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Experiments on particle-free and particle-laden flows with the same incoming velocity were conducted in a horizontal wind tunnel. Three cases of particle-laden flows with different degrees of particle near-wall motions and similar particle volume fractions, including top-release particles, local-laying sand beds and global-laying sand beds, were designed to investigate the effects of collision bounces and impact splashing on turbulence statistics. The top-released particles accelerate the fluid during gravitational settling, but weaken the intensity and reduce the probability of ‘ejection’ and ‘sweep’ events. This leads to a weakened Reynolds stress and a decreased scale of the outer spectral peak at the centre of the logarithmic region, indicating a concentration of energy at small scales. In contrast, the collision bounce and impact splashing slow the fluid but promote the ‘ejection and sweep’ cycle with larger intensity, and thus enhance the Reynolds stress. Meanwhile, the bouncing and splashing generate ascending particles that transport the kinetic energy upwards, resulting in more energetic very-large-scale motions further from the wall. This study reveals the importance of particle motions to turbulence, and contributes to a further insight into the interactions between particles and turbulence in two-phase flows with erodible surfaces.
Widely distributed Mid-Neoproterozoic mafic rocks of the Qilian – Qaidam – East Kunlun region record the tectonic evolution of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. This study presents whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U–Pb geochronology and Hf isotopes for the Xialanuoer gabbros of the central South Qilian Belt (SQB). Zircon laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U–Pb dating indicates that the gabbros were emplaced at ca. 738 Ma, indicating they are contemporaneous with mafic magmatism elsewhere in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. The gabbros have low SiO2, Cr and Ni contents and Mg# values, are relatively enriched in light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs; e.g. Nb and Ta), have no positive Zr or Hf anomalies and have relatively high Nb/Ta but low Nb/La ratios. These data indicate that the Xialanuoer gabbros formed from calc-alkaline basaltic magmas that were originally generated by the partial melting of an enriched mantle of type-I (EMI-type) enriched region of the lithospheric mantle, underwent little to no crustal contamination prior to their emplacement, and have within-plate basalt geochemical affinities. Combining these data with the presence of widespread contemporaneous continental rift-related magmatism and sedimentation in the North Qilian, Central Qilian, South Qilian, Quanji, North Qaidam and East Kunlun regions suggests that the northeastern Tibetan Plateau underwent Mid-Neoproterozoic continental rifting, which also affected other Rodinian blocks (e.g. Tarim, South China, Australia, North America and Southern Africa).
Resistant starch (RS) has received increased attention due to its potential health benefits. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of dietary corn RS on immunological characteristics of broilers. A total of 320 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments: normal corn–soyabean (NC) diet group, corn starch diet group, 4 %, 8 % and 12 % RS diet groups. This trial lasted for 42 d. The relative weights of spleen, thymus and bursa, the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and IL-4 in plasma at 21 d of age, as well as the activities of total nitric oxide synthase (TNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in plasma at 21 and 42 d of age showed positive linear responses (P < 0·05) to the increasing dietary RS level. Meanwhile, compared with the birds from the NC group at 21 d of age, birds fed 4 % RS, 8 % RS and 12 % RS diets exhibited higher (P < 0·05) relative weight of bursa and concentrations of NO and interferon-γ in plasma. Birds fed 4 % RS and 8 % RS diets showed higher (P < 0·05) number of IgA-producing cells in the jejunum. While compared with birds from the NC group at 42 d of age, birds fed 12 % RS diet showed higher (P < 0·05) relative weight of spleen and activities of TNOS and iNOS in plasma. These findings suggested that dietary corn RS supplementation can improve immune function in broilers.
