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The interplay between psychological and ethical issues continues to shape and define the role and responsibilities of professionals in the field of ART. Advances in ART have brought the process of creating a child some distance from nature, enabling physicians to offer patients a variety of permutations in terms of conceiving and carrying offspring. Women can be stimulated to produce multiple oocytes, resulting in multiple births that would not otherwise have occurred. Patients can receive donor gametes – eggs and/or sperm or embryos – to create children who (from a genetic point of view) would not otherwise have been created and whose genetic makeup does not reflect their own.
Childhood tumors are classified into 12 major diagnostic groups: leukemias, lymphomas, central nervous system (CNS) tumors, sympathetic nervous system tumors, retinoblastomas, renal tumors, liver tumors, bone tumors, soft tissue sarcomas, germ cell tumors, epithelial tumors and other and unspecified malignant cancers. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between exposure to medical radiation during pregnancy and risk of childhood cancer in offspring. The effects of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy on embryonic and fetal development are well known effects on the subsequent risk of cancer. Several features of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy have been studied regarding their association with childhood cancer, including diet, breastfeeding, smoking and alcohol consumption and the use of cosmetics. Parental illicit drugs use has been associated with several types of childhood cancer. Lymphoma, melanoma and testicular, cervical and thyroid cancers account for the vast majority of cancers in adolescents and young adults.