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Data mining is a process of finding correlations and collecting and analysing a huge amount of data in a database to discover patterns or relationships. Flight delay creates significant problems in the present aviation system. Data mining techniques are desired for analysing the performance in which micro-level causes propagate to make system-level patterns of delay. Analysing flight delays is very difficult – both when looking from a historical view as well as when estimating delays with forecast demand. This paper proposes using Decision Tree (DT), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naive Bayesian (NB), K-nearest neighbour (KNN) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to study and analyse delays among aircrafts. The performance of different data mining methods is found in the different regions of the updated datasets on these classifiers. Finally, the result shows a significant variation in the performance of different data mining methods and feature selection for this problem. This paper aims to deal with how data mining techniques can be used to understand difficult aircraft system delays in aviation. Our aim is to develop a classification model for studying and reducing delay using different data mining methods and, in this manner, to show that DT has a greater classification accuracy. The different feature selectors are used in this study in order to reduce the number of initial attributes. Our results clearly demonstrate the value of DT for analysing and visualising how system-level effects happen from subsystem-level causes.
To compare round window niche visibility as seen endoscopically during cochlear implant surgery with pre-operative high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone.
Nineteen patients scheduled for cochlear implantation, aged 2–20 years, were referred for computed tomography from October 2016 to March 2018. Angles were measured between the lines passing through the mid-sagittal plane and cochlear basal turn on the scans. Endoscopic round window niche visibility during posterior tympanotomy was categorised as: type I = 100 per cent, type IIa = more than 50 per cent, type IIb = less than 50 per cent or type III = 0 per cent. Pre-operative computed tomography measurements were used to predict round window niche visibility before surgery and correlated with intra-operative findings.
The mean (range) of pre-operative angles on computed tomography for endoscopic visibility types I, IIa and IIb, were 64.06° (61.16–69.37°), 63.81° (58.61–71.35°) and 56.48° (50.37–59.05°), respectively, a statistically significant finding (one-way analysis of variance test, p = 0.016).
Pre-operative high-resolution temporal bone computed tomography measurements are useful in predicting round window niche visualisation as viewed endoscopically during posterior tympanotomy. The angle was more acute in type IIb compared to type I.
Nano-structured thin films have a variety of applications from waveguides, gaseous sensors to piezoelectric devices. Grazing Incidence Small Angle x-ray Scattering images enable classification of such materials. One challenge is to determine structure information from scattering patterns alone. This paper highlights the design of multiple Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) to classify nanoparticle orientation in a thin film by learning scattering patterns. The network was trained on several thin films with a success rate of 94%. We demonstrate CNN robustness under different noises as well as demonstrate the potential of our proposed approach as a strategy to decrease scattering pattern analysis time.
The effect of sample granularity on diffracted x-ray intensity was evaluated by measuring the 2θ dependence of x-ray fluorescence from various samples. Measurements were made in the symmetric geometry on samples ranging from single crystals to highly absorbing coarse powders. A characteristic shape for the absorption correction was observed. A demonstration of the sensitivity of Rietveld refined site occupation parameters is made on CuAu and Cu50Au44Ni6 alloys refined with and without granularity corrections. These alloys provide a good example of the effect of granularity due to their large linear x-ray absorption coefficients. Sample granularity and refined thermal parameters obtained from the Rietveld analysis were found to be correlated. Without a granularity correction, the refined thermal parameters are too low and can actually become negative in an attempt to compensate for granularity, A general shape for granularity correction can be included in refinement procedures. If no granularity correction is included, data should be restricted to above 30° 2θ, and thermal parameters should be ignored unless extreme precautions are taken to produce <5 (μm particles and high packing densities.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The study aims to identify patient and provider factors associated with delay in diagnostic resolution after an abnormal screening mammogram, with an emphasis on whether patients who spoke Chinese as their primary language sustained longer times to resolution. Primary outcome is to identify what proportion of patients achieve diagnostic resolution after abnormal screening mammogram within 90 days. Secondary outcome is to identify whether Chinese-speaking patients experience longer times to diagnostic resolution. