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Antibiotic rank the most powerful weapons against bacterial infection, but their use is often limited by antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Here we reported that glutamine deficiency might act as a new link between clindamycin-induced dysbiosis and intestinal barrier dysfunction during AAD progression. Using a mouse model, we demonstrated that glutamine became a conditionally essential amino acid upon persistent therapeutic-dose clindamycin expose, evidenced by a dramatic decrease in intestinal glutamine level and glutaminase expression. Mechanistically, clindamycin substantially confounded the abundance of butyrate-producing strains, lead to the deficiency of fecal butyrate which is normally a fundamental fuel for enterocytes, and in turn increased compensatory use of glutamine. In addition to its pivotal roles in colonic epithelial cell turnover, glutamine was required for nitric oxide (NO) production in classic macrophage-driven host defense facilitating pathogen removal. Importantly, oral administration of glutamine effectively attenuated clindamycin-induced dysbiosis and restored intestinal barrier dysfunction in mice. Collectively, this study highlighted the importance of gut microbiota in host energy homeostasis, and provided a rationale for introducing glutamine supplementation to patients receiving long-term antibiotic treatment.
Preoperative nutritional status plays an important role in predicting postoperative outcomes. Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI) and Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) are good tools to assess patients’ nutritional status. They have been used in predicting outcomes in various malignancies, but few studies have focused on pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. Totally, 306 PDAC patients were enrolled. The propensity score matching (PSM) method was introduced to eliminate the baseline inequivalence. Patients with different PNI (or CONUT) scores showed inequivalence baseline characteristics, and patients with compromised nutritional status were related with a more advanced tumour stage. After PSM, the baseline characteristics were well balanced. Both low PNI (≤45) and high CONUT (≥3) were independent risk factors for poor overall survival (P < 0·05), and the result remained the same after PSM. Survival analysis demonstrated both patients with low PNI and high CONUT score were associated with poorer survival, and the result remained the same after PSM. The results of AUC indicated that CONUT might have a higher sensitivity and specificity in predicting complications and survival. Preoperative low PNI (≤45) and high CONUT (≥3) scores might be reliable predictors of prognosis and surgical complications in PDAC patients. Compared with PNI, CONUT might be more effective.
The COVID-19 outbreak required the significantly increased working time and intensity for health professionals in China, which may cause stress signs.
From March 2–13 of 2020, 4,618 health professionals in China were included in an anonymous, self-rated online survey regarding their concerns on exposure to the COVID-19 outbreak. The questionnaires consisted of five parts: basic demographic information and epidemiological exposure; occupational and psychological impact; concerns during the episode; coping strategies; and the Huaxi Emotional-Distress Index (HEI).
About 24.2% of respondents experienced high levels of anxiety or/and depressive symptoms since the COVID-19 outbreak. Respondents who worried about their physical health and those who had COVID-19 infected friends or close relatives were more likely to have high HEI levels, than those without these characteristics. Further, family relationship was found to have an independent protective effect against high HEI levels. Their main concerns were that their families would not be cared for and that they would not be able to work properly. Compared to respondents with clear emotional problems, those with somewhat hidden emotional issues adopted more positive coping measures.
About a quarter of medical staff experienced psychological problems during the pandemic of COVID-19. The psychological impact of stressful events was related to worrying about their physical health, having close COVID-19 infected acquaintances and family relationship issues. Therefore, the psychological supprot for medical staff fighting in the COVID-19 pandemic may be needed.
Phase-resolved wave simulation and direct numerical simulation of turbulence are performed to investigate the surface wave effects on the energy transfer in overlying turbulent flow. The JONSWAP spectrum is used to initialize a broadband wave field. The nonlinear wave field is simulated using a high-order spectral method, and the resultant wave surface provides the bottom boundary conditions for direct numerical simulation of the overlying turbulent flow. Two wave ages of
and 25 are considered, corresponding to slow and fast wave fields, respectively, where
denotes the celerity of the peak wave and
denotes the friction velocity. The energy transfer of turbulent motions in the presence of surface waves is investigated through the spectral analysis of the two-point correlation transport equation. It is found that the production term has an extra peak at the dominant wavelength scale in the vicinity of the surface, and the energy transported to the surface via viscous and spatial turbulent transport is enhanced in the region of
. The presence of surface waves results in an inverse turbulent energy cascade in the near-surface region, where small-scale wave-related motions transfer energy back to the dominant wavelength scale. Pressure-related terms reflecting the spatial and inter-component energy transfer are strongly dependent on the wave age. Furthermore, triadic interaction analysis reveals that the energy influx at the dominant wavelength scale is due to the contribution of the neighbouring streamwise turbulent motions, and those at the harmonic wavelength scales contribute the most.
