To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We present the third data release from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. The release contains observations of 32 pulsars obtained using the 64-m Parkes “Murriyang” radio telescope. The data span is up to 18 years with a typical cadence of 3 weeks. This data release is formed by combining an updated version of our second data release with ∼ 3 years of more recent data primarily obtained using an ultra-wide-bandwidth receiver system that operates between 704 and 4032 MHz. We provide calibrated pulse profiles, flux-density dynamic spectra, pulse times of arrival, and initial pulsar timing models. We describe methods for processing such wide-bandwidth observations, and compare this data release with our previous release.
The appendix outlines the micronations that we have explored or examined in this book. As we have noted, the nature of micronationalism and the ease with which they can be founded (and abandoned) means that our list and our study is necessarily incomplete. We have nonetheless endeavoured to note some of the more prominent micronations. In doing so, our list focuses on those that claim physical territory rather than virtual entities.
In declaring independence, drafting a constitution, regulating citizenship and issuing passports, micronations position themselves as rival sites of authority. In this chapter, we explore the different ways that internationally recognised states respond to micronations’ claims to sovereignty. This chapter reveals that even though micronations are largely ignored in the international relations, political science and legal literature, in practice states must take notice and consider appropriate ways to engage. In some cases, perceiving their existence as a provocation or threat to their own claims of authority and to jurisdiction, states act in swift and decisive ways to foreclose micronations’ scope of action. In other cases, states determine to ignore micronations, considering them to be unserious or unthreatening. In all circumstances, however, states deny the international legal personality of micronations and ensure that any encounter occurs entirely within and according to domestic law.
This chapter develops a detailed conceptual framework for micronations to better understand and interrogate their common features and considerable diversity. It does so by comparing and contrasting micronations to recognised sovereign states and other state-like entities. As we explain, a wide variety of entities with more or less effective government, more or less legitimate claims to statehood, and more or less recognition and acceptance by individual states and the international community, exist around the world. By developing a ‘statehood spectrum’ along which a range of state and state-like entities may be placed, these complexities can be unravelled and a clearer picture of what makes micronations distinct emerges. We find that micronations are self-declared nations that perform and mimic acts of sovereignty, and adopt many of the protocols of nations, but lack a foundation in domestic and international law for their existence and are not recognised as nations in domestic or international forums.
In 1967, Roy Bates, a former major in the British Army, declared himself the ruler of a decommissioned offshore naval fort outside the United Kingdom’s territorial waters in an effort to bypass legal restrictions on radio broadcasting. In 1977, Leonard Casley of the Principality of Hutt River, a 75-square-kilometre wheat farm, cabled a telegram to the Governor-General of Australia declaring war in an attempt to force his larger neighbour to recognise the Principality’s sovereignty. In 1992, Dean Kamen, the inventor of the Segway and ruler of the Kingdom of North Dumpling, a three-acre island off the coast of Connecticut, convinced his friend, President George HW Bush, to sign a faux non-aggression pact between their two countries. Micronations challenge and seek to engage with recognised states in diverse ways. Although none of these micronations achieved legal recognition, they considered their efforts a success. In compelling the state to respond, they considered that the state treated them – if only for a moment – as an equal.
In our conclusion, we consider the future of micronationalism. We begin by outlining five major themes gleaned from our exploration of micronations. We examine the relationship between micronations and recognised states, the creativity needed to identify supposed fissures in international and domestic law to build a (doomed) case for independence, the diversity of this phenomenon, the transitory nature of micronations, and the gendered quality of micronationalism. Recognising the varied motivations that underpin the decision to establish one’s own country, we then consider in detail the value gained by claiming statehood. Finally, we conclude by asking whether micronations succeed or fail. Even though no micronation has ever become a recognised sovereign state, we argue that the future of micronationalism is anything but gloomy.
Micronations are incredibly diverse. Some micronations are speculative experiments in statehood, perhaps utopian examples of how nations could or should be organised. Others are established for personal entertainment, fantasy or artistic expression. Where a town or small community supports the idea, micronationalism can even promote tourism and deliver an economic boost to a region. Others still are formed to challenge and critique statehood and sovereign authority or as a way to make quick money by fair or foul means. Some of the more enduring micronations emerge as personal grievances take on a political dimension as anger, frustration and desperation push individuals into taking extreme action. In this chapter, we undertake a survey of some of the most prominent micronations by focusing on the myriad of (often overlapping) motivations for their creation. This study complements our definition and conceptual framework, explored in the previous chapter, by expanding our knowledge of the justifications provided for micronations and the assorted rationales that underlie their assertions of statehood.
Micronations challenge existing conceptions of statehood and international legal personality. They do so by engaging in the rituals of statehood rather than contesting them. In practice, this means that although usually unqualified or unskilled in law, proponents act through their understanding of the law rather than acting outside the law. In this chapter we explore in more detail how micronations assert and perform sovereignty. We examine the legal instruments that micronationalists identify when seeking to find a lawful basis to justify secession and proclaim their independence, and outline their strained legal arguments.
