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Introduced species can have strong ecological, social and economic effects on their non-native environment. Introductions of megafaunal species are rare and may contribute to rewilding efforts, but they may also have pronounced socio-ecological effects because of their scale of influence. A recent introduction of the hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius into Colombia is a novel introduction of a megaherbivore onto a new continent, and raises questions about the future dynamics of the socio-ecological system into which it has been introduced. Here we synthesize current knowledge about the Colombian hippopotamus population, review the literature on the species to predict potential ecological and socio-economic effects of this introduction, and make recommendations for future study. Hippopotamuses can have high population growth rates (7–11%) and, on the current trajectory, we predict there could be 400–800 individuals in Colombia by 2050. The hippopotamus is an ecosystem engineer that can have profound effects on terrestrial and aquatic environments and could therefore affect the native biodiversity of the Magdalena River basin. Hippopotamuses are also aggressive and may pose a threat to the many inhabitants of the region who rely upon the Magdalena River for their livelihoods, although the species could provide economic benefits through tourism. Further research is needed to quantify the current and future size and distribution of this hippopotamus population and to predict the likely ecological, social and economic effects. This knowledge must be balanced with consideration of social and cultural concerns to develop appropriate management strategies for this novel introduction.
Accumulating evidence suggests that many psychiatric disorders etiologically represent the extreme end of dimensionally distributed features rather than distinct entities. The extent to which this applies to eating disorders (EDs) is unknown.
We investigated if there is similar etiology in (a) the continuous distribution of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), (b) the extremes of EDI-2 score, and (c) registered ED diagnoses, in 1481 female twin pairs at age 18 years (born 1992–1999). EDI-2 scores were self-reported at age 18. ED diagnoses were identified through the Swedish National Patient Register, parent-reported treatment and/or self-reported purging behavior of a frequency and duration consistent with DSM-IV criteria. We differentiated between anorexia nervosa (AN) and other EDs.
The heritability of the EDI-2 score was 0.65 (95% CI 0.61–0.68). The group heritabilities in DeFries–Fulker extremes analyses were consistent over different percentile-based extreme groups [0.59 (95% CI 0.37–0.81) to 0.65 (95% CI 0.55–0.75)]. Similarly, the heritabilities in liability threshold models were consistent over different levels of severity. In joint categorical-continuous models, the twin-based genetic correlation was 0.52 (95% CI 0.39–0.65) between EDI-2 score and diagnoses of other EDs, and 0.26 (95% CI 0.08–0.42) between EDI-2 score and diagnoses of AN. The non-shared environmental correlations were 0.52 (95% CI 0.32–0.70) and 0.60 (95% CI 0.38–0.79), respectively.
Our findings suggest that some EDs can partly be conceptualized as the extreme manifestation of continuously distributed ED features. AN, however, might be more distinctly genetically demarcated from ED features in the general population than other EDs.
Total vegetation control (TVC) is an essential management practice to eliminate all vegetation for the purpose of protecting infrastructure, people, or natural resources on sites where vegetation poses major fire, visibility, and infrastructure risks. TVC is implemented on sites such as railroads, power substations, airports, roadsides, and oil and gas facilities. Current research has identified that tank-mixing two effective mechanisms of action is a superior resistance management strategy compared to rotating mechanisms of action; however, effective tank mixes for TVC have not been thoroughly evaluated. A field experiment was conducted from 2013 to 2014 at five sites in Colorado to compare 32 treatment combinations to two industry standards for TVC. Research objectives were (1) to identify herbicide tank-mix combinations for TVC with multiple effective mechanisms of action for resistance management, (2) to evaluate lower use rate alternatives to minimize nontarget impacts, and (3) to determine the efficacy of fall versus spring application timings. Seven treatments were identified as top-ranking treatments, averaging 96% bare-ground (BG) across five sites and two application timings. Four out of the seven top-ranked treatments included aminocyclopyrachlor, chlorsulfuron, and indaziflam. The industry standard diuron plus imazapyr was in the top ranking, whereas the other industry standard bromacil plus diuron performed inconsistently across sites. Probability modeling was used to predict the probability of achieving 97% or 100% BG with various treatment combinations. The combination of aminocyclopyrachlor, chlorsulfuron, indaziflam, and imazapyr had the highest predicted BG probability, with 88% predicted probability of achieving 100% BG, compared to 67% and 52% predicted probabilities for the industry standards diuron plus imazapyr and bromacil plus diuron, respectively. In three of the five sites, fall applications outperformed the same treatments applied in the spring. Several top-ranking treatments represent newer, lower use rate herbicide combinations that provide multiple mechanisms of action to manage herbicide-resistant weeds and minimize nontarget impacts.
