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The effect of hot streaks from a gas turbine combustor on the thermodynamic load of internally air-cooled nozzle guide vanes (NGVs) and shrouds has been numerically investigated under flight conditions. The study follows two steps: one for the high-fidelity 60° combustor sector with simplified ten NGVs and three thermocouples attached; and the other for the NGV sectors where each sector consists of one high-fidelity NGV (probe NGV) and nine dummy NGVs. The first step identifies which NGV has the highest thermal load and provides the inlet flow boundary conditions for the second step. In the second step, the flow fields and thermal loads of the probe NGVs are resolved in detail.
With the systematically validated physical models, the two-phase flowfield of the combustor-NGVs sector has been successfully simulated. The predicted mean and maximum temperature at the combustor sector exit are in excellent agreement with the experimental data, which provides a solid basis for the hot-streak effect investigation. The results indicate that the second NGV, looking upstream from left, has the highest thermal load. Its maximum surface temperature is 8.4% higher than that for the same NGV but with the mean inlet boundary conditions, and 14.1% higher than the ninth NGV. The finding is consistent with the field-observed NGV damage pattern. To extend the service life of these vulnerable NGVs, some protection methods should be considered.
We generalize our previous method on the subconvexity problem for
with cuspidal representations to Eisenstein series, and deduce a Burgess-like subconvex bound for Hecke characters, that is, the bound
for varying Hecke characters
over a number field
with analytic conductor
. As a main tool, we apply the extended theory of regularized integrals due to Zagier developed in a previous paper to obtain the relevant triple product formulas of Eisenstein series.
This study examined Echinococcus spp. genotypes and genetic variants isolated from humans as well as domestic and wild animals from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Area using the cox1 gene. All samples except the pika isolates were identified as the Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto. Sixteen different haplotypes with considerable intraspecific variation were detected and characterized in mitochondrial cox1 sequences. The parsimonious network of cox1 haplotypes showed star-like features, and the neutrality indexes computed via Tajima's D and Fu's Fs tests showed high negative values in E. granulosus s. s., indicating deviations from neutrality; the Fst values were low among the populations, implying that the populations were not genetically differentiated. The pika isolates were identified as E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus. Only one haplotype was recognized in the pika isolates. E. granulosus s. s. was the predominant species found in animals and humans, followed by E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus, with high genetic diversity circulating among the animals and humans in this area. Further studies are needed to cover many sample collection sites and larger numbers of pathogen isolates, which may reveal abundant strains and/or other haplotypes in the hydatid cysts infecting human and animal populations of the QTPA, China.
This study was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of sunitinib versus interferon-alfa for the treatment of advanced and/or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in Singapore.
A partitioned survival model with three health states (progression-free, progressive disease, and death) was developed from a healthcare payer perspective over a 10-year time horizon. Survival curves from the pivotal trial of sunitinib versus interferon-alfa were extrapolated beyond the trial period to estimate the underlying progression-free survival and overall survival parametric distributions. Health state utilities were derived from the literature and direct costs were sourced from local public healthcare institutions. The sunitinib dose in the model reflected local prescribing practices whereby a combination of 50 mg (28 percent) and 37.5 mg (72 percent) strengths are used.
The base-case analysis comparing sunitinib versus interferon-alfa resulted in an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of SGD191,061 (USD139,757) per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the ICER was most sensitive to variations in the utility value assumed for the progression-free health state and the price of sunitinib.
In the absence of any price reduction, sunitinib had an exceedingly high ICER and was not considered a cost-effective use of healthcare resources in Singapore's context for the first-line treatment of advanced RCC. The findings from our evaluation will be useful to inform local healthcare decision making and resource allocations for tyrosine kinase inhibitors when appraised alongside comparative clinical effectiveness data and payer affordability considerations.
