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The 'third wave' of variation study, spearheaded by the sociolinguist Penelope Eckert, places its focus on social meaning, or the inferences that can be drawn about speakers based on how they talk. While social meaning has always been a concern of modern sociolinguistics, its aims and assumptions have not been explicitly spelled out until now. This pioneering book provides a comprehensive overview of the central tenets of variation study, examining several components of dialects, and considering language use in a wide variety of cultural and linguistic contexts. Each chapter, written by a leader in the field, posits a unique theoretical claim about social meaning and presents new empirical data to shed light on the topic at hand. The volume makes a case for why attending to social meaning is vital to the study of variation while also providing a foundation from which variationists can productively engage with social meaning.
This textbook is a systematic and straightforward introduction to the interdisciplinary study of creativity. Each chapter is written by one or more of the world's experts and features the latest research developments, alongside foundational knowledge. Each chapter also includes an introduction, key terms, and critical thought questions to promote active learning. Topics and authors have been selected to represent a comprehensive and balanced overview. Any reader will come away with a deeper understanding of how creativity is studied – and how they can improve their own creativity.
The porphyrias are metabolic disorders each resulting from the deficiency of a specific enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway (Figure 30.1 and Table 30.1) [1–6]. These enzyme deficiencies are inherited as autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and X-linked traits, with the exception of porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), which usually is sporadic. The porphyrias are classified as either hepatic or erythropoietic depending on the primary site of overproduction and accumulation of porphyrin precursors or porphyrins (Table 30.2) although some have overlapping features. The hepatic porphyrias are characterized by overproduction and initial accumulation of porphyrin precursors and/or porphyrins primarily in the liver, whereas in the erythropoietic porphyrias, overproduction and initial accumulation of the pathway intermediates occur primarily in bone marrow erythroid cells.
The species–area relationship (SAR) describes a range of related phenomena that are fundamental to the study of biogeography, macroecology and community ecology. While the subject of ongoing debate for a century, surprisingly, no previous book has focused specifically on the SAR. This volume addresses this shortfall by providing a synthesis of the development of SAR typologies and theory, as well as empirical research and application to biodiversity conservation problems. It also includes a compilation of recent advances in SAR research, comprising novel SAR-related theories and findings from the leading authors in the field. The chapters feature specific knowledge relating to terrestrial, marine and freshwater realms, ensuring a comprehensive volume relevant to a wide range of fields, with a mix of review and novel material and with clear recommendations for further research and application.
During the twentieth century, IQs rose thirty points around the world (the so-called “Flynn effect”). These increases led to many positive consequences, such as more efficient burning of fossil fuels and development and use of ever more sophisticated cell phones. But the same habits that have brought many short-term benefits have proven to be powerfully destructive in the long term, as fossil-fuel use compounds global climate change and social media are used on cell phones to spread disinformation and hate-filled propaganda. People’s increasing so-called “general intelligence” seems to have been useless in leading them to guard adequately against the long-term destructive consequences of their behavior aimed at maximizing their short-term gains. They have compromised not only their own lives, but those of their children and grandchildren. Apparently, even genetic ties to future generations are not enough to prevent people from using their general intelligence to engage in species-destructive behavior, such that, ironically, their high levels of IQ may profit them in the short term but ultimately will destroy humanity and the species it takes down with it.
Current societally-entrenched conceptions of intelligence, like hand-shaking, are hard for society to give up. Whole educational systems are based on the use of tests, like the SAT, ACT, PISA, and statewide and local mastery tests, that are highly correlated with and largely proxies for conventional tests of intelligence. But these tests are proving to be as adaptive today as is hand-shaking. People are just slower to realize the full destructive power of the tests based on these conceptions of intelligence.
This book is about how adaptive intelligence needs to replace general intelligence as the construct on which our society focuses, much as our society needs to replace hand-shaking with more currently adaptive modes of greeting. The book describes what adaptive intelligence is; why it needs to replace, or at the very least, supplement current notions of general intelligence; why general intelligence has led to such world-destructive outcomes; how adaptive intelligence can be measured; how adaptive intelligence can be taught for; and how adaptive intelligence applies to the real-world problems of today.
I propose in this book that society and the scholars it supports need to return to the original definition of intelligence as “adaptation to the environment.” Intelligence as adaptation is not, and really never has been about people’s ability to solve trivial, artificial, largely meaningless multiple-choice or short-answer problems on tests designed to measure their intelligence, aptitudes, abilities, school knowledge and skills, or other such constructs. Rather, intelligence as adaptation is about people’s ability to act in ways that help to attain a collective or common good – ways that make the world a better, not a worse place. Many societies’ narrow-minded and compulsive focus on individual achievements, even those attained at the expense of the common good, has resulted in a seriously warped view of intelligence as something of a zero-sum game, where people compete with each other for higher test scores and the resulting outcomes that benefit some at others’ expense. We instead need to think collectively so as to preserve not only our own future, but that of the world as we know it and would want to know it in the future.
Some old, societally-entrenched habits, like hand-shaking, are hard to break. Yet a time may come when they become maladaptive and possibly even deadly. Today, hand-shaking is no longer adaptive: It can lead to the transmission of COVID-19, a serious and possibly fatal disease. Of course, it can lead to transmission of other diseases as well.
Two-thirds of smokers will die early from smoking-related illness. Tobacco smoke has been linked to at least thirteen different types of cancers. Smoking a half-pack a day doubles one’s risk of death and smoking a pack a day quadruples it. Two-thirds of smokers will die of smoking-related causes. A close relative of mine, anytime she sees someone smoking, does not hesitate to point out how stupid they are. Really, how could anyone be stupid enough to engage in behavior that is more likely than not to kill them, probably in what will prove to be a slow and painful death? Although fewer and fewer people smoke, at least in the United States, one in five deaths is smoking-related.
“Wait!” my colleagues in the intelligence-testing business might say. “We have a test; you don’t. And it’s the intelligence test that has single-handedly created the field of intelligence research and testing as it is today.” It is a stunning piece of technology. It is also being shown to be utterly useless for saving civilization as we know it.
Mass asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplified testing of healthcare personnel (HCP) was performed at a large tertiary health system. A low period-prevalence of positive HCP was observed. Of those who tested positive, half had mild symptoms in retrospect. HCP with even mild symptoms should be isolated and tested.
Prenatal choline is a key nutrient, like folic acid and vitamin D, for fetal brain development and subsequent mental function. We sought to determine whether effects of higher maternal plasma choline concentrations on childhood attention and social problems, found in an initial clinical trial of choline supplementation, are observed in a second cohort.
Of 183 mothers enrolled from an urban safety net hospital clinic, 162 complied with gestational assessments and brought their newborns for study at 1 month of age; 83 continued assessments through 4 years of age. Effects of maternal 16 weeks of gestation plasma choline concentrations ⩾7.07 μM, 1 s.d. below the mean level obtained with supplementation in the previous trial, were compared to lower levels. The Attention Problems and Withdrawn Syndrome scales on Child Behavior Checklist 1½–5 were the principal outcomes.
Higher maternal plasma choline was associated with lower mean Attention Problems percentiles in children, and for male children, with lower Withdrawn percentiles. Higher plasma choline concentrations also reduced Attention Problems percentiles for children of mothers who used cannabis during gestation as well as children of mothers who had gestational infection.
Prenatal choline's positive associations with early childhood behaviors are found in a second, more diverse cohort. Increases in attention problems and social withdrawal in early childhood are associated with later mental illnesses including attention deficit disorder and schizophrenia. Choline concentrations in the pregnant women in this study replicate other research findings suggesting that most pregnant women do not have adequate choline in their diets.