Cardiac catheterisation in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may reveal new information leading to modification of a therapeutic plan and correction of newly recognised or residual lesions. Complications associated with cardiac catheterisation during ECMO are not uncommon and often related to the access site. We report a straightforward technique for accessing the ECMO circuit to perform an emergent cardiac catheterisation in two patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome decompensated after Norwood I, due to presumed systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt obstruction.
Invasive winter annual grass infestations on rangeland accumulate large quantities of litter on the soil surface, as plants senesce yearly and decompose slowly. It has been speculated that winter annual grass litter can adsorb soil-active herbicides and reduce overall performance. Three experiments were conducted from 2017 to 2018 at the Colorado State University Weed Research Laboratory to evaluate interception and subsequent desorption of herbicides applied to litter from three invasive winter annual grass species with simulated rainfall. Imazapic, rimsulfuron, and indaziflam were applied to medusahead [Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski], ventenata [Ventenata dubia (Leers) Coss.], and downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) litter at two amounts (equivalent to 1,300 and 2,600 kg ha−1). Rainfall was simulated at 3, 6, 12, and 24 mm at 0, 1, and 7 d after herbicide application. Herbicide concentration from the collected rainfall was measured using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. At 2,600 kg ha−1, B. tectorum herbicide interception was 84.3%, while V. dubia and T. caput-medusae averaged 76% herbicide interception. There were no differences in desorption among the three litter types. Simulated rainfall at 0 d after application recovered 100% of the intercepted rimsulfuron and imazapic from B. tectorum litter, while recovery decreased to 65% with rainfall at 1 or 7 d after application. Only 54% of indaziflam could be recovered at 0 d, and recovery decreased to 33% when rainfall was applied at 1 or 7 d after application. Applying soil-active herbicides before forecasted rain or tank mixing with a POST herbicide to provide initial control could potentially increase the amount of herbicide reaching the soil and provide more consistent invasive winter annual grass control.
The unsteady lift response of an airfoil in a sinusoidal gust has in the past been modelled by two different transfer functions: the first-order Sears function and the second-order Atassi function. Previous studies have shown that the Sears function holds in experiments, but recently Cordes et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 811, 2017) reported experimental data that corresponded to the Atassi function rather than the Sears function. In order to clarify the observed discrepancy, the specific differences between these models are isolated analytically. To this end, data and analysis are confined to unloaded airfoils. These differences are related to physical gust parameters, and gusts with these parameters are then produced in wind-tunnel experiments using an active-grid gust generator. Measurements of the unsteady gust loads on an airfoil in the wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers (
and reduced frequencies between
confirm that the Sears and Atassi functions differ only in convention: the additional gust component of the Atassi problem can be scaled so that the Atassi function collapses onto the Sears function. These experiments, complemented by numerical simulations of the set-up, validate both models across a range of gust parameters. Finally, the influence of boundary-layer turbulence and the turbulent wake of the gust generator on experimental convergence with model predictions is investigated. These results serve to clarify the conditions under which the Sears and Atassi functions can be applied, and demonstrate that the Sears function can effectively model unsteady forces even when significant fluctuations in the streamwise velocity are present.