Maternal dietary patterns and macronutrients intake have been shown to affect the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the findings are inconsistent. We aimed to identify maternal dietary patterns and examine their associations with GDM risk, and to evaluate the contributions of macronutrients intake to these associations. We included 2755 Chinese pregnant women from the Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ 2 weeks before the diagnosis of GDM. GDM (n 248) was diagnosed based on the results of a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks gestation. We derived five different dietary patterns from a principal component analysis. The results showed that high fish–meat–eggs scores, which were positively related to protein intake and inversely related to carbohydrate intake, were associated with a higher risk of GDM (adjusted OR for quartile 4 v. quartile 1: 1·83; 95 % CI 1·21, 2·79; Ptrend=0·007) and higher plasma glucose levels. In contrast, high rice–wheat–fruits scores, which were positively related to carbohydrate intake and inversely related to protein intake, were associated with lower risk of GDM (adjusted OR for quartile 3 v. quartile 1: 0·54; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·83; Ptrend=0·010) and lower plasma glucose levels. In addition, dietary protein and carbohydrate intake significantly contributed to the associations between dietary patterns and GDM risk or glucose levels. These findings suggest that a dietary pattern characterised by high protein and low carbohydrate intake in pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of GDM, which may provide important clues for dietary guidance during pregnancy to prevent GDM.
Sedative–hypnotic medication use has been related to severe adverse events and risks. This study investigated the prevalence of and characteristics associated with the use of sedatives and hypnotics among community-dwelling elderly persons aged 65 years and over in Taiwan.
A representative sample of community-dwelling adults was recruited. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected for assessing physical, mental, and cognitive functioning and disorders. Sedatives and hypnotics use was determined via both self-reporting and prescription records. Logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate associations between sedative–hypnotic use and demographic and health status.
Among the 3,978 participants aged 65 years and over, the rate of sedative–hypnotic use was 19.7% (n = 785). 4.5% (n = 35) of users reported sedative–hypnotic use without a doctor's prescription. Several sociodemographic characteristics were positively associated with sedative and hypnotic use, including older age, female gender, higher education level, married status, unemployment, and current alcohol consumption. Comorbid chronic and cardiovascular diseases, mental illness, depression, pain, and sleep problems also increased the likelihood of sedative–hypnotic use.
This study is one of the largest pioneer studies to date to survey sedatives–hypnotics use among community-dwelling elderly. One in five community-dwelling older adults reported sedative–hypnotic drugs use in Taiwan, and about 5% of sedative and/or hypnotics usage was without a doctor's prescription. Findings could be helpful for drug-use safety interventions to identify target geriatric patients who are in general at higher risk of downstream harm associated with sedative–hypnotic use in geriatric patients.
Seed shape (SS) affects the yield and appearance of soybean seeds significantly. However, little detailed information has been reported about the quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting SS, especially SS components such as seed length (SL), seed width (SW) and seed thickness (ST), and their mutual ratios of length-to-weight (SLW), length-to-thickness (SLT) and weight-to-thickness (SWT). The aim of the present study was to identify QTL underlying SS components using 129 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Dongnong46 and L-100. Phenotypic data were collected from this population after it was grown across nine environments. A total of 213 simple sequence repeat markers were used to construct the genetic linkage map, which covered approximately 3623·39 cM, with an average distance of 17·01 cM between markers. Five QTL were identified as being associated with SL, five with SW, three with ST, four with SLW, two with SLT and three with SWT. These QTL could explain 1·46–22·16% of the phenotypic variation in SS component traits. Three QTL were identified in more than six tested environments three for SL, two for SW, one for ST, two for SLW and one for SLT. These QTL have great potential value for marker-assistant selection of SS in soybean seeds.
Daidzein, an isoflavonic phytoestrogen, is presented in bean legumes (Zheng et al, 2002). Feeding the isoflavons-containing herbage can promote udder growth and lactation in sheep and cow (Millington, 1964). The diets with daidzein added prompt growth development and lactation in rats, pigs, and sheep, which is possibly due to the effect of daidzein on the endocrine system and metabolism (Han, 1999). The objective of this study is to determine the effect of daidzein on the plasma contents of some hormones in first foetus dairy cows.
