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We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
We assessed whether paternal demographic, anthropometric and clinical factors influence the risk of an infant being born large-for-gestational-age (LGA). We examined the data on 3659 fathers of term offspring (including 662 LGA infants) born to primiparous women from Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE). LGA was defined as birth weight >90th centile as per INTERGROWTH 21st standards, with reference group being infants ⩽90th centile. Associations between paternal factors and likelihood of an LGA infant were examined using univariable and multivariable models. Men who fathered LGA babies were 180 g heavier at birth (P<0.001) and were more likely to have been born macrosomic (P<0.001) than those whose infants were not LGA. Fathers of LGA infants were 2.1 cm taller (P<0.001), 2.8 kg heavier (P<0.001) and had similar body mass index (BMI). In multivariable models, increasing paternal birth weight and height were independently associated with greater odds of having an LGA infant, irrespective of maternal factors. One unit increase in paternal BMI was associated with 2.9% greater odds of having an LGA boy but not girl; however, this association disappeared after adjustment for maternal BMI. There were no associations between paternal demographic factors or clinical history and infant LGA. In conclusion, fathers who were heavier at birth and were taller were more likely to have an LGA infant, but maternal BMI had a dominant influence on LGA.
We investigated risk factors for severe acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) among hospitalised children <2 years, with a focus on the interactions between virus and age. Statistical interactions between age and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, adenovirus (ADV) and rhinovirus on the risk of ALRI outcomes were investigated. Of 1780 hospitalisations, 228 (12.8%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The median (range) length of stay (LOS) in hospital was 3 (1–27) days. An increase of 1 month of age was associated with a decreased risk of ICU admission (rate ratio (RR) 0.94; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.91–0.98) and with a decrease in LOS (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.95–0.97). Associations between RSV, influenza, ADV positivity and ICU admission and LOS were significantly modified by age. Children <5 months old were at the highest risk from RSV-associated severe outcomes, while children >8 months were at greater risk from influenza-associated ICU admissions and long hospital stay. Children with ADV had increased LOS across all ages. In the first 2 years of life, the effects of different viruses on ALRI severity varies with age. Our findings help to identify specific ages that would most benefit from virus-specific interventions such as vaccines and antivirals.
To assess general medical residents’ familiarity with antibiograms using a self-administered survey
Cross-sectional, single-center survey
Residents in internal medicine, family medicine, and pediatrics at an academic medical center
Participants were administered an anonymous survey at our institution during regularly scheduled educational conferences between January and May 2012. Questions collected data regarding demographics, professional training; further open-ended questions assessed knowledge and use of antibiograms regarding possible pathogens, antibiotic regimens, and prescribing resources for 2 clinical vignettes; a series of directed, closed-ended questions followed. Bivariate analyses to compare responses between residency programs were performed.
Of 122 surveys distributed, 106 residents (87%) responded; internal medicine residents accounted for 69% of responses. More than 20% of residents could not accurately identify pathogens to target with empiric therapy or select therapy with an appropriate spectrum of activity in response to the clinical vignettes; correct identification of potential pathogens was not associated with selecting appropriate therapy. Only 12% of respondents identified antibiograms as a resource when prescribing empiric antibiotic therapy for scenarios in the vignettes, with most selecting the UpToDate online clinical decision support resource or The Sanford Guide. When directly questioned, 89% reported awareness of institutional antibiograms, but only 70% felt comfortable using them and only 44% knew how to access them.
When selecting empiric antibiotics, many residents are not comfortable using antibiograms as part of treatment decisions. Efforts to improve antibiotic use may benefit from residents being given additional education on both infectious diseases pharmacotherapy and antibiogram utilization.
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of early and mid-gestation nutrient restriction on maternal metabolites and foetal growth. Primiparous Angus cows were synchronized and inseminated with semen from one sire. Dietary treatments were: control to gain 1 kg/week (CON) or 0.55% maintenance energy and CP requirements (nutrient restricted; NR). A subset of dams was fed NR (n=8) or CON (n=8) from days 30 to 110 of gestation. Another group was fed CON (n=8), days 30 to 190; NR (n=7), days 30 to 110 followed by CON days 110 to 190; or CON, (n=7) days 30 to 110 followed by NR days 110 to 190. Cows were harvested at days 110 or 190 of gestation, when foetal measurements and samples were collected. Cows that were NR during days 30 to 110 or 110 to 190 of gestation lost significant BW and body condition score (P<0.001), this was associated with reduced plasma glucose during NR (P<0.002). Foetal weights, empty foetal weights, abdominal and thoracic circumferences were all reduced (P<0.03) in day 110 NR animals. Foetal perirenal adipose as a percentage of empty foetal weight was increased (P=0.01) in NR day 110 female foetuses compared with CON foetus. Maternal serum triglycerides at day 110 of gestation were decreased (P<0.05) in NR dams, whereas foetal serum triglycerides were increased (P<0.05) in response to maternal NR. Foetal weights tended to be reduced (P=0.08) in NR/CON and CON/NR v. CON/CON cattle at day 190 of gestation. Empty foetal weights, abdominal and thoracic circumferences were reduced (P⩽0.03) in NR/CON and CON/NR v. CON/CON cattle. Brain weight as a percentage of empty foetal weight was increased (P<0.001) in NR/CON and CON/NR v. CON/CON cattle. Foetal perirenal adipose as a percentage of empty foetal weight was increased (P=0.003) in NR/CON and CON/NR v. CON/CON cattle. Maternal serum triglycerides at day 190 of gestation were decreased (P<0.05) in association with maternal NR. Foetal serum triglycerides at day 190 of gestation were increased (P<0.05) in response to maternal NR during early gestation but decreased by NR in mid gestation compared with CON foetuses. The data show that maternal nutrient restriction during early or mid-gestation cause’s asymmetrical foetal growth restriction, regardless if the restriction is preceded or followed by a period of non-restriction.