In this simulation-based study, we investigate the surface roughness signature induced by internal solitary waves in oceans. We present the first-ever effort to directly capture the surface roughness signature with a deterministic two-layer model to avoid the singularity encountered in the traditional wave–current interaction theory. By capturing over four million wave components, the simulation resolves the surface wave and internal wave dynamics simultaneously. The surface signature characterized by a rough region followed by a smooth region travelling with an internal wave is quantified by the local wave geometry variation and the wave energy change. The surface wave dynamics are analysed in the wavenumber–frequency slope spectrum calculated in the frame moving with the internal wave. The asymmetric behaviours of right-moving and left-moving surface waves are found to contribute to the surface signature formation. Our results show that the formation of the surface signature is essentially an energy-conservative process and justify the use of the wave-phase-resolved two-layer model.
The star formation history (SFH) of galaxies allow us to investigate when galaxies formed their stars and assembled their mass. We can constrain the SFH with high level of precision from galaxies with resolved stellar populations, since we are able to discriminate between stars of different ages from the spectrum they emit. However, the relative importance of secular evolution (nature) over nurture is not yet clear, and separating the effects of interaction-driven evolution in the observed galaxy properties is not trivial. The aim of this study is to use MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) Integral Field Unit (IFU) data, in combination with multi-wavelength data, to constrain the SFH of nearby isolated galaxies. We present here the new techniques we are developing to constrain the SFH with high level of precision from Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) fitting. This study is part of a China-Chile collaboration program where we are applying these new techniques to investigate how galaxies formed and evolve in different environments.
We present a study on the interaction between wind and water waves with a broad-band spectrum using wave-phase-resolved simulation with long-term wave field evolution. The wind turbulence is computed using large-eddy simulation and the wave field is simulated using a high-order spectral method. Numerical experiments are carried out for turbulent wind blowing over a wave field initialised using the Joint North Sea Wave Project spectrum, with various wind speeds considered. The results show that the waves, together with the mean wind flow and large turbulent eddies, have a significant impact on the wavenumber–frequency spectrum of the wind turbulence. It is found that the shear stress contributed by sweep events in turbulent wind is greatly enhanced as a result of the waves. The dependence of the wave growth rate on the wave age is consistent with the results in the literature. The probability density function and high-order statistics of the wave surface elevation deviate from the Gaussian distribution, manifesting the nonlinearity of the wave field. The shape of the change in the spectrum of wind-waves resembles that of the nonlinear wave–wave interactions, indicating the dominant role played by the nonlinear interactions in the evolution of the wave spectrum. The frequency downshift phenomenon is captured in our simulations wherein the wind-forced wave field evolves for
peak wave periods. Using the numerical result, we compute the universal constant in a wave-growth law proposed in the literature, and substantiate the scaling of wind–wave growth based on intrinsic wave properties.
As rarely large flake graphite (9 mesh) was recently exploited in China, it was innovatively developed as the raw material to prepare a novel wound dressing based on large expanded graphite (EG) in this work. The EG worms were prepared in an easy oxidative intercalation and thermal expansion method. Afterward, chitosan was grafted onto the surface of EG by chemical modification, forming CS-EG worms. CS-EG sponge dressings were then obtained by pressing a number of CS-EG worms together by external force. Due to the porous structure and large specific surface area, the produced CS-EG sponges exhibited outstanding adsorption capacity for wound exudate. They could also promote blood coagulation by adsorbing the blood cells and proteins quickly and effectively, showing excellent hemostatic performance. The eminent performances and the simple preparation process ensure the great application potential of CS-EG as a dressing material. This is also the first time to report the application of the traditional carbon material, EG, to act as a dressing material after chemical modification.
Multidimensional instabilities always develop with time during the process of radiation pressure acceleration, and are detrimental to the generation of monoenergetic proton beams. In this paper, a sharp-front laser is proposed to irradiate a triple-layer target (the proton layer is set between two carbon ion layers) and studied in theory and simulations. It is found that the thin proton layer can be accelerated once to hundreds of MeV with monoenergetic spectra only during the hole-boring (HB) stage. The carbon ions move behind the proton layer in the light-sail (LS) stage, which can shield any further interaction between the rear part of the laser and the proton layer. In this way, proton beam instabilities can be reduced to a certain extent during the entire acceleration process. It is hoped such a mechanism can provide a feasible way to improve the beam quality for proton therapy and other applications.