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study at Tufts Medical Center (TMC), a tertiary care hospital that serves as the primary referral site for the Chinatown neighborhood in Boston. We included patients who underwent screening mammogram between 10/1/2015-9/30/2016 which was resulted as BIRADS-0 (non-diagnostic). Diagnostic resolution was defined as BIRADS-1, 2, or 3 imaging or definitive biopsy. We collected data on patient demographics (age, insurance plan, race/ethnicity, primary language, history of cancer), provider characteristics (referring provider location), and post-referral testing. Insurance was categorized as private-only or subsidized. Poverty was categorized using the American Fact Finder database, with a binary variable of <20% of ≥20% people in poverty for a given zip code. We performed descriptive statistics for all variables. We will perform multivariable Cox regression analyses to determine whether Chinese-speaking patients experience longer time to diagnostic resolution, adjusting for age, referring provider type, insurance status, poverty, and breast cancer history. We will use p<0.05 for our threshold for significance. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified 386 patients who met inclusion criteria. Over half (55.9%) of patients were Caucasian, the mean age of study patients was 59 years, and 22% of patients were classified as poor. English was the most commonly spoken primary language (77.7%), while 15.3% of patients identified a Chinese dialect as their primary language. Most patients solely used private insurance for their medical care (73.1%). Majority of patients (83%) presented after undergoing a routine screening mammography, but a considerable proportion (14.4%) had prior breast cancer or a palpable mass. Most patients were referred for their screening mammogram by a hospital-based provider at TMC (85%), of which 77% of TMC referrals were from primary care. We also noted a limited number of referrals from community health centers, private practices and other PCP’s (Table 1). We will calculate median time to diagnostic resolution after screening mammogram and the proportion of patients who achieve resolution within 90 days. We will also calculate time to initiation of diagnostic workup, and whether this differed among Chinese-speaking patients, subsidized patients, or among those who were referred from outside of TMC. We will complete Cox multivariable analysis to identify if Chinese-speaking patients experience longer time to diagnostic resolution, adjusting for age, insurance status, Primary care provider location, poverty, and prior history of breast cancer. We will a priori test for an interaction between primary care provider within Tufts and Chinese as primary language to identify if a PCP within TMC modifies the relationship between Chinese language and time to resolution. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The proposed study will identify whether disparities exist in time to achieving diagnostic resolution. Specifically, we will identify if patients who are primarily Chinese-speaking experience longer time to resolution. Our results will potentially provide the foundation for a patient navigation program to attenuate existing disparities by providing additional support for Chinese speaking patients in breast imaging workup.
Shunt-related adverse events are frequent in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig despite use of acetylsalicylic acid prophylaxis. A higher incidence of acetylsalicylic acid-resistance and sub-therapeutic acetylsalicylic acid levels has been reported in infants. We evaluated whether using high-dose acetylsalicylic acid can decrease shunt-related adverse events in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig.
In this single-centre retrospective cohort study, we included infants ⩽1-year-old who underwent modified Blalock–Taussig placement and received acetylsalicylic acid in the ICU. We defined acetylsalicylic acid treatment groups as standard dose (⩽7 mg/kg/day) and high dose (⩾8 mg/kg/day) based on the initiating dose.
There were 34 infants in each group. Both groups were similar in age, gender, cardiac defect type, ICU length of stay, and time interval to second stage or definitive repair. Shunt interventions (18 versus 32%, p=0.16), shunt thrombosis (14 versus 17%, p=0.74), and mortality (9 versus 12%, p=0.65) were not significantly different between groups. On multiple logistic regression analysis, single-ventricle morphology (odds ratio 5.2, 95% confidence interval of 1.2–23, p=0.03) and post-operative red blood cells transfusion ⩾24 hours [odds ratio 15, confidence interval of (3–71), p<0.01] were associated with shunt-related adverse events. High-dose acetylsalicylic acid treatment [odds ratio 2.6, confidence interval of (0.7–10), p=0.16] was not associated with decrease in these events.
