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Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) produced and released by eructation to the atmosphere in large volumes by ruminants. Enteric CH4 contributes significantly to global GHG emissions arising from animal agriculture. It has been contended that tropical grasses produce higher emissions of enteric CH4 than temperate grasses, when they are fed to ruminants. A number of experiments have been performed in respiration chambers and head-boxes to assess the enteric CH4 mitigation potential of foliage and pods of tropical plants, as well as nitrates (NO3−) and vegetable oils in practical rations for cattle. On the basis of individual determinations of enteric CH4 carried out in respiration chambers, the average CH4 yield for cattle fed low-quality tropical grasses (>70% ration DM) was 17.0 g CH4/kg DM intake. Results showed that when foliage and ground pods of tropical trees and shrubs were incorporated in cattle rations, methane yield (g CH4/kg DM intake) was decreased by 10% to 25%, depending on plant species and level of intake of the ration. Incorporation of nitrates and vegetable oils in the ration decreased enteric CH4 yield by ∼6% to ∼20%, respectively. Condensed tannins, saponins and starch contained in foliages, pods and seeds of tropical trees and shrubs, as well as nitrates and vegetable oils, can be fed to cattle to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions under smallholder conditions. Strategies for enteric CH4 mitigation in cattle grazing low-quality tropical forages can effectively increase productivity while decreasing enteric CH4 emissions in absolute terms and per unit of product (e.g. meat, milk), thus reducing the contribution of ruminants to GHG emissions and therefore to climate change.
Description of the patients initially attended by the medical area at Emergencies service that later required psychiatric assessment.
Retrospective review of the clinical histories of the previous three months (July to September) using Hospital Ramon Cajal's history software. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software 15.0 version.
55 patients were assessed, 25 male and 30 females, with an average age of 34 years old. Many of the patients were frequent users of our Emergencies service: almost half of the patients (45%) had already come between 2 and 5 times, and only 11 of them (20%) had never been there before. 74% of these patients were already receiving psychiatric care in their ambulatories.
The most frequent cause of consulting were suicidal attempts (50’9%) and drug abuse (18’2%). Up to 56’4% needed to continue been attended by a psychiatry ambulatory, 20% required hospitalization at the psychiatric unit and only 5’5% of the patients did not need any psychiatric care.
The medical area in our Emergency Service is well trained in recognizing psychiatric symptons, that is the reason why around 95% of the patients of our study needed psychiatric treatment.
Sucidial attempt is the typical case in which it is necessary a close collaboration between different medical areas that work in the Emergency service.
Immigrant population has been growing up in Spain in the last decades. The immigration process constitutes a vulnerability factor for the development of psychological issues. Moreover, ethnicity determines a great variability in the symptomatic expression of psychiatric diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the demographical characteristics and clinical profiles of immigrant patients that visit the emergency services of general hospitals.
An epidemiological study was conducted to evaluate profiles and demographical characteristics of immigrant population attended at the emergency services of the “Hospital 12 de Octubre” Madrid, during 2007. The data were acquired through a protocol developed for this study and applied to all foreign patients attended.
2976 patients were attended during 2007. Immigrant patients were 10% of the sample. There mean age was 29.46 years. 42.1% were men and 57.9% were women. The nationalities of the sample were as follow: 47.8% were Latin American, 23.7% Eastern Europeans, 16.1% were Maghribian and 4.7% were Africans. 48.2% were attended because of suicide attempt (the 59% of Latin Americans and the 54.5% of Eastern Europeans) and 14.3% had psychosis (the 42.9% of Africans and the 36.2% of Maghribians). 30% were diagnosed of a current Substance Use Disorder (the 16.9% of Eastern Europeans).
We found several clinical and demographical differences within the ethnic groups studied. Latin Americans and Eastern Europeans consult for suicide attempt, whereas Maghribians and Africans are attended for psychosis. Psychiatrists should consider cultural and ethnic factors when interviewing foreign population.
To determine the association between functional impairment, as reported in a lay-administered structured interview (CIDI), and severity of depression, depressive symptoms and risk factors for depression.
We undertook a cross-sectional study of 5442 consecutive attendees at general practices in seven Spanish provinces participating in the PredictD-Spain study on predictors of depression. Participants were administered the depression section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI 2.1), allowing diagnoses by the ICD-10 and DSM-IV classifications for depressive episodes. Impairment was measured using the CIDI question about whether symptoms seriously interfered with important areas of functioning, such as work or looking after the house and family. We measured a set of 39 known risk factors for depression.
