To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this paper an extension of the theoretical model of Molin (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 430, 2001, pp. 27–50) is proposed, where the assumptions of infinite depth and infinite horizontal extent of the support are released. The fluid domain is decomposed into two subdomains: the moonpool (or the gap) and a lower subdomain bounded by the seafloor and by an outer cylinder where the linearized velocity potential is assumed to be nil. Eigenfunction expansions are used to describe the velocity potential in both subdomains. Garrett’s method is then applied to match the velocity potentials at the common boundary and an eigenvalue problem is formulated and solved, yielding the natural frequencies and associated modal shapes of the free surface. Applications are made, first in the case of a circular moonpool, then in the rectangular gap and moonpool cases. Based on so-called single-mode approximations, simple formulas are proposed that give the resonant frequencies.
High-mass stars usually form in giant molecular clouds (GMCs) as part of a young stellar cluster, but some isolated O/B stars are observed. What are the initial conditions that lead to the formation of these objects? The aim of this study is to measure the distribution and basic physical properties of the neutral gas associated with isolated intermediate- and high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
As part of the SAGE Spitzer Legacy program for the LMC, we have identified and confirmed YSOs using Spitzer IRAC photometry and IRS spectroscopy. By examining the spatial coincidence between the YSOs and 12CO(1–0) emission detected by the NANTEN mapping survey, we identified more than one hundred intermediate/massive YSOs in the LMC that appear to be isolated, i.e. not associated with CO emission. Deeper follow-up CO observations by our team with the higher resolution by Mopra Telescope (beam=30”) detected CO emission at the YSO positions for ~80% of the isolated LMC YSOs. We obtained ALMA data of some of the targets during Cycle 2. We targeted a small but representative (in terms of their association with neutral gas tracers) sample of the isolated high-mass YSOs that we have been studying in the LMC. All of our 12 targets are separated by more than 200 pc from known CO clouds. Our analysis of the ALMA data shows that a compact molecular cloud whose mass is a few thousand solar masses or smaller is associated with most of the YSOs.
Comparison of the ISM properties of a wide range of metal poor galaxies with normal metal-rich galaxies reveals striking differences. We find that the combination of the low dust abundance and the active star formation results in a very porous ISM filled with hard photons, heating the dust in dwarf galaxies to overall higher temperatures than their metal-rich counterparts. This results in photodissociation of molecular clouds to greater depths, leaving relatively large PDR envelopes and difficult-to-detect CO cores. From detailed modeling of the low-metallicity ISM, we find significant fractions of CO-dark H2 - a reservoir of molecular gas not traced by CO, but present in the [CII] and [CI]-emitting envelopes. Self-consistent analyses of the neutral and ionized gas diagnostics along with the dust SED is the necessary way forward in uncovering the multiphase structure of galaxies.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a valuable methodology for investigating radiation-induced microstructural changes and elucidating the underlying mechanisms involved in the aging and degradation of nuclear reactor materials. However, the use of electrons for imaging may result in several inadvertent effects that can potentially change the microstructure and mechanisms active in the material being investigated. In this study, in situ TEM characterization is performed on nanocrystalline nickel samples under self-ion irradiation and post irradiation annealing. During annealing, voids are formed around 200 °C only in the area illuminated by the electron beam. Based on diffraction patterns analyses, it is hypothesized that the electron beam enhanced the growth of a NiO layer resulting in a decrease of vacancy mobility during annealing. The electron beam used to investigate self-ion irradiation ultimately significantly affected the type of defects formed and the final defect microstructure.
The Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey investigates the interplay of star formation activity and the the metal-poor gas and dust of local universe dwarf galaxies using FIR and submillimetre imaging spectroscopic and photometric observations in the 50 to 550 μm window of the Herschel Space Observatory. The dust spectral-energy distributions are well constrained with the new Herschel and MIR Spitzer data. A submillimetre excess is often found in low metallicity galaxies, which, if tracing very cold dust, would highlight large dust masses not easily reconciled in some cases, given the low metallicities and expected gas-to-dust mass ratios. The galaxies are also mapped in the FIR fine-structure lines (63 and 145 μm OI, 158 μm CII, 122 and 205 μm NII, 88 μm OIII) probing the low density ionised gas, the HII regions and photodissociation regions. While still early in the mission we can already see, along with earlier studies, that line ratios in the metal-poor ISM differ remarkably from those in the metal-rich starburst environments. In dwarf galaxies, L[CII]/L(CO) (≥104) is at least an order of magnitude greater than in the most metal-rich starburst galaxies. The 88 μm [OIII] line usually dominates the FIR line emission over galaxy-wide scales, not the 158 μm [CII] line which is the dominant FIR cooling line in metal-rich galaxies. All of the FIR lines together can contribute 1% to 2% of the LTIR. The Herschel Dwarf Galaxy survey will provide statistical information on the nature of the dust and gas in low metallicity galaxies and place constraints on chemical evolution models of galaxies.
We present preliminary results of a 4-month campaign carried out in the framework of the Mons project, where time-resolved Hα observations are used to study the wind and circumstellar properties of a number of OB stars.
We present the results from the spectroscopic follow-up of WR140 (WC7 + O4-5) during its last periastron passage in january 2009. This object is known as the archetype of colliding wind binaries and has a relatively large period (≃8 years) and eccentricity (≃0.89). We provide updated values for the orbital parameters, new estimates for the WR and O star masses and new constraints on the mass-loss rates.
Results from experiments on wave interaction with a rigid vertical plate are reported. The 5m long plate is set against the wall of a 30m wide basin, at 100m from the wavemaker. This set-up is equivalent to a 10m plate in the middle of a 60m wide basin. Regular waves are produced, with wavelengths of 1.6m, 1.8m and 2m, and steepnesses H/L (H being the double amplitude and L being the wavelength) ranging from 2% to 5%. Free-surface elevations along the plate are measured with a row of 20 gauges. The focus is on the time evolution of the free-surface profile along the plate. At all steepnesses, strong deviations from the predictions of linear theory gradually take place as the reflected wave field develops in the basin. This phenomenon is attributed to third-order interactions between the incoming and reflected wave systems, on the weather side of the plate. The measured profiles along the plate are compared with the predictions of two numerical models: an approximate model based on the tertiary interaction theory of Longuet-Higgins & Phillips (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 12, 1962, p. 333) for plane waves, which provides a steady-state solution, and a fully nonlinear numerical wavetank based on extended Boussinesq equations. In most of the experimental tests, despite the large distance from the wavemaker to the plate and the small amplitude of the incident wave, no steady state is attained by the end of the exploitable part of the records.
In this paper, we present a systematic study of the transient cooling in different Si/SiGe superlattices as well as bulk silicon microrefrigerators. Transient thermoreflectance imaging is used to obtain the temperature map of the device with sub micrometer spatial, 100ns temporal and 0.1C temperature resolution. It is shown that Peltier cooling dominates in the first 10-30 microseconds before Joule heating in the active and buffer layers reach the top surface. The transient characterization shows that at the optimum current for maximum steady-state cooling, the response of bulk silicon cooler is 25% faster than the 3 microns thick superlattice device and that of the 6 microns thick superlattice is 25% slower. However, it is possible to increase the cooling speed by a factor of two or three, down to 3.6 microseconds, by overdriving the current at the expense of the reduced steady-state cooling.
Fatigue design of structures for high temperature service
resorts to modelling based on elasto-viscoplasticity constitutive
laws. The new model describes complex anisothermal cyclic
loadings, accounting for viscosity on a large range of strain.
The new constitutive law that has been developed for nodular
cast iron, is intended for the design of automotive parts for
high temperature service.