High-dose acetylsalicylic acid may not be sufficient in reducing shunt-related adverse events in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig. Post-operative red blood cells transfusion may be a modifiable risk factor for these events. A randomised trial is needed to determine appropriate acetylsalicylic acid dosing in infants with modified Blalock–Taussig.
Normal odd-chain SFA (OCSFA), particularly tridecanoic acid (n-13 : 0), pentadecanoic acid (n-15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (n-17 : 0), are normal components of dairy products, beef and seafood. The ratio of n-15 : 0:n-17 : 0 in ruminant foods (dairy products and beef) is 2:1, while in seafood and human tissues it is 1:2, and their appearance in plasma is often used as a marker for ruminant fat intake. Human elongases encoded by elongation of very long-chain fatty acid (ELOVL)1, ELOVL3, ELOVL6 and ELOVL7 catalyse biosynthesis of the dominant even-chain SFA; however, there are no reports of elongase function on OCSFA. ELOVL transfected MCF7 cells were treated with n-13 : 0, n-15 : 0 or n-17 : 0 (80 µm) and products analysed. ELOVL6 catalysed elongation of n-13 : 0→n-15 : 0 and n-15 : 0→n-17 : 0; and ELOVL7 had modest activity toward n-15 : 0 (n-15 : 0→n-17 : 0). No elongation activity was detected for n-17 : 0→n-19 : 0. Our data expand ELOVL specificity to OCSFA, providing the first molecular evidence demonstrating ELOVL6 as the major elongase acting on OCSFA n-13 : 0 and n-15 : 0 fatty acids. Studies of food intake relying on OCSFA as a biomarker should consider endogenous human metabolism when relying on OCSFA ratios to indicate specific food intake.
Depression has been associated with abnormalities in neural underpinnings of Reward Learning (RL). However, inconsistencies have emerged, possibly owing to medication effects. Additionally, it remains unclear how neural RL signals relate to real-life behaviour. The current study, therefore, examined neural RL signals in young, mildly to moderately depressed – but non-help-seeking and unmedicated – individuals and how these signals are associated with depressive symptoms and real-life motivated behaviour.
Individuals with symptoms along the depression continuum (n = 87) were recruited from the community. They performed an RL task during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and were assessed with the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), completing short questionnaires on emotions and behaviours up to 10 times/day for 15 days. Q-learning model-derived Reward Prediction Errors (RPEs) were examined in striatal areas, and subsequently associated with depressive symptoms and an ESM measure capturing (non-linearly) how anticipation of reward experience corresponds to actual reward experience later on.
Significant RPE signals were found in the striatum, insula, amygdala, hippocampus, frontal and occipital cortices. Region-of-interest analyses revealed a significant association between RPE signals and (a) self-reported depressive symptoms in the right nucleus accumbens (b = −0.017, p = 0.006) and putamen (b = −0.013, p = .012); and (b) the quadratic ESM variable in the left (b = 0.010, p = .010) and right (b = 0.026, p = 0.011) nucleus accumbens and right putamen (b = 0.047, p < 0.001).
Striatal RPE signals are disrupted along the depression continuum. Moreover, they are associated with reward-related behaviour in real-life, suggesting that real-life coupling of reward anticipation and engagement in rewarding activities might be a relevant target of psychological therapies for depression.
The grain boundary network of nanocrystalline Cu foils was modified by the application of cyclic loadings and elevated temperatures. Broadly, the changes to the boundary network were directly correlated with the applied temperature and accumulated strain, including a 300% increase in the twin length fraction. By independently varying each treatment variable, a matrix of grain boundary statistics was built to check the plausibility of hypothesized mechanisms against their expected temperature and stress/strain dependences. These comparisons allow the field of candidate mechanisms to be significantly narrowed. Most importantly, the effects of temperature and strain on twin length fraction were found to be strongly synergistic, with the combined effect being ∼150% that of the summed individual contributions. Looking beyond scalar metrics, an analysis of the grain boundary network showed that twin related domain formation favored larger sizes and repeated twin variant selection over the creation of many small domains with diverse variants.
