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Cognitive theories of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) posit that cognitive and behavioural factors maintain the disorder. This study examined whether avoidance and safety behaviours mediated the relationship between cognitive factors and GAD symptoms. We also examined the reverse mediation model; that is, whether cognitive factors mediated the relationship between maladaptive behaviours and GAD symptoms. Undergraduate psychology students (N = 125 and N = 292) completed the Worry Behaviours Inventory (a recently developed measure of maladaptive behaviours associated with GAD), in addition to measures of intolerance of uncertainty, cognitive avoidance, metacognitive beliefs, and symptoms of GAD and depression. Analyses supported the reliability and validity of the WBI. We consistently found that engagement in maladaptive behaviours significantly mediated the relationship between cognitive factors and symptoms of GAD. The reverse mediation model was also supported. Our results are consistent with the contention that cognitive and behavioural factors contribute to GAD symptom severity.
Invasive rodents detrimentally affect native bird species on many islands worldwide, and rodent eradication is a useful tool to safeguard endemic and threatened species. However, especially on tropical islands, rodent eradications can fail for various reasons, and it is unclear whether the temporary reduction of a rodent population during an unsuccessful eradication operation has beneficial effects on native birds. Here we examine the response of four endemic land bird species on subtropical Henderson Island in the Pitcairn Island Group, South Pacific Ocean, following an unsuccessful rodent eradication in 2011. We conducted point counts at 25 sampling locations in 14 survey periods between 2011 and 2015, and modelled the abundance trends of all species using binomial mixture models accounting for observer and environmental variation in detection probability. Henderson Reed Warbler Acrocephalus taiti more than doubled in abundance (2015 population estimate: 7,194-28,776), and Henderson Fruit Dove Ptilinopus insularis increased slightly between 2011 and 2015 (2015 population estimate: 4,476–10,072), while we detected no change in abundance of the Henderson Lorikeet Vini stepheni (2015 population estimate: 554–3014). Henderson Crake Zapornia atra increased to pre-eradication levels following anticipated mortality during the operation (2015 population estimate: 4,960–20,783). A temporary reduction of rat predation pressure and rat competition for fruit may have benefitted the reed warbler and the fruit dove, respectively. However, a long drought may have naturally suppressed bird populations prior to the rat eradication operation in 2011, potentially confounding the effects of temporary rat reduction and natural recovery. We therefore cannot unequivocally ascribe the population recovery to the temporary reduction of the rat population. We encourage robust monitoring of island biodiversity both before and after any management operation to better understand responses of endemic species to failed or successful operations.
Background: Cognitive models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) suggest that maladaptive behaviours may contribute to the maintenance of the disorder; however, little research has concentrated on identifying and measuring these behaviours. To address this gap, the Worry Behaviors Inventory (WBI) was developed and has been evaluated within a classical test theory (CTT) approach. Aims: As CTT is limited in several important respects, this study examined the psychometric properties of the WBI using an Item Response Theory approach. Method: A large sample of adults commencing treatment for their symptoms of GAD (n = 537) completed the WBI in addition to measures of GAD and depression symptom severity. Results: Patients with a probable diagnosis of GAD typically engaged in four or five maladaptive behaviours most or all of the time in an attempt to prevent, control or avoid worrying about everyday concerns. The two-factor structure of the WBI was confirmed, and the WBI scales demonstrated good reliability across a broad range of the respective scales. Together with previous findings, our results suggested that hypervigilance and checking behaviours, as well as avoidance of saying or doing things that are worrisome, were the most relevant maladaptive behaviours associated with GAD, and discriminated well between adults with low, moderate and high degrees of the respective WBI scales. Conclusions: Our results support the importance of maladaptive behaviours to GAD and the utility of the WBI to index these behaviours. Ramifications for the classification, theoretical conceptualization and treatment of GAD are discussed.
Consecutive admissions of 214 women with borderline personality disorder were investigated for patterns of specific forms of self-harm and reported developmental experiences. Systematic examination of clinical notes found that 75% had previously reported a history of childhood sexual abuse. These women were more likely to self-harm, and in specific ways that may reflect their past experiences. Despite this, treatment within a dialectical behaviour therapy-informed therapeutic community leads to relatively greater clinical gains than for those without a reported sexual abuse trauma history. Notably, greater behavioural and self-reported distress and dissociation were not found to predict poor clinical outcome.