Firstly, the 6-month prevalence of a depressive episode according to ICD-10 was 28.7% (1563) and of major depression according to DSM-IV it was 13.6% (742). Secondly, out of the 1563 patients with a depressive episode according to ICD-10, nearly half (47.9%; n=749) had no impairment in important areas of functioning.
As the ICD-10 criteria for depressive diagnoses do not include the criteria that symptoms cause impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of functioning, a large number of false positive cases are included in reported prevalence rates; and secondly, the measurement of functional impairment, at least operationalized using a lay-administered structured interview such as CIDI, is not enough, in epidemiological research studies, to assess the clinical importance of depressive symptoms.
Neurocognitive deficits are core symptoms of schizophrenia that determine a poorer outcome. High variability in the progression of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia has been described. It is still unknown whether genetic variations can affect the course of cognitive deficits. Variations in the Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene have previously been associated with neurocognitive deficits. This study investigated the association between 3 DISC1 polymorphisms (rs6675281 (Leu607Phe), rs1000731, and rs821616 (Ser704Cys)) and long-term (3 years) cognitive performance. One-hundred-thirty-three Caucasian drug-naive patients experiencing a first episode of non-affective psychosis were genotyped. Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and after 3 years of initiating treatment. Other clinical and socio-demographic variables were recorded to eliminate potential confounding effects. Patients carrying the A allele of rs1000731 exhibited a significant improvement in Working Memory and Attention domains, and the homozygosity of the A allele of rs821616 showed a significant improvement in Motor Dexterity performance over 3 years of follow-up. In conclusion, DISC1 gene variations may affect the course of cognitive deficits found in patients suffering from the first episode of non-affective psychosis.
Among patients with schizophrenia, rates of non- adherence around 40-50% have been reported. Non-adherence increases risk of relapse and it is the main cause of re-hospitalization.
The aim of this study is to describe a sample of outpatients treated with long-acting injectable risperidone (RLAI), as well as to define the retention rates to the treatment.
Outpatients treated with RLAI for some psychotic disorder during 2005 have been included in the study. Age, gender, diagnosis, drug abuse, hospitalizations, previous treatments, coadyuvant treatments, compliance with treatment and reasons for treatment withdrawal have been analyzed. Descriptive data are shown.
Seventy-six out-patients treated with RLAI have been analyzed. 55.3% of them were male, and mean age was 41.33±11.33 years. Main diagnosis were schizophrenia and schizoafective disorder (45 and 10 patients, respectively). More than 40% of patients were taking some drug of abuse. Around 75% of patients had some hospitalization in the previous 5 years, and 10.8% of them were hospitalized in 2005. Almost half of the patients were receiving oral risperidone before the start of treatment with RLAI, and 20% had been receiving depot medication. After one year, 73.7% of patients were still under RLAI treatment. The main reason for treatment withdrawal was the loss of follow-up.
Retention rates in RLAI treatment found in the present study were similar to those previously reported. Hospitalizations seem to be reduced after the start of RLAI treatment.
Varicella Zoster Virus infection is quite a common condition overseas, for which Acyclovir seems to specifically help reducing the duration and severity of its symptoms.
Some central nervous system side-effects have been described while receiving treatment with Acyclovir or one of its analogs Ganciclovir and Valacyclovir, and eventually psychiatric disturbances between them.
We report the case of an Acyclovir-induced psychosis with manic symptoms in a 22 years-old woman with no previous psychiatric history.
The patient presented with irritable mood and grandiose delusions 72 hours after starting oral Acyclovir for a chickenpox infection coursing with diseminated rash.
The patient was admitted to the psychiatric unit 2 weeks after stopping treatment, albeit symptoms persisted. She was treated with Olanzapine in first place with modest improvement and Haloperidol in second place, finally recovering her previous mental state with no residual symptoms.
There is a significant body of evidence warning about neuropsychiatric disturbances as a side-effect of treatment with Acyclovir and its analogs, specially when using intravenous administration, or in a renal failure condition. Although uncommon, psychosis with manic symptoms in young and healthy patients should be kept in mind in order to recognise it and offer best support.