Italian ryegrass has invaded wheat ﬁelds in China and is becoming a predominant, troublesome weed. Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl has been widely used for weed control on Chinese farms since the 1990s. However, overuse has led to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Italian ryegrass in Chinese wheat fields. In this study, we identified a putative fenoxaprop-P-ethyl–resistant population of Italian ryegrass, HZYC-6, from Henan province, China. Mutations involving Asp-2078-Gly and Ile-1781-Leu substitutions were identified in the carboxyl-transferase domain of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in this population, and these mutations are the likely cause of the target site–based resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. In addition, we identified cytochrome P450–mediated metabolism of herbicides (non–target site based resistance) in the HZYC-6 population, indicating that multiple mechanisms of resistance may be segregating in this population. Furthermore, HZYC-6 was also highly resistant to haloxyfop-R-methyl and quizalofop-P-ethyl, moderately resistant to clodinafop-propargyl and sethoxydim, and had low resistance to clethodim and pinoxaden.
The aim of this study was to explore perinatal and early postnatal outcomes in fetuses with prenatally diagnosed d-transposition of the great arteries and impacts of standardised prenatal consultation.
All fetuses with prenatally diagnosed d-transposition of the great arteries prospectively enrolled at South China cardiac centre from 2011 to 2015. Standardised prenatal consultation was introduced in 2013 and comprehensive measures were implemented, such as establishing fetal CHD Outpatient Consultation Service, performing standard prenatal consultation according to specifications, and establishing a multidisciplinary team with senior specialists performing in-person consultations. Continuous follow-up investigation was conducted. Perinatal and postnatal outcomes were compared before and after consultation including live birth, elective termination of pregnancy, spontaneous fetal death, stillbirths, referral for surgery, and survival.
In all, 146 fetuses were enrolled with 41 (28%) lost to follow-up. Among 105 remaining fetuses, 29 (28%) were live births and 76 (72%) were terminated. After consultation, live birth rate was higher (50 versus 33%) and termination rate was lower (50 versus 76%), although there was no statistical significance. Excluding three live births without postnatal d-transposition of the great arteries, 65% (17/26) underwent arterial switch operation within 30 days. A total of three in-hospital deaths occurred and during the 10-month follow-up period, one death was observed. In one case, the switch procedure was performed at 13 months and the infant survived. Out of eight infants without arterial switch operation, two died.
Live birth rate increased after consultation; however, termination remained high. Combining termination, patients without arterial switch operation, and operative mortality, outcomes of d-transposition of the great arteries infants can be improved. Standard consultation, multidisciplinary collaboration, and improved perinatal care are important to improve outcomes.
Lutein benefits human health significantly, including that of the eyes, skin and heart. Therefore, increasing lutein content in soybean seeds is an important objective for breeding programmes. However, no information about soybean lutein-related quantitative trait loci (QTL) has been reported, as of 2016. The aim of the present study was to identify QTLs underlying the lutein content in soybean seeds. A population including 129 recombinant inbred lines was developed from the cross between ‘Dongnong46’ (lutein 13·10 µg/g) and ‘L-100’ (lutein 23·96 µg/g), which significantly differed in seed lutein contents. This population was grown in ten environments including Harbin in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015; Hulan in 2013, 2014 and 2015; and Acheng in 2013, 2014 and 2015. A total of 213 simple sequence repeat markers were used to construct the genetic linkage map, which covered approximately 3623·39 cM, with an average distance of 17·01 cM between markers. In the present study, eight QTLs associated with lutein content were found initially, which could explain 1·01–19·66% of the observed phenotypic variation in ten different tested environments. The phenotypic contribution of qLU-1 (located near BARC-Satt588 on chromosome 9 (Chr 9; linkage group (LG) K)) was >10% across seven tested environments, while qLU-2 (located near Satt192 of Chr 12 (LG H)) and qLU-3 (located near Satt353 of Chr12 (LGH)) could explain 5–10% of the observed phenotypic variation in more than seven environments, respectively. qLU-5, qLU-6, qLU-7 and qLU-8 could be detected in more than four environments. These eight QTLs were novel, and have considerable potential value for marker-assistant selection of higher lutein content in soybean lines.