HMGR, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, is a major rate-limiting enzyme in mevalonate (MVA) pathway for isoprenoids and subsequent tanshinone biosynthesis in the Chinese traditional bulk herbal medicine Danshen, Salvia miltiorrhiza, mainly for cardiovascular disorders. In this paper, the genomic SmHMGR genes of 38 cultivated populations of S. miltiorrhiza collected in China were for the first time sequenced to reveal the genetic diversity and phylogeny. The SmHMGR gene was shown to be intron-free, 1650~1659 bp in complete CDS with the majority being 1656 bp, and two unique populations (W-FJLY-V-1 and W-SCHY-W-1) being 1659 and 1650 bp respectively. A total of 103 SNP variation sites were detected with a variation rate of 6.22%, most of which occurred in S. miltiorrhiza f. alba population W-SCHY-W-1; a total of 25 amino acid variation sites were found, of which 19 was in W-SCHY-W-1. The same four populations, W-SCHY-W-1, V-HBAG-V-1, V-JLCC-V-1 and S-NM-V-1 could be discriminated from the remaining 34 by both the SNP fingerprints and the deduced amino acid variation sites. Other or composite DNA markers are needed for better identification. The SmHMGR gene of white flower S. miltiorrhiza f. alba population W-SCHY-W-1 is especially rich in variations and worthy of further studies. Phylogenetic trees based on both the gene and the deduced amino acid sequences showed a very similar two-clade topological structure. This research enriched the content and the genetic means for the molecular identification, genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies of the cultivated S. miltiorrhiza populations, and laid a solid foundation for further related and in-depth investigations.
This study evaluated the association between inflammatory diets as measured by the dietary inflammatory index (DII), and inflammation biomarkers, and the development of preeclampsia among the Chinese population. We followed the reporting guidelines of the STROBE statement for observational studies. A total of 466 preeclampsia cases aged over 18 years were recruited between March 2016 and June 2019, and 466 healthy controls were 1:1 ratio matched by age (± 3 years), week of gestation (± 1 week), and gestational diabetes mellitus. The energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a 79-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Inflammatory biomarkers were analyzed by ELISA kits. The mean E-DII scores were -0.65 ± 1.58 for cases and -1.19 ± 1.47 for controls (P value <0.001). E-DII scores positively correlated with IFN-γ (rs = 0.194, P value = 0.001) and IL-4 (rs = 0.135, P value = 0.021). After multivariable adjustment, E-DII scores were positively related to preeclampsia risk (P trend <0.001). The highest tertile of E-DII was 2.18 times the lowest tertiles (95% CI = 1.52, 3.13). The odds of preeclampsia increased by 30% (95% CI= 18%, 43%, P value <0.001) for each E-DII score increase. The preeclampsia risk was positively associated with IL-2 (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.11), IL-4 (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.54) and TGF-β (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.29). Therefore, proinflammatory diets, corresponding to higher IL-2, IL-4 and TGF-β levels, were associated with increased preeclampsia risk.
Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LWM-GSs) play a crucial role in determining wheat flour processing quality. In this work, 35 novel LMW-GS genes (32 active and three pseudogenes) from three Aegilops umbellulata (2n = 2x = 14, UU) accessions were amplified by allelic-specific PCR. We found that all LMW-GS genes had the same primary structure shared by other known LMW-GSs. Thirty-two active genes encode 31 typical LMW-m-type subunits. The MZ424050 possessed nine cysteine residues with an extra cysteine residue located in the last amino acid residue of the conserved C-terminal III, which could benefit the formation of larger glutenin polymers, and therefore may have positive effects on dough properties. We have found extensive variations which were mainly resulted from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions and deletions (InDels) among the LMW-GS genes in Ae. umbellulata. Our results demonstrated that Ae. umbellulata is an important source of LMW-GS variants and the potential value of the novel LMW-GS alleles for wheat quality improvement.
The role of neurological proteins in the development of bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) remains elusive now. The current study aims to explore the potential genetic correlations of plasma neurological proteins with BD and SCZ.
By using the latest genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data of BD and SCZ (including 41,917 BD cases, 11,260 SCZ cases, and 396,091 controls) derived from the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium website (PGC) and a recently released GWAS of neurological proteins (including 750 individuals), we performed a linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) analysis to detect the potential genetic correlations between the two common psychiatric disorders and each of the 92 neurological proteins. Two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis was then applied to assess the bidirectional causal relationship between the neurological proteins identified by LDSC, BD and SCZ.