Bipolar Affective Disorder is one of the ten most disabling diseases.UK Guidelines recommend that specialist opinion is saught for difficult to treat patients and our aim was to characterize the Bipolar Patients referred to a Specialist Tertiary Centre.
A consecutive sample of thirty patients referred, who met ICD 10 criteria for Bipolar Disorder, were studied. Information was collected from the patient files. Recorded variables included socio-demographic, clinical and treatment characteristics.
20% were male, 80% female. The mean age was 46.2 years old (SD 13.5).The modal age of first episode of mental illness was 18.5 years. High rates of unemployment (76.7%) and family history of mental illness (93.3%) were found. 30% were Bipolar I, 63.3% Bipolar II, and 6.7% Bipolar III. 56.7% met criteria for Rapid Cycling. 83.3% had anxiety features, 73.3% a risk of self- harm and 53.3% psychotic symptoms. Low rates of substance misuse were found.73,3% had a concurrent medical illness. The mean number of psychotrophic medications was 3.23(SD 1.54) and ECT was tried in 23.3% of the patients.
This sample had higher rate of rapid cycling than found in routine bipolar populations. The majority of patients were at a high risk of self-harm, showed features of anxiety, had a positive family history and concurrent medical illnesses which worsened their prognosis and turned them into a “very difficult to treat” group. The characteristics of the sample satisfy the referral policy of the Centre and the current and draft UK Guidelines.
This study explores the interplay of maternal depressive symptoms and use of antidepressant medication during gestation on the intranatal development of the infant limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary axis (LHPA). Infant neurologic markers at two weeks of age are also examined. Patterns of infant sleep within these groups are also explored.
In the study, pregnant women were screened for depressive symptoms using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and their symptom severity was assessed longitudinally with the Beck Depression Inventory. Women were divided into 6 risk groups: low/stable, intermediate, and high/increasing depression based upon longitudinal symptom severity and medication use. The infant neuroendocrine system was examined using cord blood ACTH and cortisol. These infants were examined at 2 weeks of age using Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS).
Infants born to women of the high/increasing depression group had significant elevations in cord blood ACTH at birth. On NNNS examination at two weeks, these infants were more hypotonic and less attentive. They habituated to stimuli more quickly and had fewer visual signs and higher skin reactivity. Infants born to women using antidepressants had further elevations in cord blood ACTH, and were found to be more tremulous and excitable during NNNS examination. Infants born to women with higher depression severity demonstrating aberrations in their early sleep patterns and sleep entrainment.
Maternal depression risk and antidepressant use may construe a different developmental pathway for development of the infant neuroendocrine axis which may impact early neonatal neurologic development.
Psychiatric illnesses have a high prevalence in the general population. Psychiatric illnesses affect the way other medical processes develop: age of onset, distribution by gender, type an evolution, and the training of the psychiatrists in caring for them.
To describe the characteristics and the medical problems of patients who have been consulted by an Internal Medicine Liaison Unit while hospitalized in the Psychiatric Unit of a third level hospital. Comparison of the general profile of these patients and their consultations with that done to patients hospitalizad in the rest of the hospital.
Descriptive retrospective study from September 2007 to May 2010. Use of a centralized database created with of all the administrative and clinical details regarding the consultation. A p ≤ 0.05 has statistical significance.
648 patients were identified (40,7% men). Mean age 52.4 years. Mean stay 3 days. 34,4% were solved in one visit. Mortality rate 0,3%. 94,1% of discharges were due to recovery, the rest were transfered to another service.
Distribution by major diagnostic groups: infectious 16,2%, cardiorespiratory 15,4%, mental illness 12,9%, metabolic 10,4%, tumoral 8,5%, digestive 8,2%, not defined 8,2%, hematologic 5%, others 15,2%.
The psychiatric patient is clearly younger and the female gender is slightly higher (59,3%) than in the control group. In this group the infectious and cardiorespiratoty illnesses predominate. The percentage of psychiatric consultations (34,1%; 648) over our global (1906) is impressive since the number of psychiatric inpatients is not proportional to this number.
Depression is highly recurrent in Bipolar patients, causes more disability than other manifestations of the illness and depressive symptoms predominate over manic and hypomanic symptoms. Our aim is to describe whether in our sample we can find some specific differences from the early course of the illness.
