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Individual placement and support (IPS) is an evidence-based service model to support people with mental disorders in obtaining and sustaining competitive employment. IPS is increasingly offered to a broad variety of service users. In this meta-analysis we analysed the relative effectiveness of IPS for different subgroups of service users both based on the diagnosis and defined by a range of clinical, functional and personal characteristics.
We included randomised controlled trials that evaluated IPS for service users diagnosed with any mental disorder. We examined effect sizes for the between-group differences at follow-up for three outcome measures (employment rate, job duration and wages), controlling for methodological confounders (type of control group, follow-up duration and geographic region). Using sensitivity analyses of subgroup differences, we analysed moderating effects of the following diagnostic, clinical, functional and personal characteristics: severe mental illness (SMI), common mental disorders (CMD), schizophrenia spectrum disorders, mood disorders, duration of illness, the severity of symptoms, level of functioning, age, comorbid alcohol and substance use, education level and employment history.
IPS is effective in improving employment outcomes compared to the control group in all subgroups, regardless of any methodological confounder. However, IPS was relatively more effective for service users with SMIs, schizophrenia spectrum disorders and a low symptom severity. Although IPS was still effective for people with CMD and with major depressive disorder, it was relatively less effective for these subgroups. IPS was equally effective after both a short and a long follow-up period. However, we found small, but clinically not meaningful, differences in effectiveness of IPS between active and passive control groups. Finally, IPS was relatively less effective in European studies compared to non-European studies, which could be explained by a potential benefits trap in high welfare countries.
IPS is effective for all different subgroups, regardless of diagnostic, clinical, functional and personal characteristics. However, there might be a risk of false-positive subgroup outcomes and results should be handled with caution. Future research should focus on whether, and if so, how the IPS model should be adapted to better meet the vocational needs of people with CMD and higher symptom severity.
Crisis resolution teams (CRTs) offer brief, intensive home treatment for people experiencing mental health crisis. CRT implementation is highly variable; positive trial outcomes have not been reproduced in scaled-up CRT care.
To evaluate a 1-year programme to improve CRTs’ model fidelity in a non-masked, cluster-randomised trial (part of the Crisis team Optimisation and RElapse prevention (CORE) research programme, trial registration number: ISRCTN47185233).
Fifteen CRTs in England received an intervention, informed by the US Implementing Evidence-Based Practice project, involving support from a CRT facilitator, online implementation resources and regular team fidelity reviews. Ten control CRTs received no additional support. The primary outcome was patient satisfaction, measured by the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8), completed by 15 patients per team at CRT discharge (n = 375). Secondary outcomes: CRT model fidelity, continuity of care, staff well-being, in-patient admissions and bed use and CRT readmissions were also evaluated.
All CRTs were retained in the trial. Median follow-up CSQ-8 score was 28 in each group: the adjusted average in the intervention group was higher than in the control group by 0.97 (95% CI −1.02 to 2.97) but this was not significant (P = 0.34). There were fewer in-patient admissions, lower in-patient bed use and better staff psychological health in intervention teams. Model fidelity rose in most intervention teams and was significantly higher than in control teams at follow-up. There were no significant effects for other outcomes.
The CRT service improvement programme did not achieve its primary aim of improving patient satisfaction. It showed some promise in improving CRT model fidelity and reducing acute in-patient admissions.
Objective: As part of this national project, we examined barriers and strategies to implementation of two evidence-based practices (EBPs) in Indiana.
Background: Despite many advances in the knowledge base regarding mental health treatment, the implementation of EBPs in real-world setting remains poorly understood. The National EBP Project is a multi-state study of factors influencing implementation of EBPs.
Methods: Over a 15-month period we observed eight assertive community treatment (ACT) programs and six integrated dual disorders treatment (IDDT) programs and noted pertinent actions taken by the state mental health agency influencing implementation. We created a database containing summaries of monthly visits to each program and interviews with key leaders. Using this database and clinical impressions, we rated barriers and strategies at each site on seven factors: Attitudes, Mastery, Leadership, Staffing, Policies, Workflow, and Program Monitoring.
Results: At the site level, the most frequently observed barriers were in the areas of leadership, staffing and policies for ACT, and mastery and leadership for IDDT. Overall, barriers were more evident for IDDT than for ACT. Strategies were less frequently noted but generally paralleled the areas noted for barriers. However, our central finding was that ACT was generally more successfully implemented than IDDT throughout the state, and that this difference could be traced in large part to state-level factors relating to historical preparation for the practice, establishment of standards, formation of a technical assistance center, and funding.
Conclusion: In this case study, both state-level and site-specific factors influenced success of implementation of EBPs. To address these factors, the field needs systematic strategies to anticipate and overcome these barriers if full implementation is to be realized.
Background: Assertive community treatment (ACT) is an intensive and comprehensive treatment for clients with severe mental illness (SMI) who do not readily benefit from clinic-based services. Monitoring the implementation of such programs is critical, because better-implemented programs have been found to be effective in improving client outcomes.
Objective: We tested the hypothesis that fidelity to the ACT model would be positively correlated with improved client outcomes, as measured by reduction in psychiatric hospital use.
Methods: A scale measuring fidelity of program implementation, the Dartmouth ACT Scale, was examined in 10 newly formed ACT teams. Using the team as the unit of measure, the mean reduction in state hospital days for a 1-year period before and after program admission was calculated. Mean effect size in reduction in hospital days was used as the outcome measure in a correlational design.
Results: Pre/post comparisons showed a 43% reduction in hospital days for 317 clients (t=8.61, P<.001). The Pearson correlation between DACTS fidelity and reduction of state hospitaldays was .49, P=.08, one-tailed.
Conclusion: Several possible reasons are offered for why the study hypothesis was not confirmed. However, even if predictive validity of the Dartmouth ACT Scale is limited, it continues to be a useful tool for program monitoring and for providing corrective feedback.
To overcome common limitations in assessing the outcome of psychotherapy, the following method was used: independent assessment by teams of experienced psychotherapists; individualized measures of outcome; and videotaped clinical interviews to allow the judges to rate, at one sitting, a patient's clinical state before and after eight months of therapy. Agreement between the judges' ratings was low both for the severity of the clinical state and for its outcome. Possible reasons for this low agreement are discussed.
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