Interactions between human lysozyme (HL) and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Klebsiella pneumoniae O1, a causative agent of lung infection, were identified by surface plasmon resonance. To characterize the molecular mechanism of this interaction, HL binding to synthetic disaccharides and tetrasaccharides representing one and two repeating units, respectively, of the O-chain of this LPS were studied. pH-dependent structural rearrangements of HL after interaction with the disaccharide were observed through nuclear magnetic resonance. The crystal structure of the HL-tetrasaccharide complex revealed carbohydrate chain packing into the A, B, C, and D binding sites of HL, which primarily occurred through residue-specific, direct or water-mediated hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts. Overall, these results support a crucial role of the Glu35/Asp53/Trp63/Asp102 residues in HL binding to the tetrasaccharide. These observations suggest an unknown glycan-guided mechanism that underlies recognition of the bacterial cell wall by lysozyme and may complement the HL immune defense function.
This study was conducted to estimate prevalence rates and risk factors for late-life depression in a large nationwide representative sample from Taiwan.
A total of 5,664, randomly sampled individuals aged ≥55 years were enrolled. Clinically, relevant depressive symptoms were classified using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D score ≥16), and major depression was confirmed using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Individuals with clinically relevant depressive symptoms, who did not meet the strict diagnostic criteria for major depression, were considered to have minor depression. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for major and minor depression, including socio-demographic characteristics, medical conditions, lifestyle behaviors, social support network, and life events.
The prevalence rates of minor and major depression were 3.7% and 1.5%, respectively. Major depression was associated with personal vulnerability factors, such as poor social support, cognitive impairment, comorbid pain conditions, and sleep disturbance. However, minor depression was more likely to be related to adverse life events, including increased burden on families, changes in health status, or relationship problem. Approximately, 20.0% of individuals with major depression received antidepressant treatment.
Late-life depression was less prevalent among community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan than among populations in other countries. Our findings may aid the early detection and treatment of late-life depression and provide a basis for future investigations.
To describe the characteristics and impact of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in a long-term acute-care hospital (LTACH).
Retrospective matched cohort study.
A 38-bed, urban, university-affiliated LTACH.
The characteristics of LTACH-onset CDI were assessed among patients hospitalized between July 2008 and October 2015. Patients with CDI were matched to concurrently hospitalized patients without a diagnosis of CDI. Severe CDI was defined as CDI with 2 or more of the following criteria: age ≥65 years, serum creatinine ≥2 mg/dL, or peripheral leukocyte count ≥20,000 cells/μL. A conditional Poisson regression model was developed to determine characteristics associated with a composite primary outcome of 30-day readmission to an acute-care hospital, or mortality.
The overall incidence of CDI was 21.4 cases per 10,000 patient days, with 27% of infections classified as severe. Patients with CDI had a mean age of 70 years (SD, 14 years), a mean Charlson comorbidity index of 3.6 (SD, 2.0), a median length of stay of 33 days (interquartile range [IQR], 24–45 days), and a median time between admission and CDI diagnosis of 16 days (IQR, 9–23 days). The most commonly prescribed antibiotic preceding a CDI diagnosis was a cephalosporin, with median duration of 8 days (IQR, 4–14 days). In multivariate analysis, CDI was not significantly associated with the primary outcome (relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.59–1.58).
Incidence of CDI in an urban, university-affiliated LTACH was high. Future research should focus on infection prevention measures to decrease the burden of CDI in this complex patient population.