33 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria of Bipolar Disorder I and II whose illness onset was less than 5 years from the first Manic/ hyponamic episode or/and less than 10years from the index depressive episode. Recorded variables included socio-demographic, clinical, treatment characteristics and scales (HRSD, YMRS, BPRS, GAF).Analysis was performed using SPSS Version 12.0.
57.6% were male, 42.4% female, mean age 34.42 years. 2 Patients (6.2%) were depressed when inclusion and 8.8% had had a depressive episode before were included in our Program.
The mean number of depressive episodes was 1.88 (SD 3.58). Only 1 patient had had self-harm intent. 15.2% has first degree family history of Unipolar depressive disorder and 20% of Bipolar disorder. 6.2% were hospitalized because a depressive episode.
We found less rates of depressive episodes than we found in the literature with less sub-syndromal and syndromal depressive symptoms than in routine bipolar population that could be explained by the short course of the illness in our sample. More research should be done to study bipolar depression in early phases to find predictors that help us to decrease the high impact it has in the disorder.
Cocaine dependence disorder has been widely described. However, differences due to gender remain unknown.
To compare clinical gender differences in a large sample of cocaine-dependent patients.
We performed a cross-sectional, observational study in 902 patients (35.47 yo, 21.3% women) with a cocaine dependence according DSM-IV criteria, seeking treatment during 2005 to 2013. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected The SCID-I, SCID–II, BIS and a structured interview about cocaine-induced psychosis were performed. Simple descriptive statistics were carried out for demographic and clinical data. Bivariate analysis was made to compare the main variables by sex using SPSSvs18.0.
No differences in age of dependence onset, other clinical variables or cocaine-induced psychosis were detected. However, less cocaine used in the last month (2.12 vs 3.37g) (p < 0.009), more impulsivity (67.2 vs 63.03) (p < 0.040), and more sedative dependence (21.2% % vs 8.3%)(p< 0.00) were detected in women than in men. Affective disorders lifetime were the most prevalent (57,4%) in women. More comorbidity with anxiety disorders (p< 0.025) eating disorders (p< 0.000) and personality disorders (p< 0.039) were detected in women than in men.
Sedative dependence and anxiety disorders should be investigated in cocaine-dependent women in order to treat these conditions. Surprisingly high impulsivity level was detected and could moderate cocaine consumption. However, no difference have been found previously in studies about gender differences in cocaine-dependent patients, so this finding should be confirm in new studies.
Even at therapeutic doses, mood stabilizers do not completely address symptoms in bipolar depression. Some guidelines recommend add-on antidepressant therapy or quetiapine.
Early effectiveness of quetiapine extended release (quetiapine XR) vs. sertraline in adults with bipolar depression; treated with lithium or valproate at clinically therapeutic blood levels (change from baseline in the MADRS global score at week 2 (LOCF) endpoint). Others (secondary objectives) were measured at week 8.
Prospective, open label, randomized study of 8 weeks follow-up (D1443L00058).
27 patients were randomized to quetiapine XR (14) or sertraline (13). Mean age was 46.07 years. 17 patients (62.96%) were male. 20 (74.07%) were diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I. Mean number of previous events were 9.74. Mean baseline MADRS score was 28.23 (SD 5.86) and 29.50 (SD 5.00) for sertraline and quetiapine XR groups, respectively (p = 0.59).
Mean change in MADRS score (2 weeks from baseline) was: -6.62 (sertraline group) and -13.14 (quetiapine XR group) (p = 0.08). Final change from baseline was: -10.62 (sertraline) and -17.14 (quetiapine XR) (p = 0.1). Patients with at least one AE and one AE leading to study withdrawal were 12 and 3, respectively (quetiapine XR group); and 9 and 2, respectively (sertraline group). the most frequent AEs were somnolence, dry mouth (35.7%, 21.4%, respectively) (quetiapine XR group), and insomnia, diarrhea, dyspepsia (14.3% for each one) (sertraline group).
Numeric differences (though not significant) in favour of quetiapine XR exist for the early effectiveness of quetiapine XR in bipolar depression. Sponsorship by AstraZeneca.
Mentally ill patients have rates of medical comorbidity and mortality higher than the rest of the population. They require adequate medical care that isn't usually.
Emphasis on physical health problems affecting the mentally ill patients, analyze situations that may motivate and possible solutions.