Internet cognitive–behavioural therapy (iCBT) for panic disorder of up to 10 lessons is well established. The utility of briefer programmes is unknown.
To determine the efficacy and effectiveness of a five-lesson iCBT programme for panic disorder.
Study 1 (efficacy): Randomised controlled trial comparing active iCBT (n=27) and waiting list control participants (n=36) on measures of panic severity and comorbid symptoms. Study 2 (effectiveness): 330 primary care patients completed the iCBT programme under the supervision of primary care practitioners.
iCBT was significantly more effective than waiting list control in reducing panic (g=0.97, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.61), distress (g=0.92, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.55), disability (g=0.81, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.44) and depression (g=0.79, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.41), and gains were maintained at 3 months post-treatment (iCBT group). iCBT remained effective in primary care, but lower completion rates were found (56.1% in study 2 v. 63% in study 1). Adherence appeared to be related to therapist contact.
The five-lesson Panic Program has utility for treating panic disorder, which translates to primary care. Adherence may be enhanced with therapist contact.
Background: The use of maladaptive behaviors by individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is theoretically important and clinically meaningful. However, little is known about the specificity of avoidant behaviors to GAD and how these behaviors can be reliably assessed. Aims: This study replicated and extended the psychometric evaluation of the Worry Behaviors Inventory (WBI), a brief self-report measure of avoidant behaviors associated with GAD. Method: The WBI was administered to a hospital-based sample of adults seeking treatment for symptoms of anxiety and/or depression (n = 639) and to a community sample (n = 55). Participants completed measures of symptom severity (GAD, depression, panic disorder, health anxiety, and personality disorder), and measures of checking, reassurance-seeking and behavioral inhibition. Analyses evaluated the factor structure, convergent, divergent, incremental, and discriminant validity, as well the temporal stability and treatment sensitivity of the WBI. Results: The two-factor structure found in the preliminary psychometric evaluation of the WBI was replicated. The WBI was sensitive to changes across treatment and correlated well with measures of GAD symptom severity and maladaptive behaviors. The WBI was more strongly related to GAD symptom severity than other disorders. The WBI discriminated between clinical and community samples. Conclusions: The WBI provides clinicians and researchers with a brief, clinically meaningful index of problematic behaviors that may guide treatment decisions and contribute to our understanding of maintaining factors in GAD.
IN RECENT TIMES there has been a growing recognition that some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and communities have been harmed and even divided by those who question their very right to identify as ‘Indigenous or not’ (Bodkin-Andrews & Carlson 2016; New South Wales Aboriginal Education Consultative Group [NSW AECG] 2011). Numerous scholars have suggested that such ‘questions’ are an unfortunate extension of the continual epistemological violence (a pressure on ways of knowing) that has sought to eradicate the diverse world views, histories, and knowledges of our peoples since colonisation (Bodkin 2013a; Moreton-Robinson 2011; Nakata 2012), and that they result in the emergence of stereotypical accusations of ‘inauthenticity’, ‘wanna-be-Aborigines’, ‘welfare-blacks’, ‘fragmentation’ and ‘cultural absurdity’ (Behrendt 2006). It is the purpose of this chapter to highlight the existence of this form of epistemological and identity-based violence and explain how it threatens our communities. In addition, such violence will be challenged by focusing on the strength of diverse world views, knowledges and unique stories that exist within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities today. We also offer you a traditional D'harawal Law Story as the central case study within this chapter. This Law Story holds valuable insights that may guide individuals and communities towards a stronger and more resilient future.
Many respected Indigenous scholars have argued that it is critical that people who seek to work within Aboriginal communities be aware of, and transparent about, their own ways of knowing, and how this may bias their learning and actions (Foley 2003; Linklater 2014; Kovach 2009; Rigney 1999; Smith 2012). As a result, it should be understood that this chapter is written through a lens shared by the authors. This lens emanates from clans within the D'harawal nation or language group located in south-west Sydney, Australia. In our own ways, we have each struggled against the longstanding and continuing impact of colonisation, ranging from popular media misinformation to our location, learnings, stories and oral histories being contested by quasi-anthropological works relying on, and selectively ignoring, conflicting evidence from the diaries and scribblings of the early colonisers (cf. Kohen 1993).
