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The effect of free stream coherent structures in the asymptotic suction boundary layer on the initiation of Görtler vortices is considered from both the ‘imperfect’ bifurcation and receptivity viewpoints. Firstly a weakly nonlinear and a full numerical approach are used to describe Görtler vortices in the asymptotic suction boundary layer in the absence of forcing from the free stream. It is found that interactions between different spanwise harmonics occur and lead to multiple secondary bifurcations in the fully nonlinear regime. Furthermore it is shown that centrifugal instabilities of the asymptotic suction boundary layer behave quite differently than their counterparts in either fully developed flows such as Couette flow or growing boundary layers. A significant result is that the most dangerous disturbance is found to bifurcate subcritically from the unperturbed state. Within the weakly nonlinear regime the receptivity of Görtler vortices to the free stream exact coherent structures discovered by Deguchi & Hall (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 752, 2014, pp. 602–625; J. Fluid Mech., vol. 778, 2015, pp. 451–484) is considered. The presence of free stream structures results in a resonant excitation of Görtler vortices in the main boundary layer. This leads to imperfect bifurcations reminiscent of those found by Daniels (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 358, 1977, pp. 173–197) and Hall & Walton (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 358, 1977, pp. 199–221; J. Fluid Mech., vol. 90, 1979, pp. 377–395) in the context of transition to finite amplitude Bénard convection in a bounded region. In order to understand the receptivity problem for the given flow the spatial initial value problem for this interaction is also considered when the free stream structure begins at a fixed position along the wall. Remarkably, it will be shown that free stream structures are incredibly efficient generators of Görtler vortices; indeed the induced vortices are found to be larger than the free stream structure which provokes them! The relationship between the imperfect bifurcation approach and receptivity theory is described.
Antarctic coastal sea ice often grows in water that has been supercooled by interaction with an ice shelf. In these situations, ice crystals can form at depth, rise and deposit under the sea-ice cover to form a porous layer that eventually consolidates near the base of the existing sea ice. The least consolidated portion is called the sub-ice platelet layer. Congelation growth eventually causes the sub-ice platelet layer to become frozen into the sea-ice cover as incorporated platelet ice. In this study, we simulate these processes in three dimensions using Voronoi dynamics to govern crystal growth kinetics. Platelet deposition, in situ growth and incorporation into the sea-ice cover are integrated into the model. Heat and mass transfer are controlled by diffusion. We extract and compare spatial-temporal distributions of porosity, salinity, temperature and crystallographic c-axes with observations from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. The model captures the crystallographic structure of incorporated platelet ice as well as the topology of the sub-ice platelet layer. The solid fraction, which has previously been poorly constrained, is simulated to be ∼0.22, in good agreement with an earlier estimate of 0.25 ± 0.06. This property of the sub-ice platelet layer is important for biological processes, and for the freeboard-thickness relationship around Antarctica.
The suicide rate has increased significantly among US Army soldiers over the past decade. Here we report the first results from a large psychological autopsy study using two control groups designed to reveal risk factors for suicide death among soldiers beyond known sociodemographic factors and the presence of suicide ideation.
Informants were next-of-kin and Army supervisors for: 135 suicide cases, 137 control soldiers propensity-score-matched on known sociodemographic risk factors for suicide and Army history variables, and 118 control soldiers who reported suicide ideation in the past year.
Results revealed that most (79.3%) soldiers who died by suicide have a prior mental disorder; mental disorders in the prior 30-days were especially strong risk factors for suicide death. Approximately half of suicide decedents tell someone that they are considering suicide. Virtually all of the risk factors identified in this study differed between suicide cases and propensity-score-matched controls, but did not significantly differ between suicide cases and suicide ideators. The most striking difference between suicides and ideators was the presence in the former of an internalizing disorder (especially depression) and multi-morbidity (i.e. 3+ disorders) in the past 30 days.
Most soldiers who die by suicide have identifiable mental disorders shortly before their death and tell others about their suicidal thinking, suggesting that there are opportunities for prevention and intervention. However, few risk factors distinguish between suicide ideators and decedents, pointing to an important direction for future research.
In this paper, the transient response of an ice sheet subjected to sudden uplift is investigated. The ice sheet is modeled as an infinite thin plate undergoing small deflections that is being pushed vertically upwards by a rigid flatended cylinder. The water underneath the ice sheet is modeled using incompressible potential flow theory. For a given motion of the cylinder, the current problem is reduced to a Volterra integral equation of the first kind for the indentation force. It is solved by transforming the governing equation into an integro-differential equation. For the physical quantities of interest, comparisons are made with related experiments.
The effects of notch acuity (crack-tip sharpness) on the fracture toughness of S2 ice were investigated using six groups of single-edge-notched-bend (SENB) specimens with different crack (or notch) root radii fabricated by six different methods. The mean value and standard deviations of the apparent fracture-toughness values KQ of the specimens with blunt notches were significantly higher than those of the specimens with sharp cracks. The results presented in a plot of fracture toughness versus , where p is the crack-tip radius, provide an estimate of the required notch acuity for fracture-toughness testing. The microstructural features in the immediate vicinity of the crack tip and the crack-tip geometry govern the magnitude of the apparent fracture toughness of the ice. The crack-tip-opening-displacement (CTOD) measured in this study indicates the existence of microplastic deformation in the vicinity of the crack tip at the initiation of unstable fracture.