Bibliographical review in the literature and pub med using key words: “medical comorbidity, severe mental illness, psychopharmacological treatments”
Mentally ill patients have greater medical comorbidity and higher mortality rate than the general population. in patients with schizophrenia life expectancy is 20% lower and mortality risk of 1.5–3 times higher than the rest of population. Affective disorders are associated with a standardized mortality ratio for medical reasons also high. Studies show that excess mortality in patients with severe mental illness is 60% due to natural causes and 40% to unnatural causes (28% suicide and 12% accidents). This increased mortality is mainly due to cardio-respiratory and infectious disease. Low socioeconomic class, lack of social care, poor medical care, bad habits (poor diet, sedentary, toxics) and adverse effects of psychopharmacological treatments are the main factors. Despite this, detection and treatment of physical illness is low. It is estimated that between 30% and 47% of these patients are untreated.
Improved medical care of these patients would improve their performance and quality of life. A system for each type of mental health to screening, assessment, diagnosis and treatment of somatic diseases, and a protocol for referral to appropiate medical/surgical centers are required.
Psychomotor agitation is the most common behavioural disorder observed in emergency and psychiatry departments. This syndrome is characterized by excessive or inappropriate motor or verbal activity and important emotional tension. Psychomotor agitation may be associated with medical conditions, substance intoxication/withdrawal and in a significant number of cases with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder.
The objective of this protocol was to provide up-to-date guidance to identify, manage and treat patients with an episode of acute agitation, considering the consensus clinical knowledge, current ethical standards and available therapies. This protocol is aimed to be a patient-centric tool helping to anticipate and prevent the escalation of agitation symptoms.
The method followed to elaborate this document was through a combination of comprehensive bibliographical review (complied in the article “Assessment and management of agitation in psychiatry: expert consensus” by Garriga M. et al. (World J Biol Psychiatry, 2016), interaction with patients, and the clinical experience in our centre.
The elaboration of this protocol resulted in a document that contains guidelines to identify, manage and treat patients efficiently, ethically and safely. One of the novelties of the protocol is the addition of dichotomies based on the patients’ willingness to cooperate. The information is summarized in easy-to-use algorithms for non-specialized healthcare professionals.
This protocol may provide the basis of a new standardized treatment paradigm for psychomotor agitation which may help improve the patient's experience and therapeutic alliance with the healthcare professional and optimize resources in healthcare centres.
Disclosure of interest
COI: The preparation of the protocol was funded by an unrestricted grant from Ferrer International. The company had no say on protocol content. Dr Vieta has received funding for research projects and/or honoraria as a consultant or speaker for from the following companies and institutions: AB-Biotics, Allergan, AstraZeneca, Bial, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Elan, Eli Lilly, Farmaindustria, Ferrer, Forest Research Institute, Gedeon Richter, Glaxo-Smith-Kline, Janssen, Lundbeck, Otsuka, Pfizer, Roche, Sanofi-Aventis, Servier, Shire, Solvay, Sunovion, Takeda, Telefónica, Institute of Health Carlos III [Instituto de Salud Carlos III], Séptimo Programa Marco (ENBREC), Brain and Behaviour Foundation (NARSAD) and Stanley Medical Research Institute.
Comorbidity between alcoholism and depression has long been acknowledged, and the possibility that similar brain mechanisms, involving both serotonergic (5-HT) and noradrenergic systems (NE), underlie both pathologies has been suggested. Thus, inhibitors of NE and 5HT uptake have been proposed for the treatment of alcoholism, as they have shown to reduce alcohol intake in various animal models. However, most of the studies mentioned were carried out acutely and there is a lack of knowledge of the possible long-term effects. Clinical studies report an overall low efficacy of antidepressant treatment on alcohol consumption, or even a worsened prognosis. In addition, several cases of alcohol dependence following antidepressant treatment have been reported in the literature.
We aimed at comparing the acute and chronic effects of the treatment with the antidepressant drug reboxetine on alcohol consumption.
We used a rat model of alcohol self-administration, and two different schedules of reboxetine administration (acute and chronic).
Our results confirm the acute suppressant effects of reboxetine on alcohol consumption but indicate that, when this drug is administered chronically in a period of abstinence from alcohol, it can significantly increase the rate of alcohol self-administration.
These results are important for the understanding of the clinical reports describing cases of increased alcohol consumption after antidepressant treatment, and suggest that much more research is needed to fully understand the long term effects of antidepressants, which remain the most widely prescribed class of drugs.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.