Urban slum environments in the tropics are conducive to the proliferation and the spread of rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens to humans. Calodium hepaticum (Brancroft, 1893) is a zoonotic nematode known to infect a variety of mammalian hosts, including humans. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are considered the most important mammalian host of C. hepaticum and are therefore a potentially useful species to inform estimates of the risk to humans living in urban slum environments. There is a lack of studies systematically evaluating the role of demographic and environmental factors that influence both carriage and intensity of infection of C. hepaticum in rodents from urban slum areas within tropical regions. Carriage and the intensity of infection of C. hepaticum were studied in 402 Norway rats over a 2-year period in an urban slum in Salvador, Brazil. Overall, prevalence in Norway rats was 83% (337/402). Independent risk factors for C. hepaticum carriage in R. norvegicus were age and valley of capture. Of those infected the proportion with gross liver involvement (i.e. >75% of the liver affected, a proxy for a high level intensity of infection), was low (8%, 26/337). Sixty soil samples were collected from ten locations to estimate levels of environmental contamination and provide information on the potential risk to humans of contracting C. hepaticum from the environment. Sixty percent (6/10) of the sites were contaminated with C. hepaticum. High carriage levels of C. hepaticum within Norway rats and sub-standard living conditions within slum areas may increase the risk to humans of exposure to the infective eggs of C. hepaticum. This study supports the need for further studies to assess whether humans are becoming infected within this community and whether C. hepaticum is posing a significant risk to human health.
Using both a theoretical and an empirical approach, we have investigated the frequency of low redshift galaxy-galaxy lensing systems in which the signature of 3D weak lensing might be directly detectable. We find good agreement between these two approaches. Using data from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly redshift survey we estimate the frequency of detectable weak lensing at low redshift. We find that below a redshift of z ~ 0.6, the probability of a galaxy being weakly lensed by γ ⩾ 0.02 is ~ 0.01. We have also investigated the feasibility of measuring the scatter in the M* − Mh relation using shear statistics. We estimate that for a shear measurement error of Δγ = 0.02 (consistent with the sensitivity of the Direct Shear Mapping technique), with a sample of ~$50,000 spatially and spectrally resolved galaxies, the scatter in the M* − Mh relation could be measured. While there are currently no existing IFU surveys of this size, there are upcoming surveys that will provide this data (e.g The Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), surveys with Hector, and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA)).
The Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU) is a proposed radio continuum survey
of the Southern Hemisphere up to declination + 30°, with the Australian
Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). EMU will use an automated source
identification and measurement approach that is demonstrably optimal, to
maximise the reliability and robustness of the resulting radio source
catalogues. As a step toward this goal we conducted a “Data
Challenge” to test a variety of source finders on simulated images. The
aim is to quantify the accuracy and limitations of existing automated source
finding and measurement approaches. The Challenge initiators also tested the
current ASKAPsoft source-finding tool to establish how it could benefit from
incorporating successful features of the other tools. As expected, most finders
show completeness around 100% at ≈ 10σ dropping to about 10% by
≈ 5σ. Reliability is typically close to 100% at ≈
10σ, with performance to lower sensitivities varying between finders. All
finders show the expected trade-off, where a high completeness at low
signal-to-noise gives a corresponding reduction in reliability, and vice versa.
We conclude with a series of recommendations for improving the performance of
the ASKAPsoft source-finding tool.
Paranoia is one of the commonest symptoms of psychosis but has rarely been studied in a population at risk of developing psychosis. Based on existing theoretical models, including the proposed distinction between ‘poor me’ and ‘bad me’ paranoia, we aimed to test specific predictions about associations between negative cognition, metacognitive beliefs and negative emotions and paranoid ideation and the belief that persecution is deserved (deservedness).
We used data from 117 participants from the Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation for people at risk of psychosis (EDIE-2) trial of cognitive–behaviour therapy, comparing them with samples of psychiatric in-patients and healthy students from a previous study. Multi-level modelling was utilized to examine predictors of both paranoia and deservedness, with post-hoc planned comparisons conducted to test whether person-level predictor variables were associated differentially with paranoia or with deservedness.