The snow surface roughness at centimetre and millimetre scales is an important parameter related to wind transport, snowdrifts, snowfall, snowmelt and snow grain size. Knowledge of the snow surface roughness is also of high interest for analyzing the signal from radar sensors such as SAR, altimeters and scatterometers. Unfortunately, this parameter has seldom been measured over snow surfaces. The techniques used to measure the roughness of other surfaces, such as agricultural or sand soils, are difficult to implement in polar regions because of the harsh climatic conditions. In this paper we develop a device based on a laser profiler coupled with a GPS receiver on board a snowmobile. This instrumentation was tested successfully in midre Lovénbreen, Svalbard, in April 2006. It allowed us to generate profiles of 3 km sections of the snow-covered glacier surface. Because of the motion of the snowmobile, the roughness signal is mixed with the snowmobile signal. We use a distance/frequency analysis (the empirical mode decomposition) to filter the signal. This method allows us to recover the snow surface structures of wavelengths between 4 and 50 cm with amplitudes of >1 mm. Finally, the roughness parameters of snow surfaces are retrieved. The snow surface roughness is found to be dependent on the scales of the observations. The retrieved RMS of the height distribution is found to vary between 0.5 and 9.2 mm, and the correlation length is found to be between 0.6 and 46 cm. This range of measurements is particularly well adapted to the analysis of GHz radar response on snow surfaces.
The effect of spatial variations in ice thickness, accumulation rate and lateral flow divergence on radar-detected isochrone geometry in ice sheets is computed using an analytical method, under assumptions of a steady-state ice-sheet geometry, a steady-state accumulation pattern and a horizontally uniform velocity shape function. By using a new coordinate transform, we show that the slope of the isochrones (with a normalized vertical coordinate) depends on three terms: a principal term which determines the sign of the slope, and two scale factors which can modify only the amplitude of the slope. The principal term depends only on a local characteristic time (ice thickness divided by accumulation rate minus melting rate) between the initial and final positions of the ice particle. For plug flow, only the initial and final values have an influence. Further applications are a demonstration of how the vertical velocity profile can be deduced from sharp changes in isochrone slopes induced by abrupt steps in bedrock or mass balance along the ice flow. We also demonstrate ways the new coordinate system may be used to test the accuracy of numerical flow models.
Results from experiments on wave interaction with a rigid plate are reported. The plate is projected from one of the sidewalls of the basin. The sidewall acts as a plane of symmetry, thereby doubling the widths of the plate and of the basin. The tests are carried out in regular waves of varying periods and steepnesses. At wavelengths comparable with the width of the plate, strong run-ups are observed at the plate–wall intersection, increasing with the wave steepness. These run-ups take many wave cycles to develop, with no steady state being reached in some cases. It is advocated that these phenomena result from third-order interactions between the incident and reflected wave fields, over a wide area on the weather side of the plate. A theoretical model is proposed, based on tertiary wave interaction. A parabolic equation is derived that describes the transformation of the incoming waves through their interaction with the reflected wave field. A steady-state solution is obtained through iterations. Results from the theoretical model are compared with the experimental data, with good agreement.
Deconvolution is a necessary tool for the exploitation of adaptive optics
corrected images, because the correction is partial. The Maximum A
Posteriori (MAP) framework is used to derive a deconvolution method
combines the data with our knowledge of the noise statistics as well as our
prior information about the object and the variability of the Point Spread
Function. The deconvolution of experimental and scientific data illustrates the capabilities
of this method.
Circumstellar disks from early accretion stages to debris disks motivate an
active theoretical and observational research. Their physics is quite complex and implies the
study of various domains such as the physics of grains, radiative transfert at various
wavelengths, collisional and radiative destructive processes, dynamics, long term evolution...
Such disks provide valuable information on the conditions of exoplanet formation, but also
on the interaction between disks and already formed planets;
they may be in some cases the indicators of the presence of planets
or, on contrary, they may prevent from direct planet detections depending on the observational technique.
We review the current most critical issues relative to disk studies, and discuss the need
and interest for various observational techniques. We conclude on the importance for high
dynamic observations and typical specifications.
Highly performing adaptive optical systems are required for next
generation giant telescopes as well as next generation
instrumentation for 10 m-class telescopes. Different types of AO
systems are currently under study, including Multi-Conjugate AO
(MCAO), high dynamic range AO, and low-order AO for distributed
partial correction AO. These systems require a large variety of
deformable mirrors with very challenging parameters. The
development of new technologies based on
micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) is promising for
future deformable mirrors. We are currently developing a MDM based
on an array of electrostatic actuators with attachments to a
continuous mirror on top. The most challenging building block for
this device is the high optical quality mirror. Our first results
show a very efficient planarization of the surface with our
design. The integration of this mirror surface on top of an
actuator array is under investigation.