Atom probe tomography (APT) is rising in influence across many parts of materials science and engineering thanks to its unique combination of highly sensitive composition measurement and three-dimensional microstructural characterization. In this invited article, we have selected a few recent applications that showcase the unique capacity of APT to measure the local composition at structural defects. Whether we consider dislocations, stacking faults, or grain boundary, the detailed compositional measurements tend to indicate specific partitioning behaviors for the different solutes in both complex engineering and model alloys we investigated.
Grewia tenax locally known as ‘Gangerun’, is an important multipurpose underutilized shrub and potentially threaten species of the Thar Desert of India. Owing to its importance, naturally available germplasm was collected and evaluated for its sustainable utilization in future. Data on individual mother plant, seed characters and soil profile were investigated. Habitat occurrence of G. tenax was found in patches with dominant association of Euphorbia caducifolia across the four districts of western Rajasthan. Individual plant on unprotected area portrayed far lower average height (0.95 m) and canopy area (1.75 m2) than protected area (2.63 m and 13.89 m2) signifying level of browsing pressure on this species in Jaisalmer. Soil samples belonging to Pali region have high organic carbon and low electrical conductivity content than Jaisalmer and Jodhpur. The statistical analysis of seed characters revealed the presence of high coefficient of variation (%) in 100-seed weight (HSW; 27.36) followed by seed length (SL; 8.06) and least in seed breadth (SB; 5.85). The range and mean values of HSW, SL, SB and length:breadth ratio (LBR) were (2.02–7.00 and 3.34 g), (4.36–6.15 and 5.36 mm), (3.73–4.68 and 4.25 mm) and (1.11–1.44 and 1.27), respectively. Significantly positive correlation was observed between SL and LBR (0.73) followed by HSW and SL (0.66). Along with these findings, its economic importance, utilization and conservation are detailed in this paper as to hasten further research on its various aspects for its successful conservation and utilization.
The dynamic response of structured materials, such as regular lattices, is nontrivial partly due to the interaction of mechanical waves throughout the structure and free surfaces as the material is dynamically compressed. The existence of an elastic precursor wave in additively manufactured lattices was recently shown to match theoretical predictions and simulation results. Following up on this work, we have investigated the behavior of the elastic precursor with propagation distance, impact speed, and impact material. Through a series of gas gun experiments coupled to X-ray phase contrast imaging measurements and complementary simulations, the elastic precursor wavespeed appears to be nearly independent of impact speed and impact material. We observed evidence for the sustained elastic wave propagation through many unit cells at four significantly different impact conditions. We compared these results with direct numerical simulations of the experiments and found good agreement.
Unilateral total facial palsy is a debilitating condition that can affect an individual's physical, social and emotional wellbeing. When this occurs bilaterally, the severity of impact is extreme, with significant cosmetic disfigurement and functional morbidity. A variety of facial reanimation techniques have been used for unilateral facial weakness of varying House–Brackmann grades, and these are also applicable in bilateral cases. In bilateral cases, it is difficult to gauge successful improvement in comparison to the contralateral side, which also is afflicted.
This paper presents our experience with a bilateral facial paralysis patient who had a complex otological history. The patient, who presented with bilateral debilitating grade VI facial palsy, achieved a good result from bilateral facial reanimation with sequential hypoglossal–facial anastomosis. This is considered a reasonable option in cases of bilateral facial paralysis.