LDSC analysis identified one neurological protein, NEP, which shows suggestive genetic correlation signals for both BD (coefficient = −0.165, p value = 0.035) and SCZ (coefficient = −0.235, p value = 0.020). However, those association did not remain significant after strict Bonferroni correction. Two sample MR analysis found that there was an association between genetically predicted level of NEP protein, BD (odd ratio [OR] = 0.87, p value = 1.61 × 10−6) and SCZ (OR = 0.90, p value = 4.04 × 10−6). However, in the opposite direction, there is no genetically predicted association between BD, SCZ, and NEP protein level.
This study provided novel clues for understanding the genetic effects of neurological proteins on BD and SCZ.
Participation in social activities might increase older adults’ chances to interact with other people and has been found to be important in reducing the likelihood of depression. A picture of older adults’ attitudes towards ageing and their self-esteem constructed through the lens of how they interact with other people might cast light on the sources of older adults’ depression. This study explored the influences of social participation and attitudes towards ageing on depression of Chinese older adults. Using two waves data from the China Longitudinal Ageing Social Survey (CLASS) in 2014 and 2016 (6,908 participants in 2014 and 3,477 participants in both 2014 and 2016), we found that social participation in 2014 could prevent the risk of depression in both the 2014 and 2016 cohorts. In addition, both psychosocial loss and psychosocial growth in 2014 were negatively associated with depression in both 2014 and 2016. However, there was no evidence that social participation moderated the relationship between attitudes towards ageing and depression in either cohort. Social policies need to encourage older adults’ conversion from ‘passive participation’ to ‘active participation’. This could help older adults understand the process of ageing and their value to society, as well as have positive effects on older adults’ mental health.
Prolonged parturition duration has been widely demonstrated to be a risk factor for incidence of stillbirth. This study evaluated the supply of dietary fibre on the parturition duration, gut microbiota and metabolome using sows as a model. A total of 40 Yorkshire sows were randomly given diet containing normal level of dietary fibre (NDF, 17·5 % dietary fibre) or high level of dietary fibre (HDF, 33·5 % dietary fibre). Faecal microbiota profiled with 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, SCFA and metabolome in the faeces and plasma around parturition were compared between the dietary groups. Correlation analysis was conducted to further explore the potential associations between specific bacterial taxa and metabolites. Results showed that HDF diet significantly improved the parturition process as presented by the shorter parturition duration. HDF diet increased the abundance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes and multiple genera. Except for butyrate, SCFA levels in the faeces and plasma of sows at parturition were elevated in HDF group. The abundances of fifteen and twelve metabolites in the faeces and plasma, respectively, markedly differ between HDF and NDF sows. These metabolites are involved in energy metabolism and bacterial metabolism. Correlation analysis also showed associations between specific bacteria taxa and metabolites. Collectively, our study indicates that the improvement of parturition duration by high fibre intake in late gestation is associated with gut microbiota, production of SCFA and other metabolites, potentially serving for energy metabolism.
From geotechnical applications to space exploration, auger drilling is often used as a standard tool for soil sample collection, instrument installation and others. Focusing on granular flow associated with the rotary drilling process, we investigate the performance of auger drilling in terms of sampling efficiency, defined as the mass ratio of the soil sample collected in the coring tube to its total volume at a given penetration depth, by means of experiments, numerical simulations as well as theoretical analysis. The ratio of rotation to penetration speed is found to play a crucial role in the sampling process. A continuum model for the coupled granular flow in both coring and discharging channels is proposed to elucidate the physical mechanism behind the sampling process. Supported by a comparison with experimental results, the continuum model provides a practical way to predict the performance of auger drilling. Further analysis reveals that the drilling process approaches a steady state with constant granular flow speeds in both channels. In the steady state, sampling efficiency decreases linearly with the growth of the rotation to penetration speed ratio, which can be well captured by the analytical solution of the model. The analytical solution also suggests that the sampling efficiency is independent of gravity in the steady state, which has profound implications for extraterrestrial sample collection in future space missions.
Gut microbiome and dietary patterns have been suggested to be associated with depression/anxiety. However, limited effort has been made to explore the effects of possible interactions between diet and microbiome on the risks of depression and anxiety.
Using the latest genome-wide association studies findings in gut microbiome and dietary habits, polygenic risk scores (PRSs) analysis of gut microbiome and dietary habits was conducted in the UK Biobank cohort. Logistic/linear regression models were applied for evaluating the associations for gut microbiome-PRS, dietary habits-PRS, and their interactions with depression/anxiety status and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)/Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) score by R software.
