates generational analysis and how restraint fits into that theorization. It provides illustrations of generational conflict through three centuries of US history. Restraint appears in the form of a reactive generation’s rejection of the ideologies and practices of actionist generations. The infrequency of restraint in US settings over the past three centuries can be explained because (1) reactive generations are only one of four types to emerge in US political settings and (2) reactive generations are recessive (as opposed to dominant) and play a prominent role in the political, social, and cultural institutional settings of a polity for only brief (roughly one or two decades) periods of time.
Reviews the findings of the book. The chapter then, via Reinhold Niebuhr’s Serenity Prayer, makes a case for a strategic narrative, or set of powerful stories, regarding restraint. It applies those to the contexts of the United States and the International Relations academy.
Applies the arguments on restraint and actionism to the domains of international political economy and global public health. It explores the dynamic of racial and gendered biases found in discourses surrounding the 2008–2009 Global Financial Crisis and the 2010s European Debt Crisis. It also analyzes the transnational epistemic community of eugenics in the early twentieth century.
To conduct nutrition-related analyses on large-scale health surveys, two aspects of the survey must be incorporated into the analysis: the sampling weights and the sample design; a practice which is not always observed. The present paper compares three analyses: (1) unweighted; (2) weighted but not accounting for the complex sample design; and (3) weighted and accounting for the complex design using replicate weights.
Descriptive statistics are computed and a logistic regression investigation of being overweight/obese is conducted using Stata.
Cross-sectional health survey with complex sample design where replicate weights are supplied rather than the variables containing sample design information.
Responding adults from the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS) part of the Australian Health Survey (2011–2013).
Unweighted analysis produces biased estimates and incorrect estimates of se. Adjusting for the sampling weights gives unbiased estimates but incorrect se estimates. Incorporating both the sampling weights and the sample design results in unbiased estimates and the correct se estimates. This can affect interpretation; for example, the incorrect estimate of the OR for being a current smoker in the unweighted analysis was 1·20 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·37), t= 2·89, P = 0·004, suggesting a statistically significant relationship with being overweight/obese. When the sampling weights and complex sample design are correctly incorporated, the results are no longer statistically significant: OR = 1·06 (95 % CI 0·89, 1·27), t = 0·71, P = 0·480.
Correct incorporation of the sampling weights and sample design is crucial for valid inference from survey data.
We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
This article makes a case for incorporating the concept of ‘Critical Security History’ (CSH) into security studies. While history plays a powerful role in a cornucopia of security stories, we contend that it often goes unnoticed in scholarly research and teaching. Against this backdrop, we present a detailed guide to study how history is told and enacted in non-linear ways. To do this, the article outlines how CSH can contribute to securitisation and ontological security studies. As shown, this lens casts a new light on the legacies of (de)securitisation processes and how they are commemorated. It also illustrates that ontological security studies have only begun to call into question the concept of historicity. Working through these observations, the article marshals insights from Halvard Leira's notion of ‘engaged historical amateurism’ to entice scholars interested in ‘doing’ CSH. While acknowledging that this research agenda is hard to achieve, our study of the 2012 Sarajevo Red Line project helps to illustrate the added value of trying to ‘do’ CSH in theory and in practice. We end with some reflections for future research and continued conversations.
Mental health and substance use disorders are the leading cause of long-term disability and a cause of significant mortality, worldwide. However, it is widely recognised that clinical practice in psychiatry has not fundamentally changed for over half a century. The Royal College of Psychiatrists is reviewing its trainee curriculum to identify neuroscience that relates to psychiatric practice. To date though, neuroscience has had very little impact on routine clinical practice. We discuss how a pragmatic approach to neuroscience can address this problem together with a route to implementation in National Health Service care. This has implications for altered funding priorities and training future psychiatrists. Five training recommendations for psychiatrists are identified.
Declaration of interest
J.D.S. receives direct funding from MRC Program Grant MR/S010351/1 aimed at developing machine learning-based methods for routinely acquired NHS data and indirect funding from the Wellcome Trust STRADL study. M.P.P. receives payments for an UpToDate chapter on methamphetamine and is principal investigator on the following grants: NIGMS P20GM121312 and NIDA U01 DA041089 and receives support from the William K. Warren Foundation.
The increasing availability of automated milk dispensers on dairy farms facilitates ad libitum milk supply but weaning calves from high milk allowances is challenging. This study evaluated effects of gradual weaning methods on starter intake, growth, selected blood parameters and weaning distress in ad libitum fed dairy calves during weaning and early post-weaning periods. Thirty-six male Holstein (n = 30) or crossbred (n = 6) calves were individually housed from days 2 to 14 of age and had ad libitum access to milk replacer (MR) from teat buckets. From days 15 to 84 of age, calves were grouped and had ad libitum access to MR, starter, straw and water from automated feeders. At day 35, calves were blocked (age and breed), and randomly assigned to a weaning method: (1) linear fixed (LIN), MR supply was stepped down to 6 l/day on day 36, and linearly reduced between days 36 to 63 from 6 to 2 l/day. (2) Step-down (STEP), MR supply was stepped down to 6 l/day from days 36 to 48, 4 l/day from days 49 to 56 and 2 l/day from days 57 to 63. (3) Dynamic (DYN), at day 36, MR supply was reduced for each individual calf to 75% of the average voluntary consumption between day 29 and 35, then maintained for 9 days, reduced to 50% for 10 days, and to 25% for 9 days. The DYN calves received more MR during weaning than LIN calves, whereas STEP calves had intermediate MR intake. Starter intake was not affected by weaning method. The DYN calves (1.33±0.08 kg/day) grew faster and were heavier than STEP calves (1.10±0.08 kg/day) during post-weaning period, whereas no difference was observed between LIN calves (1.23±0.08 kg/day) and others. At days 70 and 84, concentrations of β-hydroxybutyric acid were higher in LIN calves compared to STEP and DYN calves. Hair cortisol concentrations were not affected by weaning method. During the gradual weaning process CP intake seemed to recovered earlier than metabolizable energy (ME) intake in all treatments, suggesting that ME rather than CP could be the first limiting factor for growth during weaning. These results highlight the post-weaning benefits of DYN and LIN weaning methods when compared with more abrupt step-down strategies.