Combining density functional theory calculations and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, the adsorption behavior of various sulfur containing compounds, including C2H5SH, CH3SCH3, tetrahydrothiophene, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, and their derivatives on the coordinately unsaturated sites of Mo27Sx model nanoparticles, are studied systematically. Sulfur molecules with aromaticity prefer flat adsorption than perpendicular adsorption. The adsorption of nonaromatic molecules is stronger than the perpendicular adsorption of aromatic molecules, but weaker than the flat adsorption of them. With gradual hydrogenation (HYD), the binding affinity in the perpendicular adsorption modes increases, while in flat adsorption modes it increases first, then decreases. Significant steric effects on the adsorption of dimethyldibenzothiophene were revealed in perpendicular adsorption modes. The steric effect, besides weakening adsorption, could also activate the S–C bonds through a compensation effect. Finally, by comparing the theoretical adsorption energies with the TPD results, we suggest that HYD and direct-desulfurization path may happen simultaneously, but on different active sites.
Given the global water challenges, solar-driven steam generation has become a renewed topic recently as an energy-efficient way for clean water production. Here, a hybrid plasmonic structure consisting of a top layer of TiN nanoparticles (NPs) and a bottom layer of mesoporous anodized alumina membrane (AAM) was rationally designed and fabricated. The top TiN NPs with broadband light absorption acted as a plasmonic heating layer, which converted the absorbed light to heat efficiently for interfacial water heating. The AAM acted as the mechanical support layer, guaranteeing the heat isolation and continuous water replenishment. With optimized thickness of the TiN top layer, a solar steam generation efficiency of 87.7% was achieved in this study. This efficiency is comparable or even higher than prior studies. The current work proves the capability of the TiN NPs as an alternative photothermal material.
Blue compact dwarf galaxies(BCDs) are galaxies undergoing violent burst of star formation in compact regions. They are often thought of being an evolutionary stage of dwarf galaxies and thus can provide a unique window to study the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies. We selected a sample of 48 BCDs from the SDSS-IV MaNGA survey (MPL-7) and separated the starburst(SB) components from their underlying hosts with a new algorithm. Combining the structural properties of the BCDs, we further explore the physical connections between the SB components and theirs hosts.
Tsangpoite, ideally Ca5(PO4)2(SiO4), the hexagonal polymorph of silicocarnotite, and matyhite, ideally Ca9(Ca0.5□0.5)Fe(PO4)7, the Fe-analogue of Ca-merrillite, were identified from the D'Orbigny angrite meteorite by electron probe microanalysis, electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. On the basis of electron diffraction, the symmetry of tsangpoite was shown to be hexagonal, P63/m or P63, with a = 9.489(4) Å, c = 6.991(6) Å, V = 545.1(6) Å3 and Z = 2 for 12 oxygen atoms per formula unit, and that of matyhite was shown to be trigonal, R3c, with a = 10.456 (7) Å, c = 37.408(34) Å, V = 3541.6 (4.8) Å3 and Z = 6 for 28 oxygen atoms per formula unit. On the basis of their constant association with the grain-boundary assemblage: Fe sulfide + ulvöspinel + Al–Ti-bearing hedenbergite + fayalite–kirschsteinite intergrowth, the formation of tsangpoite and matyhite, along with kuratite (the Fe-analogue of rhönite), can be readily rationalised as crystallisation from residue magmas at the final stage of the D'Orbigny meteorite formation. Alternatively, the close petrographic relations between tsangpoite/matyhite and the resorbed Fe sulfide rimmed by fayalite + kirschsteinite symplectite, such as the nucleation of tsangpoite in association with magnetite ± other phases within Fe sulfide and the common outward growth of needle-like tsangpoite or plate-like matyhite from the fayalite–kirschsteinite symplectic rim of Fe sulfide into hedenbergite, infer that these new minerals and the grain-boundary assemblage might represent metasomatic products resulting from reactions between an intruding metasomatic agent and the porous olivine–plagioclase plate + fayalite-kirschsteinite overgrowth + augite + Fe sulfide aggregates. Still further thermochemical and kinetics evidence is required to clarify the exact formation mechanisms/conditions of the euhedral tsangpoite, matyhite and kuratite at the grain boundary of the D'Orbigny angrite.