The evolution of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets through the last glacial cycle is simulated with the glacial index method by using the climate forcing from one General Circulation Model, COSMOS. By comparing the simulated results to geological reconstructions, we first show that the modelled climate is capable of capturing the main features of the ice-sheet evolution. However, large deviations exist, likely due to the absence of nonlinear interactions between ice sheet and other climate components. The model uncertainties of the climate forcing are examined using the output from nine climate models from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase III. The results show a large variability in simulated ice sheets between the different models. We find that the ice-sheet extent pattern resembles summer surface air temperature pattern at the Last Glacial Maximum, confirming the dominant role of surface ablation process for high-latitude Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. This study shows the importance of the upper boundary condition for ice-sheet modelling, and implies that careful constraints on climate output is essential for simulating realistic glacial Northern Hemisphere ice sheets.
The range and number of educational and networking events that are available for fellows, trainees, and junior faculty to attend grows every year. Each meeting useful in its own way; each adding value to the development and the growth of an interventionist. Within paediatric, congenital, and structural heart disease, three of the standout meetings are: Pediatric and Interventional Cardiac Symposium (PICS-AICS), Congenital and Structural Interventions (CSI), and International Workshop on Interventional Pediatric and Adult Congenital Cardiology (IPC). All of these were started by leaders in our field; people known to be passionate educators and innovators. International congresses focusing more broadly on congenital cardiac disease in children and adults are rare. These forums allow more interdisciplinary discussions between the interventionist, surgeon, and non-invasive specialists. Purely interventional meetings are essential to allow colleagues to debate and explore the nuances and intricacies of technique and approach, developing concepts to be challenged in wider forums. During the recent 21st PICS-AICS meeting Prof. Ziyad M. Hijazi, Shakeel A. Qureshi, Mario Carminati, and Dr Damien Kenny shared their time to engage in frank, recorded conversations which provide a unique insight in to the process and concepts behind three of our most important educational congresses.
Cold-water coral reefs are biodiversity hotspots of the deep sea. The most dominant reef-building cold-water coral in the Atlantic is Lophelia pertusa, which builds vast and structurally complex habitats. Studying the behaviours of deep-sea species is challenging due to the technological difficulties in making prolonged observations in situ, so little is known about the behavioural ecology of this important species. Observations in laboratory studies can help to enhance our understanding of the range of behaviours these species exhibit. Here we present video evidence that the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa is capable of producing mucus nets as part of their feeding strategy. This finding suggests that L. pertusa has a more diverse range of feeding strategies than previously thought.
Minimizing the negative ecological impacts of exotic plant invasions is one goal of land management. Using selective herbicides is one strategy to achieve this goal; however, the unintended consequences of this strategy are not always fully understood. The recently introduced herbicide indaziflam has a mode of action not previously used in non-crop weed management. Thus, there is limited information about the impacts of this active ingredient when applied alone or in combination with other non-crop herbicides. The objective of this research was to evaluate native species tolerance to indaziflam and imazapic applied alone and with other broadleaf herbicides. Replicated field plots were established at two locations in Colorado with a diverse mix of native forbs and grasses. Species richness and abundance were compared between the nontreated control plots and plots where indaziflam and imazapic were applied alone and in combination with picloram and aminocyclopyrachlor. Species richness and abundance did not decrease when indaziflam or imazapic were applied alone; however, species abundance was reduced by treatments containing picloram and aminocyclopyrachlor. Species richness was only impacted at one site 1 yr after treatment (YAT) by these broadleaf herbicides. Decreases in abundance were mainly due to reductions in forbs that resulted in a corresponding increase in grass cover. Our data suggest that indaziflam will control downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) for multiple years without reduction in perennial species richness or abundance. If B. tectorum is present with perennial broadleaf weeds requiring the addition of herbicides like picloram or aminocyclopyrachlor, forb abundance could be reduced, and in some cases there could be a temporary reduction in perennial species richness.