We analyze phosphorus (P)- and boron (B)-doped silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) with various compositions of silicon-rich oxide using atom probe tomography. By creating Si iso-concentration surfaces, it is confirmed that there are two types of Si NC networks depending on the amount of excess Si. A proximity histogram shows that P prefers to locate inside the Si NCs, whereas B is more likely to reside outside the Si NCs. We discuss the difference in a preferential location between P and B by a segregation coefficient.
We determined the profitability and risk for spring- and fall-calving beef cows in Tennessee. Simulation models were developed using 19 years of data and considered the seasonality of cattle prices and feed prices for least-cost feed rations to find a distribution of net returns for spring- and fall-calving seasons for two weaning months. Fall calving was more profitable than the spring calving for all feed rations and weaning months. Fall calving was also risk preferred over spring calving for all levels of risk aversion. Higher calf prices at weaning were the primary factor influencing the risk efficiency of fall calving.
Building on the pioneering research of a small number of gerontologists, this paper explores the rarely trodden common ground between the academic domains of social gerontology and modern history. Through empirical research it illustrates the complex networking that exists through space and time in the relational making of people and places. Indeed, the study focuses specifically on the lived reality and ongoing significance of life on the small-town British coastal homefront during World War II. Seventeen interviews with older residents of Teignmouth, Devon, United Kingdom, investigate two points in their lives: the ‘then’ (their historical experiences during this period) and the ‘then and now’ (how they continue to reverberate). In particular, their stories illustrate the relationalities that make each of these points. The first involves residents’ unique interactions during the war with structures and technologies (such as rules, bombs and barriers) and other people (such as soldiers and outsiders) which themselves were connected to wider historical, social, political and military networks. The second involves residents’ perceptions of their own and their town's wartime histories, how this gels or conflicts with public awareness, and how this history connects to their current lives. The paper closes with some thoughts on bringing together the past, present and older people in the same scholarship.
We present results from a Mopra 7 mm-wavelength survey that targeted the dense gas-tracing CS(1-0) transition towards the young γ-ray-bright supernova remnant, RX J1713.7–3946 (SNR G 347.3−0.5). In a hadronic γ-ray emission scenario, where cosmic ray (CR) protons interact with gas to produce the observed γ-ray emission, the mass of potential CR target material is an important factor. We summarise newly discovered dense gas components, towards Cores G and L, and Clumps N1, N2, N3, and T1, which have masses of 1 – 104 M⊙. We argue that these components are not likely to contribute significantly to γ-ray emission in a hadronic γ-ray emission scenario. This would be the case if RX J1713.7–3946 were at either the currently favoured distance of ~1 kpc or an alternate distance (as suggested in some previous studies) of ~6 kpc.
This survey also targeted the shock-tracing SiO molecule. Although no SiO emission corresponding to the RX J1713.7–3946 shock was observed, vibrationally excited SiO(1-0) maser emission was discovered towards what may be an evolved star. Observations taken 1 yr apart confirmed a transient nature, since the intensity, line-width, and central velocity of SiO(J = 1-0,v = 1,2) emission varied significantly.
Health anxiety is associated with high distress, disability and increased health service utilisation. However, there are relatively few epidemiological studies examining the extent of health anxiety or the associated sociodemographic and health risk factors in the general population.
To provide epidemiological data on health anxiety in the Australian population.
Lifetime and current prevalence estimates, associations between comorbid disorders, psychological distress, impairment, disability and mental health service utilisation were generated using the Australian 2007 National Survey of Mental Hearth and Wellbeing.
Health anxiety affects approximately 5.7% of the Australian population across the lifespan and 3.4% met criteria for health anxiety at the time of the interview. Age, employment status, smoking status and comorbid physical conditions were significantly related to health anxiety symptoms. Health anxiety was associated with significantly more distress, impairment, disability and health service utilisation than that found in respondents without health anxiety.
Hearth anxiety is non-trivial; it affects a significant proportion of the population and further research and clinical investigation of health anxiety is required.