Sexual offenses cause harm to the victims’ physical and psychological functions. This study was conducted to evaluate the risk of incident psychiatric disorders in sexual assault victims. Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database was used to conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study to assess the risk of incident psychiatric disorders in sexual assault victims and to further evaluate the respective risk estimates on the basis of diagnostic patterns. A total of 81 sexual assault victims and 324 controls matched by sex, age and residential area were included. The mean age of the sexual assault victims was 18.39 (sd 10.23) years, and 93.83% (76/81) of the sample were females. Sexual assault victims had a higher incidence density of psychiatric disorders than did the control group (9.2% per year, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–33.2% per year v. 1.1% per year, 95% CI .4–15.7% per year; p=.037). Sexual assault was an independent risk factor for incident psychiatric disorders, with an incidence rate ratio of 3.40 (95% CI 1.04–26.41) after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Assessment of psychiatric disorders should be implemented in the integrative care of sexual assault victims. Physicians providing clinical care to the sexual assault victims should receive more all-round training to understand and manage this type of violence.
A 336-cm-long sediment core spanning the last 130 ka was recovered from Lake Xingkai on the northeastern margin of the East Asian summer monsoon domain to reveal the linkage between lacustrine depositional processes and environmental changes. Bayesian end member modeling analysis was conducted to partition and interpret the grain-size distributions of Lake Xingkai sediments. Our results suggest that the sedimentary system is characterized by three end members (EMs). EM1 and EM2, with a modal value of 13 and 10 μm, respectively, indicate the variation of local hydraulic conditions. EM3, with a modal value of 5 μm, reflects the background atmospheric dust loading. High atmospheric dust concentration generally occurred during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5d, MIS 4, and early MIS 3, when the climate in the Asian dust source region was cold and dry. In contrast, low dust concentration prevailed during MIS 2, likely due to the southward shift of the westerlies driven by maximum ice volume in the high latitudes.
The microstructural evolution of precipitation in two model alloys, Fe–NiAl and Fe–NiAl–Cu, was investigated during aging at 500°C for different times using atom probe tomography (APT). The APT results reveal that the addition of Cu effectively increases the number density of NiAl precipitates. This is attributed to Cu promoting the nucleation of NiAl particles by increasing the chemical driving force and decreasing the interfacial energy. The NiAl precipitates of the Fe–NiAl–Cu alloy grow and coarsen at a slower rate than that of the Fe–NiAl alloy, mainly due to the slower diffusion rate of the Cu atoms. The mechanical properties of the two alloys were characterized by Vickers hardness and tension tests. It was found that the addition of Cu results in the formation of core–shell precipitates with a Cu-rich core and a NiAl shell, leading to a dramatic improvement of peak hardness and strength. The effect of Cu on precipitation strengthening is discussed in terms of chemical strength and coherency strength.
Environmental filtering and competitive interactions are important ecological processes in community assembly. The contribution of the two processes to community assembly can be evaluated by shifts in functional diversity patterns. We examined the correlations between functional diversity of six traits (leaf chlorophyll concentration, dry matter content, size, specific leaf area, thickness and wood density) and environmental gradients (topography and soil) for 92 species in the 20-ha Dinghushan forest plot in China. A partial Mantel test showed that most of the community-weighted mean trait values changed with terrain convexity and soil fertility, which implied that environmental filtering was occurring. Functional diversity of many traits significantly increased with increasing terrain convexity and soil fertility, which was associated with increased light and below-ground resources respectively. These results suggest that co-occurring species are functionally convergent in regions of strong abiotic stress under the environmental filtering, but functionally divergent in more benign environments due to resource partitioning and competitive interactions. Single-trait diversity and multivariate functional diversity had different relationships with environmental factors, indicating that traits were related to different niche axes, and associated with different ecological processes, which demonstrated the importance of focusing niche axes in traits selection. Between 9% and 41% of variation in functional diversity of different traits was explained by environmental factors in stepwise multiple regression models. Terrain convexity and soil fertility were the best predictors of functional diversity, which contributed 30.5% and 29.0% of total R2 to the model. These provided essential evidence that different environmental factors had distinguishing impacts on regulating diversity of traits.