To verify the previously untested assumption that eating more salad enhances vegetable intake and determine if salad consumption is in fact associated with higher vegetable intake and greater adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommendations.
Individuals were classified as salad reporters or non-reporters based upon whether they consumed a salad composed primarily of raw vegetables on the intake day. Regression analyses were applied to calculate adjusted estimates of food group intakes and assess the likelihood of meeting Healthy US-Style Food Pattern recommendations by salad reporting status.
Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2011–2014 in What We Eat in America, the dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
US adults (n 9678) aged ≥20 years (excluding pregnant and lactating women).
On the intake day, 23 % of adults ate salad. The proportion of individuals reporting salad varied by sex, age, race, income, education and smoking status (P<0·001). Compared with non-reporters, salad reporters consumed significantly larger quantities of vegetables (total, dark green, red/orange and other), which translated into a two- to threefold greater likelihood of meeting recommendations for these food groups. More modest associations were observed between salad consumption and differences in intake and likelihood of meeting recommendations for protein foods (total and seafood), oils and refined grains.
Study results confirm the DGA message that incorporating more salads in the diet is one effective strategy (among others, such as eating more cooked vegetables) to augment vegetable consumption and adherence to dietary recommendations concerning vegetables.
Subglacial hydrology plays a key role in many glaciological processes, including ice dynamics via the modulation of basal sliding. Owing to the lack of an overarching theory, however, a variety of model approximations exist to represent the subglacial drainage system. The Subglacial Hydrology Model Intercomparison Project (SHMIP) provides a set of synthetic experiments to compare existing and future models. We present the results from 13 participating models with a focus on effective pressure and discharge. For many applications (e.g. steady states and annual variations, low input scenarios) a simple model, such as an inefficient-system-only model, a flowline or lumped model, or a porous-layer model provides results comparable to those of more complex models. However, when studying short term (e.g. diurnal) variations of the water pressure, the use of a two-dimensional model incorporating physical representations of both efficient and inefficient drainage systems yields results that are significantly different from those of simpler models and should be preferentially applied. The results also emphasise the role of water storage in the response of water pressure to transient recharge. Finally, we find that the localisation of moulins has a limited impact except in regions of sparse moulin density.
SNP in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is associated with risk of lower respiratory infections. The influence of genetic variation in the vitamin D pathway resulting in susceptibility to upper respiratory infections (URI) has not been investigated. We evaluated the influence of thirty-three SNP in eleven vitamin D pathway genes (DBP, DHCR7, RXRA, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP3A4, CYP27A1, LRP2, CUBN and VDR) resulting in URI risk in 725 adults in London, UK, using an additive model with adjustment for potential confounders and correction for multiple comparisons. Significant associations in this cohort were investigated in a validation cohort of 737 children in Manchester, UK. In all, three SNP in VDR (rs4334089, rs11568820 and rs7970314) and one SNP in CYP3A4 (rs2740574) were associated with risk of URI in the discovery cohort after adjusting for potential confounders and correcting for multiple comparisons (adjusted incidence rate ratio per additional minor allele ≥1·15, Pfor trend ≤0·030). This association was replicated for rs4334089 in the validation cohort (Pfor trend=0·048) but not for rs11568820, rs7970314 or rs2740574. Carriage of the minor allele of the rs4334089 SNP in VDR was associated with increased susceptibility to URI in children and adult cohorts in the United Kingdom.
Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) has been linked to offspring's externalizing problems. It has been argued that socio-demographic factors (e.g. maternal age and education), co-occurring environmental risk factors, or pleiotropic genetic effects may account for the association between MSDP and later outcomes. This study provides a comprehensive investigation of the association between MSDP and a single harmonized component of externalizing: aggressive behaviour, measured throughout childhood and adolescence.