Political disagreement is a fact of life. It can prompt people to stand for public office and agitate for political change. Others take a different route; they start their own nation. Micronations and the Search for Sovereignty is the first comprehensive examination of the phenomenon of people purporting to secede and create their own country. It analyses why micronations are not states for the purposes of international law, considers the factors that motivate individuals to separate and found their own nation, examines the legal justifications that they offer and explores the responses of recognised sovereign states. In doing so, this book develops a rich body of material through which to reflect on conventional understandings of statehood, sovereignty and legitimate authority. Authored in a lively and accessible style, Micronations and the Search for Sovereignty will be valuable reading for scholars and general audiences.
Identify risk factors that could increase progression to severe disease and mortality in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients in the Southeast region of the United States.
Design, setting, and participants:
Multicenter, retrospective cohort including 502 adults hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and May 8, 2020 within 1 of 15 participating hospitals in 5 health systems across 5 states in the Southeast United States.
The study objectives were to identify risk factors that could increase progression to hospital mortality and severe disease (defined as a composite of intensive care unit admission or requirement of mechanical ventilation) in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients in the Southeast United States.
In total, 502 patients were included, and 476 of 502 (95%) had clinically evaluable outcomes. The hospital mortality rate was 16% (76 of 476); 35% (177 of 502) required ICU admission and 18% (91 of 502) required mechanical ventilation. By both univariate and adjusted multivariate analyses, hospital mortality was independently associated with age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.03 for each decade increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-–2.69), male sex (aOR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.34–4.59), and cardiovascular disease (aOR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.15–4.09). As with mortality, risk of severe disease was independently associated with age (aOR, 1.17 for each decade increase; 95% CI, 1.00–1.37), male sex (aOR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.54–3.60), and cardiovascular disease (aOR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.09–2.85).
In an adjusted multivariate analysis, advanced age, male sex, and cardiovascular disease increased risk of severe disease and mortality in patients with COVID-19 in the Southeast United States. In-hospital mortality risk doubled with each subsequent decade of life.
We describe 14 yr of public data from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA), an ongoing project that is producing precise measurements of pulse times of arrival from 26 millisecond pulsars using the 64-m Parkes radio telescope with a cadence of approximately 3 weeks in three observing bands. A comprehensive description of the pulsar observing systems employed at the telescope since 2004 is provided, including the calibration methodology and an analysis of the stability of system components. We attempt to provide full accounting of the reduction from the raw measured Stokes parameters to pulse times of arrival to aid third parties in reproducing our results. This conversion is encapsulated in a processing pipeline designed to track provenance. Our data products include pulse times of arrival for each of the pulsars along with an initial set of pulsar parameters and noise models. The calibrated pulse profiles and timing template profiles are also available. These data represent almost 21 000 h of recorded data spanning over 14 yr. After accounting for processes that induce time-correlated noise, 22 of the pulsars have weighted root-mean-square timing residuals of
in at least one radio band. The data should allow end users to quickly undertake their own gravitational wave analyses, for example, without having to understand the intricacies of pulsar polarisation calibration or attain a mastery of radio frequency interference mitigation as is required when analysing raw data files.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
We have observed the Vela pulsar for 1 year using a Phased Array Feed (PAF) receiver on the 12-m antenna of the Parkes Test-Bed Facility (PTF). These observations have allowed us to investigate the stability of the PAF beam weights over time, to demonstrate that pulsars can be timed over long periods using PAF technology and to detect and study the most recent glitch event that occurred on 12 December 2016. The beam weights are shown to be stable to 1% on time scales on the order of three weeks.
Radio continuum surveys are equally sensitive to all pulsars, not affected by dispersion measure smearing, scattering or orbital modulation of spin periods, and therefore allow us to search for extreme pulsars, such as sub-millisecond pulsars, pulsar-black hole systems and pulsars in the Galactic Centre. As we move towards the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) era, searching for pulsars in continuum images will complement conventional pulsar searches, and make it possible to find extreme objects.
We have observed the Vela pulsar for 1 year using a phased array feed receiver on the 12-m antenna of the Parkes Test-Bed Facility. These observations have allowed us to investigate the stability of the phased array feed beam weights over time, to demonstrate that pulsars can be timed over long periods using phased array feed technology and to detect and study the most recent glitch event that occurred on 2016 December 12. The beam weights are shown to be stable to 1% on time scales on the order of three weeks. We discuss the implications of this for monitoring pulsars using phased array feeds on single dish telescopes.
During 2016 February, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science and the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy installed, commissioned, and carried out science observations with a phased array feed receiver system on the 64-m diameter Parkes radio telescope. Here, we demonstrate that the phased array feed can be used for pulsar observations and we highlight some unique capabilities. We demonstrate that the pulse profiles obtained using the phased array feed can be calibrated and that multiple pulsars can be simultaneously observed. Significantly, we find that an intrinsic polarisation leakage of −31 dB can be achieved with a phased array feed beam offset from the centre of the field of view. We discuss the possibilities for using a phased array feed for future pulsar observations and for searching for fast radio bursts with the Parkes and Effelsberg telescopes.