We observed 51 common diet–gut microbiome interactions shared by both PHQ score and depression status, such as overall beef intake × genus Sporobacter [hurdle binary (HB)] (PPHQ = 7.88 × 10−4, Pdepression status = 5.86 × 10−4); carbohydrate × genus Lactococcus (HB) (PPHQ = 0.0295, Pdepression status = 0.0150). We detected 41 common diet–gut microbiome interactions shared by GAD score and anxiety status, such as sugar × genus Parasutterella (rank normal transformed) (PGAD = 5.15 × 10−3, Panxiety status = 0.0347); tablespoons of raw vegetables per day × family Coriobacteriaceae (HB) (PGAD = 6.02 × 10−4, Panxiety status = 0.0345). Some common significant interactions shared by depression and anxiety were identified, such as overall beef intake × genus Sporobacter (HB).
Our study results expanded our understanding of how to comprehensively consider the relationships for dietary habits–gut microbiome interactions with depression and anxiety.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, whether and when the world can reach herd immunity and return to normal life and a strategy for accelerating vaccination programmes constitute major concerns. We employed Metropolis–Hastings sampling and an epidemic model to design experiments based on the current vaccinations administered and a more equitable vaccine allocation scenario. The results show that most high-income countries can reach herd immunity in less than 1 year, whereas low-income countries should reach this state after more than 3 years. With a more equitable vaccine allocation strategy, global herd immunity can be reached in 2021. However, the spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants means that an additional 83 days will be needed to reach global herd immunity and that the number of cumulative cases will increase by 113.37% in 2021. With the more equitable vaccine allocation scenario, the number of cumulative cases will increase by only 5.70% without additional vaccine doses. As SARS-CoV-2 variants arise, herd immunity could be delayed to the point that a return to normal life is theoretically impossible in 2021. Nevertheless, a more equitable global vaccine allocation strategy, such as providing rapid vaccine assistance to low-income countries/regions, can improve the prevention of COVID-19 infection even though the virus could mutate.
T long-term effects of cognitive therapy and behavior therapy (CTBT) for menopausal symptoms are unknown, and whether the effects are different between natural menopause and treatment-induced menopause are currently unclear. Therefore, we sought to conduct an accurate estimate of the efficacy of CTBT for menopausal symptoms.
We conducted searches of Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science databases for studies from 1 January 1977 to 1 November 2021. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intervention groups to control groups for menopausal symptoms were included. Hedge's g was used as the standardized between-group effect size with a random-effects model.
We included 14 RCTs comprising 1618 patients with a mean sample size of 116. CTBT significantly outperformed control groups in terms of reducing hot flushes [g = 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23–0.55, I2 = 45], night sweats, depression (g = 0.50, 95% CI 0.34–0.66, I2 = 51), anxiety (g = 0.38, 95% CI 0.23–0.54, I2 = 49), fatigue, and quality of life. Egger's test indicated no publication bias.
CTBT is an effective psychological treatment for menopausal symptoms, with predominantly small to moderate effects. The efficacy is sustained long-term, although it declines somewhat over time. The efficacy was stronger for natural menopause symptoms, such as vasomotor symptoms, than for treatment-induced menopause symptoms. These findings provide support for treatment guidelines recommending CTBT as a treatment option for menopausal symptoms.
This study explored the effects of condition notification based on virtual reality technology on the anxiety levels of parents of children with simple CHD.
The subjects of the study were the parents of 60 children with simple CHD who were treated in our centre. The state anxiety scale was used to assess the anxiety status of the parents of the children before and after the condition notification in different ways (based on virtual reality explanations and written explanations).
In this study, a total of 55 parents of children with CHD successfully completed the survey. At the time of admission, there was no significant difference in the state anxiety scale scores of the parents between the two groups. The anxiety status of the virtual reality group was relieved after the condition notification assisted by virtual reality technology, and there was a significant difference compared with the control group.
Condition notification based on virtual reality technology can effectively alleviate the anxiety of parents of children with simple CHD, which is worthy of clinical application.