Data came from four prospective twin cohorts – Twins Early Development Study, Netherlands Twin Register, Childhood and Adolescent Twin Study of Sweden, and FinnTwin12 study – who collaborate in the EU-ACTION consortium. Data from 30 708 unrelated individuals were analysed. Based on item level data, a harmonized measure of aggression was created at ages 9–10; 12; 14–15 and 16–18.
MSDP predicted aggression in childhood and adolescence. A meta-analysis across the four samples found the independent effect of MSDP to be 0.4% (r = 0.066), this remained consistent when analyses were performed separately by sex. All other perinatal factors combined explained 1.1% of the variance in aggression across all ages and samples (r = 0.112). Paternal smoking and aggressive parenting strategies did not account for the MSDP-aggression association, consistent with the hypothesis of a small direct link between MSDP and aggression.
Perinatal factors, including MSDP, account for a small portion of the variance in aggression in childhood and adolescence. Later experiences may play a greater role in shaping adolescents’ aggressive behaviour.
In the last chapter, we witnessed the unexpected entrance that Hoccleve's early poem the Epistle of Cupid makes into the ‘Dialogue’ section of the Series. When calling Hoccleve to account for his earlier works, the Friend summons to mind not Hoccleve's long poem, the Regiment of Princes, but the shorter Epistle, written some two decades earlier, in 1402, and translated from Christine de Pizan's Epistre au dieu d'amours (1399). In this chapter we will examine the Epistle in greater detail, in order to better understand the way in which the Series and the Epistle operate inter-textually, and to consider Hoccleve's use of both poems to explore matters of political and ecclesiastical division, transnational exchange, literary taste, and specific instances of royal willfulness and betrayal.
Our examination of the Epistle will position us to reconsider the role that Hoccleve fashions for himself as a poet. Robert Meyer-Lee has argued that Hoccleve's choice to translate Christine de Pizan's Epistre au dieu d'amours, immediately following Henry IV's failed attempt to lure Christine de Pizan into his court, indicates a bid for favor on Hoccleve's part – a bid that, Meyer-Lee argues, Hoccleve mismanages by eschewing the moral authority of Christine's original, and redirecting the poem towards a more ambiguous and purposefully ‘crafty’ presentation. Rather than consider the poem a demonstration of Hoccleve's own poetic cupidity – his lusting after a position of poetic power and renown – I suggest in this chapter that in the Epistle Hoccleve takes the first step towards presenting the mediating power of poetry: its potential to mediate between otherwise contentious, even dangerous, social positions through the use of allusive language. Hoccleve cultivates, therein, the role of prudent intermediary, ‘middle man’ in the most virtuous sense – a role that he will then expand on, as we will see in the coming chapters, when repositioning the figure of Chaucer in the Regiment of Princes.
In the first section of this chapter, we will examine Hoccleve's use of the language of vice and virtue in the Epistle as a means to coded political commentary. In doing so, we will situate the Epistle within a broader English tradition that uses the ‘Cupid poem’ as a means of allusive commentary on the misuse of royal power.
The stanza in which Hoccleve first names himself in the Regiment of Princes is notable not only for the way in which Hoccleve associates himself with Chaucer, but also for the way in which the mention of Chaucer brings with it an immediate commendation and blessing. This stanza not only aligns Hoccleve with Chaucer; it conspicuously affirms Chaucer's good standing in the eyes of a figure who has thus far aligned himself with the institutional church, and who has shown a distinct interest in validating Hoccleve's own religious orthodoxy: the old man. Line 1868 – ‘God have his soule, best of any wight!’ – has the air of an off-hand comment, but it speaks well to Hoccleve's main objectives for Chaucer in the Regiment: to align Chaucer clearly with orthodox Christianity to an unprecedented extent, to marry Chaucer's image with the idea of vernacular literary pursuit, and to apotheosize Chaucer – to put him forth within the social life of the poem as literally ‘best of any wight’. The nature of Chaucer's transformation into the ‘best of any wight’ in the Regiment will be the subject of this chapter.
