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We present a detailed study of the morphology and composition of tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films, grown by radio frequency magnetron reactive sputtering at substrate temperatures varied from room temperature (RT) to 500 °C, using infrared (IR) absorption, Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This work includes valuable new far-IR results about structural changes in microcrystalline WO3. Both IR absorption and Raman techniques reveal an amorphous sample grown at RT and initial crystallization into monoclinic structures for samples grown at temperatures between 100 and 300 °C. The Raman spectra of the samples grown at high temperatures indicate, apart from the monoclinic structure, a strain effect, with a distribution revealed by confocal Raman mapping. XPS indicates that the film surface maintains the stoichiometry WOx, with a value of x slightly greater than 3 at RT due to oxygen contamination, which decreases with increasing temperature.
Inorganic potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) is widely known for its value as a nonlinear optical material. In this study, pure and l-arginine–doped KDP single crystals were grown by the slow solvent evaporation technique and further subjected to infrared absorption and Raman studies for the confirmation of chemical group functionalization and possible bonding between the organic and inorganic materials. The appearance in the infrared absorption spectra of additional vibrational lines, which mostly originate from disturbed N–H, C–H, and C–N bonds of the l-arginine–doped salt, confirm the interaction between KDP and the organic material. This affirmation is supported by more evidence from Raman measurements, where the disappearance of NH vibrations of the amino group is observed. We are thus led to the possibility of hydrogen bonding primarily between the nucleophilic O− of the phosphate unit of KDP and the amino group of the l-arginine.
We present numerical simulations to demonstrate that it may be possible to eject ferrofluid grains from a ferrofluid using non-linear acoustic impulses. The study considers a container with some dilute ferrofluid that is placed in a strong, vertical, homogeneous magnetic field. The field induces the formation of magnetic dipoles into vertical chains that approximately span the region between the base and the surface of the container. We use particle dynamical simulations to show that an impulse generated at the base of any chain, will typically travel as a weakly dispersive bundle of energy. When the impulse magnitudes are appropriate (typically ∼60 m/s or more) the ferrofluid grain nearest to the surface of the liquid may be ejected by the impulse. Since all ferrofluid grains possess a coating of the liquid host, the ejected grain can be used as an ink-drop, with typical diameter of 15 or so nanometers. The velocities of the ejecting grains can be controlled and hence the method, if experimentally feasible, may have wide ranging applications. One of these applications is likely to be in designing special-purpose nozzle-free inkjet printers of unprecedented resolution.
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