Laser–plasma accelerators (LPAs) have great potential to realize a compact X-ray free-electron laser (FEL), which is limited by the beam properties currently. Two-color high-intensity X-ray FEL provides a powerful tool for probing ultrafast dynamic systems. In this paper, we present a simple and feasible method to generate a two-color X-ray FEL pulse based on an LPA beam. In this scheme, time-dependent mismatch along the bunch is generated and manipulated by the designed lattice system, enabling FEL lasing at different wavelength within two undulator sections. The time separation between the two pulses can be precisely adjusted by varying the time-delay chicane. Numerical simulations show that two-color soft X-ray FELs with gigawatt-level peak power and femtosecond duration can be generated, which confirm the validity and feasibility of the scheme.
This study aimed to explore the effects of eye masks on the sleep quality and pain of school-age children with CHD after surgery.
Forty school-age children with CHD who underwent open-heart surgery in the Cardiac Surgery Department of a provincial hospital in China from January 2020 to December 2020 were selected. The children were randomly divided into the experimental group (n = 20) and the control group (n = 20). Children in the control group were given routine sleep care, and the children in the experimental group were given a sleep intervention with eye masks for three nights following the removal of tracheal intubation. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to evaluate the sleep quality of the children. The Children’s Pain Behaviour Scale was used to evaluate the pain of the children.
After three nights of receiving the eye masks intervention, the sleep quality scores of the children in the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the control group, the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05) and the sleep quality of the children in the experimental group was higher. The pain scores of the children in the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the children in the control group, the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05), and the children in the experimental group suffered less post-operative pain.
Eye masks are a simple, safe and economical intervention, that is beneficial for improving the post-operative sleep quality and relieving post-operative pain in school-age children with congenital heart disease.
To evaluate the relationship between religious beliefs and mental state, care burden, and quality of life in parents of infantile patients with CHD.
A cross-sectional study was conducted at a provincial hospital in Fujian, China. In this study, 114 parents of infant patients with CHD were successfully enrolled. Data were collected using the Duke University Religion Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, and 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey.
The organisational religious activity, non-organisational religious activity, and intrinsic religiosity of parents were significantly related to the care burden and quality of life, and the two dimensions of non-organisational religious activity and intrinsic religiosity of parents were significantly related to their anxiety symptoms. No association was found between parents’ religious beliefs and their depressive symptoms. Among Buddhist parents, non-organisational religious activity and intrinsic religiosity reduced the care burden and improved quality of life. Among Christian parents, organisational religious activity and non-organisational religious activity were found to reduce the care burden, while organisational religious activity and intrinsic religiosity were found to improve quality of life. There was no correlation between the sub-dimensions of religious beliefs and a negative impact on the care process in Muslim parents.
Religious beliefs have a protective effect on the parents of infant patients with CHD. They help relieve parents’ anxiety, reduce their care burden, and improve their quality of life. In addition, different religious beliefs have different dimensions of influence on caregivers.
To investigate the association between the Metabolic Score for Visceral Fat (METS-VF) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and compare the predictive value of the METS-VF for T2DM incidence with other obesity indices in Chinese people. A total of 12 237 non-T2DM participants aged over 18 years from the Rural Chinese Cohort Study of 2007–2008 were included at baseline and followed up during 2013–2014. The cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for the association between baseline METS-VF and T2DM risk. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the association between METS-VF and T2DM risk. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was used to evaluate the ability of METS-VF to predict T2DM incidence. During a median follow-up of 6·01 (95 % CI 5·09, 6·06) years, 837 cases developed T2DM. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the adjusted HR for the highest v. lowest METS-VF quartile was 5·97 (95 % CI 4·28, 8·32), with a per 1-sd increase in METS-VF positively associated with T2DM risk. Positive associations were also found in the sensitivity and subgroup analyses, respectively. A significant nonlinear dose–response association was observed between METS-VF and T2DM risk for all participants (Pnonlinearity = 0·0347). Finally, the AUC value of METS-VF for predicting T2DM was largest among six indices. The METS-VF may be a reliable and applicable predictor of T2DM incidence in Chinese people regardless of sex, age or BMI.