This paper describes how space and place have been understood in gerontology as phenomenon that are both physical and social in character, yet are relatively bounded and static. The argument is posed as to how, following recent developments in human geography, a relational approach might be adopted. Involving a twist in current thinking, this would instead understand space and place each as highly permeable, fluid and networked at multiple scales. Moreover, it is proposed that the concept of ‘affect’ might also be insightful, recognising space and place as being relationally configured and performed, possessing a somatically registered energy, intensity and momentum that precedes deep cognition. Three vignettes illustrate the relationalities and affects in the lives and circumstances of older people, and how focusing more explicitly on them would allow for a richer understanding of where and how they live their lives. The paper closes with some thoughts on future theoretical, methodological and disciplinary considerations.
Symptoms of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have been described in
neuropsychiatric syndromes associated with streptococcal infections. It
is proposed that antibodies raised against streptococcal proteins
cross-react with neuronal proteins (antigens) in the brain, particularly
in the basal ganglia, which is a brain region implicated in OCD
To test the hypothesis that post-streptococcal autoimmunity, directed
against neuronal antigens, may contribute to the pathogenesis of OCD in
Ninety-six participants with OCD were tested for the presence of
anti-streptolysin-O titres (ASOT) and the presence of anti-basal ganglia
antibodies (ABGA) in a cross-sectional study. The ABGA were tested for
with western blots using three recombinant antigens; aldolase C, enolase
and pyruvate kinase. The findings were compared with those in a control
group of individuals with depression (n = 33) and
schizophrenia (n = 17).
Positivity for ABGA was observed in 19/96 (19.8%) participants with OCD
compared with 2/50 (4%) of controls (Fisher's exact test
P = 0.012). The majority of positive OCD sera (13/19)
had antibodies against the enolase antigen. No clinical variables were
associated with ABGA positivity. Positivity for ASOT was not associated
with ABGA positivity nor found at an increased incidence in participants
with OCD compared with controls.
These findings support the hypothesis that central nervous system
autoimmunity may have an aetiological role in some adults with OCD.
Further study is required to examine whether the antibodies concerned are
pathogenic and whether exposure to streptococcal infection in vulnerable
individuals is a risk factor for the development of OCD.
We study a first-order functional language with the novel combination of the ideas of refinement type (the subset of a type to satisfy a Boolean expression) and type-test (a Boolean expression testing whether a value belongs to a type). Our core calculus can express a rich variety of typing idioms; for example, intersection, union, negation, singleton, nullable, variant, and algebraic types are all derivable. We formulate a semantics in which expressions denote terms, and types are interpreted as first-order logic formulas. Subtyping is defined as valid implication between the semantics of types. The formulas are interpreted in a specific model that we axiomatize using standard first-order theories. On this basis, we present a novel type-checking algorithm able to eliminate many dynamic tests and to detect many errors statically. The key idea is to rely on a Satisfiability Modulo Theories solver to compute subtyping efficiently. Moreover, using a satisfiability modulo theories solver allows us to show the uniqueness of normal forms for non-deterministic expressions, provide precise counterexamples when type-checking fails, detect empty types, and compute instances of types statically and at run-time.
Background: Old age respondents may differ systemically in their responses to measures of psychological distress over and above their actual latent distress levels when compared to younger respondents. The current study aimed to investigate the potential for age-related bias(es) in the Kessler 6 Psychological Distress Scale (K6) items.
Methods: Data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing were analyzed using Item Response Theory to detect the presence of item bias in each of the K6 items. The potential for item bias was assessed by systematically comparing respondents classed as young (16–34 years), middle aged (35–64 years), and old aged (65–85 years). The significance and magnitude of the item bias between the age groups was assessed using the log-likelihood ratio method of differential item functioning.
Results: After statistical adjustment, there were no biases of significant magnitude influencing the endorsement of K6 items between young and middle-aged respondents or between middle-aged and old age respondents. There was a bias of significant magnitude present in the endorsement of the K6 item addressing levels of fatigue between young and old age respondents.
Conclusions: Despite the identification of significant item bias in the endorsement of K6 items between the age groups, the magnitude and influence of the bias on total K6 scores is likely to have little influence on the overall interpretation of group data when comparing psychological distress across the lifespan. Researchers should be cautious, however, when examining individual levels of fatigue related to psychological distress in older individuals.