Crack propagation in saline ice (a model sea ice) is investigated in this study in an attempt to understand the processes of crack growth at one loading rate and two temperatures. As has been previously observed in cold sea ice and warm or cold fresh-water ice, crack growth occurs in initiation/arrest increments. The energetic stability criteria of crack growth are examined in saline ice and crack growth is characterized in terms of the fracture-resistance parameter KR. This paper offers the development of a new fracture geometry capable of sustained stable crack growth and the presentation of fracture-resistance curves for saline ice at −25° and −15 C. The important findings of this paper are that: (i) in warm saline ice, extensive local crack-tip damage is accompanied by a limited amount of slow, stable crack extension; (n) fracture in cold saline ice is characterized by locally negative KR behavior; and (iii) fracture in cold or warm saline ice is characterized by globally positive KR curve behavior.
Dynamic ocean-induced loading of ice has recently prompted interest in the fatigue strength of ice and, consequently, aspects of the fracture testing of ice need to be examined. One aspect in fracture testing, the effects of notch acuity on the apparent fracture toughness (KQ) of saline ice, was investigated in this study using four groups of single-edge notched-bend specimens with different crack-(or notch-) root radii, fabricated by four different methods; namely, drilling a small hole of two different radii at the crack tip, cutting a crack with a band saw and using a hand-held razor blade to scribe a sharp crack. For this study, tests were performed on saline ice using one crack length and orientation, constant thickness and constant temperature (−25°C). The mean values and the standard deviations of the apparent fracture toughness of the specimens with blunt notches were higher than those with sharp cracks. The results presented in a plot of fracture toughness versus where ρ is the crack-tip radius, provide a preliminary estimate of the required notch acuity for fracture-toughness testing of saline ice.
Through examination of line profile asymmetries and their phase-dependent behavior at high-resolution and high S/N we can determine the spatial structure (i.e., size, location, temperature, magnetic field distribution) of atmospheric inhomogeneities on stars other than the Sun (Vogt & Penrod 1983; Walter et al. 1987; Neff et al. 1989). In an effort to simultaneously probe several lines in addition to Mg II we observed the RS CVn V711 Tau (HR 1099, Prot = 2.d8, G5 IV + K1 IV) with the GHRS in the fall of 1993. Ultraviolet observations were obtained with HST's GHRS over a one week interval beginning 1993 September 14. Full details can be found in Dempsey et al. (1996; see also Wood et al. 1995). In this paper we present results of detailed modeling of the the Mg II emission profiles. Line fluxes and profile models for the emission lines were calculated using least-squares gaussian fits as described in Neff et al. (1989).
Strongly nonlinear three-dimensional interactions between a roll–streak structure and a Tollmien–Schlichting wave in plane Poiseuille flow are considered in this study. Equations governing the interaction at high Reynolds number originally derived by Bennett et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 223, 1991, pp. 475–495) are solved numerically. Travelling wave states bifurcating from the lower branch linear neutral point are tracked to finite amplitudes, where they are observed to localize in the spanwise direction. The nature of the localization is analysed in detail near the relevant spanwise locations, revealing the presence of a singularity which slowly develops in the governing interaction equations as the amplitude of the motion is increased. Comparisons with the full Navier–Stokes equations demonstrate that the finite Reynolds number solutions gradually approach the numerical asymptotic solutions with increasing Reynolds number.
Background: Children of bipolar parents are at elevated risk for psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder. Helping bipolar parents to optimize parenting skills may improve their children's mental health outcomes. Clear evidence exists for benefits of behavioural parenting programmes, including those for depressed mothers. However, no studies have explored web-based self-directed parenting interventions for bipolar parents. Aims: The aim of this research was to conduct a pilot study of a web-based parenting intervention based on the Triple P-Positive Parenting Programme. Method: Thirty-nine self-diagnosed bipolar parents were randomly allocated to the web-based intervention or a waiting list control condition. Parents reported on their index child (entry criterion age 4–10 years old). Perceived parenting behaviour and child behaviour problems (internalizing and externalizing) were assessed at inception and 10 weeks later (at course completion). Fifteen participants (4 control group and 11 intervention group) did not provide follow-up data. Results: Levels of child behaviour problems (parent rated; Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) were above clinical thresholds at baseline, and problematic perceived parenting (self-rated; Parenting Scale) was at similar levels to those in previous studies of children with clinically significant emotional and behavioural problems. Parents in the intervention group reported improvements in child behaviour problems and problematic perceived parenting compared to controls. Conclusions: A web-based positive parenting intervention may have benefits for bipolar parents and their children. Initial results support improvement in child behaviour and perceived parenting. A more definitive study addressing the limitations of the current work is now called for.