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Direct numerical solutions are described for flow past a body placed in an otherwise uniform shear layer adjoining a wall. The study is associated with potential impact of the body onto the wall. Steady two-dimensional flow solutions are calculated for an inclined flat plate in particular, covering cases of zero wall velocity, positive wall velocity and negative wall velocity, with the plate being at varying orientations and distances from the wall. Substantial flow separation is found with reduced proximity to the wall or increased plate incidence, caused partly by the cutting off of the mass flux in the gap between the body and the wall as impact is neared. Other distinct flow characteristics that emerge with increased local Reynolds number are the extent of the enhanced wake responses, greatly condensed upstream influence near the leading edge, increased sensitivity to body orientation, the pressure dominance in the total lift and moment on the body, new insight into the complex flow structure and quantitative agreement with a recent viscous–inviscid interaction analysis on scales.
Interaction between body motion and fluid motion is considered inside a nonlinear viscous wall layer, with this unsteady two-way coupling leading to impact of the body on the wall. The present paper involves a reduced system analysis which is shown to be consistent with computational solutions from direct numerical simulations for a basic flat-plate shape presented in an allied paper (Palmer & Smith, J. Fluid Mech., 2020). The occurrence of impact depends mainly on fluid parameters and initial conditions. The body considered is translating upstream or downstream relative to the wall. Subsequent analysis focusses on the unusual nature of the impact at the leading edge. The impacting flow structure is found to have two nonlinear viscous–inviscid regions lying on either side of a small viscous region. The flow properties in the regions dictate the lift and torque which drive the body towards the wall. Pronounced flow separations are common as the impact then cuts off the mass flux in the gap between the body and the wall; here, a nonlinear similarity solution sheds extra light on the separations. Comparisons are made between results from direct simulations and asymptotics at increased flow rate.
There is increasing interest in the proposition that residential environment can affect mental health.
To study the degree to which common mental disorder clusters according to postcode units and households. To investigate whether contextual measures of residential environment quality and geographical accessibility are associated with symptoms of common mental disorder.
A total of 1058 individuals aged 16–75 years (response rate 66%) participated in a cross-sectional survey The 12-item General Health Questionnaire measured symptoms of common mental disorder.
Only 2% (95% CI 0–6) of the unexplained variation in symptoms existed at postcode unit level, whereas 37% (95% CI 27–49) existed at household-level, but the postcode unit variation was reduced to zero after adjustments. There was little evidence to suggest that residential quality or accessibility were associated with symptoms.
There was substantial unexplained variation at the household level but we could find no evidence of postcode unit variation and no association with residential environmental quality or geographical accessibility. It is likely that the psychosocial environment is more important than the physical environment in relation to common mental disorder.