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Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements of four electrochemically etched, porous silicon (PS) samples have been performed over a wide wavevector transfer (Q) range. The intermediate to high Q results can be modeled with a non-particulate, random phase model. Correlation length scales on the order of 1 to 2 nm thought to characterize the PS skeleton have been deduced from the SANS data. The microstructural anisotropy was studied tilting two of the samples with respect to the neutron beam. These samples exhibited an asymmetric scattering pattern at intermediate Q (0.1 ≤ Q ≥ 0.6 nm-1) in this condition. Photoluminescence spectra from all four samples have been recorded as well. A correlation appears to exist between the SANS and photoluminescence measurements. An x-ray diffraction measurement of one sample demonstrates that the PS layer retains the silicon lattice structure. Significant peak broadening is observed that we interpreted as a quasi-particle size effect The PS particle size calculated from the x-ray diffraction measurement is equal to the correlation length obtained in the SANS measurement.
Early improvement with treatment is thought to be important in patients with first-episode schizophrenia, yet a valid definition is still outstanding.
To develop a valid definition of early improvement and test its predictive validity regarding response and remission.
We examined 188 in-patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Early improvement was defined as improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at week 2, response as a 40% PANSS total score improvement at end-point, and remission according to consensus criteria.
Reasonable predictive validity of early improvement was found for a 46% PANSS total score improvement at week 2 and a 50% improvement for remission (area under the curve: response 0.707, remission 0.692). Estimated confidence intervals ranged from 26 to 62% PANSS reduction for response and remission.
Patients with a first episode of schizophrenia should improve by at least 30% in PANSS total score at week 2 to achieve response and remission.
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy is associated with a decrease in seizure frequency in partial-onset seizure patients. Initial trials suggest that it may be an effective treatment, with few side-effects, for intractable depression.
An open, uncontrolled European multi-centre study (D03) of VNS therapy was conducted, in addition to stable pharmacotherapy, in 74 patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Treatment remained unchanged for the first 3 months; in the subsequent 9 months, medications and VNS dosing parameters were altered as indicated clinically.
The baseline 28-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-28) score averaged 34. After 3 months of VNS, response rates (⩾50% reduction in baseline scores) reached 37% and remission rates (HAMD-28 score <10) 17%. Response rates increased to 53% after 1 year of VNS, and remission rates reached 33%. Response was defined as sustained if no relapse occurred during the first year of VNS after response onset; 44% of patients met these criteria. Median time to response was 9 months. Most frequent side-effects were voice alteration (63% at 3 months of stimulation) and coughing (23%).
VNS therapy was effective in reducing severity of depression; efficacy increased over time. Efficacy ratings were in the same range as those previously reported from a USA study using a similar protocol; at 12 months, reduction of symptom severity was significantly higher in the European sample. This might be explained by a small but significant difference in the baseline HAMD-28 score and the lower number of treatments in the current episode in the European study.
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