A new target design is presented to model high-energy radiative accretion shocks in polars. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained on the GEKKO XII laser facility for the POLAR project. The experimental results are compared with 2D FCI2 simulations to characterize the dynamics and the structure of plasma flow before and after the collision. The good agreement between simulations and experimental data confirms the formation of a reverse shock where cooling losses start modifying the post-shock region. With the multi-material structure of the target, a hydrodynamic collimation is exhibited and a radiative structure coupled with the reverse shock is highlighted in both experimental data and simulations. The flexibility of the laser energy produced on GEKKO XII allowed us to produce high-velocity flows and study new and interesting radiation hydrodynamic regimes between those obtained on the LULI2000 and Orion laser facilities.
In this work, the deformation mechanisms underlying the room temperature deformation of the pseudomorphic body centered cubic (BCC) Mg phase in Mg/Nb nanolayered composites are studied. Nanolayered composites comprised of 50% volume fraction of Mg and Nb were synthesized using physical vapor deposition with the individual layer thicknesses h of 5, 6.7, and 50 nm. At the lower layer thicknesses of h = 5 and 6.7 nm, Mg has undergone a phase transition from HCP to BCC such that it formed a coherent interface with the adjoining Nb phase. Micropillar compression testing normal and parallel to the interface plane shows that the BCC Mg nanolayered composite is much stronger and can sustain higher strains to failure than the HCP Mg nanolayered composite. A crystal plasticity model incorporating confined layer slip is presented and applied to link the observed anisotropy and hardening in the deformation response to the underlying slip mechanisms.
We applied the high temperature pyrolysis-combustion technique to partition the total soil organic carbon (SOC) into labile and inert carbon pools for accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) dating and stable carbon isotope (δ13C), SOC, and carbonate carbon (CC) content analyses to examine SOC variability at a Critical Zone Observatory site in Illinois, USA. The AMS 14C dates of labile and inert carbon in the top 1.55 m overlap except in the Bt horizon. Below 1.55 m the labile carbon is younger by 8000–14,800 years. The SOC content decreases from 3.61% to 0.12% and CC content increases from 0% to 19.16% at this depth. Results indicate that SOC production exceeds its loss in the weathering zone causing a continuous turnover of both SOC pools. A small amount of modern SOC infiltrates into deeper sediment below 1.55 m, making the labile carbon pool much younger. Their difference of AMS 14C contents, ΔF14C, reveals 3−5% more modern carbon in the labile SOC pools except in the Bt horizon, further quantifying that <3−5% modern carbon with potential pollutants is translocated into the unweathered sediments. The δ13C reveals the sources for SOC cycling dynamics in both carbon pools at this site.
GLP-1 (abnormal germline proliferation) is a Notch-like receptor protein that plays an essential role in pharyngeal development. In this study, an orthologue of Caenorhabditis elegans glp-1 was identified in Meloidogyne incognita. A computational analysis revealed that the orthologue contained almost all the domains present in the C. elegans gene: specifically, the LIN-12/Notch repeat, the ankyrin repeat, a transmembrane domain and different ligand-binding motifs were present in orthologue, but the epidermal growth factor-like motif was not observed. An expression analysis showed differential expression of glp-1 throughout the life cycle of M. incognita, with relatively higher expression in the egg stage. To evaluate the silencing efficacy of Mi-glp-1, transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying double-stranded RNA constructs of glp-1 were generated, and infection of these plants with M. incognita resulted in a 47–50% reduction in the numbers of galls, females and egg masses. Females obtained from the transgenic RNAi lines exhibited 40–60% reductions in the transcript levels of the targeted glp-1 gene compared with females isolated from the control plants. Second-generation juveniles (J2s), which were descendants of the infected females from the transgenic lines, showed aberrant phenotypes. These J2s exhibited a significant decrease in the overall distance from the stylet to the metacorpus region, and this effect was accompanied by disruption around the metacorporeal bulb of the pharynx. The present study suggests a role for this gene in organ (pharynx) development during embryogenesis in M. incognita and its potential use as a target in the management of nematode infestations in plants.