The narrative conceit that Hoccleve uses in the first section of the Regiment, which he later reprises in his Series, appears to have its roots in Chaucer's prologue to the Legend of Good Women. There, Chaucer is called upon by the God of Love to defend his works and, implicitly, to explain his way of life as a maker of verse. In the Series, Hoccleve is quite similarly called upon to defend both his prior works and his reasons for writing the Series itself, but in the Regiment Hoccleve's approach is more personal: the old man who engages Hoccleve in conversation is more interested in examining the details of Hoccleve's person.
This book explores the work of the late-medieval English writer Thomas Hoccleve. It highlights Hoccleve’s role, throughout his works, as a religious writer: an individual who engages seriously with the dynamics of heresy and ecclesiastical reform, who contributes to traditions of vernacular devotional writing, and who raises the question of how Christianity manifests on personal as well as political levels.It suggests a role for Hoccleve as a poetic mediator, capable of mediating between the increasingly militant English church and an incipient English literary tradition, and it highlights Hoccleve’s role in transforming the figure of Chaucer in the first decades of the fifteenth century. It argues that the version of Chaucer presented in Hoccleve’s Regiment of Princes – august, devout, and conspicuously religious – is not a pre-formed artifact, but rather a Hocclevian invention; and it indicates the ecclesiastical, political, and literary contexts that make this version of Chaucer both possible and necessary.This study also situates Hoccleve’s accomplishments in a transnational poetic context – offering French and Italian precedents for Hoccleve’s moralization of Chaucer, while examining the influence of contemporary French poetry on Hoccleve’s work. It positions us to reconsider Hoccleve’s role within English literary tradition, and to better understand the way heresy and religious reform surface in late medieval poetry; and it affords us a more nuanced context for Chaucer’s positioning as a literary 'father' figure in this period.
Thomas Hoccleve has enjoyed renewed critical attention in recent years, and has been read, in turn, as a Lancastrian spokesman, a failed laureate, and a bureaucrat whose interests in creating autobiographical poetry emerge from intense anonymity in the workplace. This study takes a different approach: it situates Thomas Hoccleve as an individual who cultivates, throughout his works, the role of poetic mediator – ‘intermediary’ in the most virtuous sense, and also in the most explicitly Christian sense – and who uses his poetic works to engage with contemporary religious reform movements and religious debate. The study situates Hoccleve firmly within the context of heresy, orthodox reform, and ecclesiastical controversy – including fervent debate over the role of the Eucharist and religious images, the role and function of priesthood, and the position of laypeople within the church. It positions Hoccleve, furthermore, as a poet less interested in securing earthly fame, and more genuinely interested in creating works that contribute to the spiritual health of English society – from translating the Ars moriendi treatise from Henry Suso's Horologium sapientiae, to writing devotional poems to the Trinity and the Virgin, to using his poems to contemplate Christ's sacrifice and commenting allusively on ecclesiastical wounds, to indicating possible solutions for such wounds and offering emblems of unity in the face of clear division.
This study benefits from the revitalized critical conversation surrounding the effects on poetry of heresy, the church's response to heresy, and orthodox ecclesiastical reform both at home and abroad in the early fifteenth century. The religious turn in medieval studies of the 1990s has given way to contrasting yet invigorating debates over the effects of Archbishop Arundel's Constitutions, the role of the conciliar movement (and the Council of Constance in particular), the purposes and manifestations of ecclesiastical reform in England, and the fate of vernacular religious writing in fifteenthcentury England. These debates have led, in turn, to some re-evaluations of the role that heresy plays in Hoccleve's works – from the relevance of John Badby in the Regiment of Princes, to Hoccleve's poetic address to the Lollard knight John Oldcastle, to valences of ecclesiastical rehabilitation alongside narratives of authorial recovery in the Series.