Our sample of at-risk mental state participants was not as paranoid, but reported higher levels of ‘bad-me’ deservedness, compared with psychiatric in-patients. We found several predictors of paranoia and deservedness. Negative beliefs about self were related to deservedness but not paranoia, whereas negative beliefs about others were positively related to paranoia but negatively with deservedness. Both depression and negative metacognitive beliefs about paranoid thinking were specifically related to paranoia but not deservedness.
This study provides evidence for the role of negative cognition, metacognition and negative affect in the development of paranoid beliefs, which has implications for psychological interventions and our understanding of psychosis.
The nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum is becoming more widely recorded globally, and is of increasing concern as a cause of disease in dogs. Apparent geographic spread is difficult to confirm due to a lack of standardized disease recording systems, increasing awareness among veterinary clinicians, and recent improvements in diagnostic technologies. This study examines the hypothesis that A. vasorum has spread in recent years by repeating the methods of a previous survey of the fox population. The hearts and lungs of 442 foxes from across Great Britain were collected and examined by dissection and flushing of the pulmonary circulation and microscopic inspection of tracheal scrapes. Sampling and parasite extraction methods were identical to an earlier survey in 2005 to ensure comparability. Prevalence of A. vasorum was 18·3% (exact binomial confidence bounds 14·9–22·3), compared with 7·3% previously (5·3–9·9, n = 546), and had increased significantly in most regions, e.g. 7·4% in the Northern UK (previously zero) and 50·8% in the south-east (previously 23·2%). Other nematodes identified were Crenosoma vulpis (prevalence 10·8%, CI 8·1–14·2) and Eucoleus aerophilus (31·6%, CI 27·3–36·2). These data support the proposal that A. vasorum has increased in prevalence and has spread geographically in Great Britain.
Rotation is a key parameter in the evolution of massive stars, affecting their evolution, chemical yields, ionizing photon budget, and final fate. We determined the projected rotational velocity, υe sin i, of ~330 O-type objects, i.e. ~210 spectroscopic single stars and ~110 primaries in binary systems, in the Tarantula nebula or 30 Doradus (30 Dor) region. The observations were taken using VLT/FLAMES and constitute the largest homogeneous dataset of multi-epoch spectroscopy of O-type stars currently available. The most distinctive feature of the υe sin i distributions of the presumed-single stars and primaries in 30 Dor is a low-velocity peak at around 100 km s−1. Stellar winds are not expected to have spun-down the bulk of the stars significantly since their arrival on the main sequence and therefore the peak in the single star sample is likely to represent the outcome of the formation process. Whereas the spin distribution of presumed-single stars shows a well developed tail of stars rotating more rapidly than 300 km s−1, the sample of primaries does not feature such a high-velocity tail. The tail of the presumed-single star distribution is attributed for the most part – and could potentially be completely due – to spun-up binary products that appear as single stars or that have merged. This would be consistent with the lack of such post-interaction products in the binary sample, that is expected to be dominated by pre-interaction systems. The peak in this distribution is broader and is shifted toward somewhat higher spin rates compared to the distribution of presumed-single stars. Systems displaying large radial velocity variations, typical for short period systems, appear mostly responsible for these differences.
The effects of a bovine whey peptide product enriched in proline (wPRP) on the solubility of milk proteins were tested under ambient conditions or following heat treatment at 75 and 100 °C, for 1 and 15 min, followed by post-incubation storage at either ambient temperature or 4 °C for up to 7 d. wPRP promoted solubilisation of milk proteins in a concentration-dependent manner without heat treatment and also after heat treatment at 75 and 100 °C, and the effect was enhanced after storage under either ambient or refrigerated storage conditions. Interactions of wPRP and milk proteins were monitored by particle size analysis and tryptic digestion and specifically linked with solubilisation of αS1 casein (αS1-Cn), which supported observed changes in milk protein solubility. The results suggested that wPRP preferably prevented or reversed physical versus covalent protein aggregation, with the relaxation of hydrophobic interactions at 4 °C providing an additive effect. This application of wPRP represents a novel approach to stabilisation of dairy proteins following thermal processing with industrial usefulness yet to be explored.
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).
The future of centimetre and metre-wave astronomy lies with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a telescope under development by a consortium of 17 countries that will be 50 times more sensitive than any existing radio facility. Most of the key science for the SKA will be addressed through large-area imaging of the Universe at frequencies from a few hundred MHz to a few GHz. The Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a technology demonstrator aimed in the mid-frequency range, and achieves instantaneous wide-area imaging through the development and deployment of phased-array feed systems on parabolic reflectors. The large field-of-view makes ASKAP an unprecedented synoptic telescope that will make substantial advances in SKA key science. ASKAP will be located at the Murchison Radio Observatory in inland Western Australia, one of the most radio-quiet locations on the Earth and one of two sites selected by the international community as a potential location for the SKA. In this paper, we outline an ambitious science program for ASKAP, examining key science such as understanding the evolution, formation and population of galaxies including our own, understanding the magnetic Universe, revealing the transient radio sky and searching for gravitational waves.
The working party was required to establish what actuarial information is needed by the financial world for the proper evaluation of a bid for a quoted insurance company, and, in the light of these findings, to consider what may be required in the way of guidance to actuaries. The report considers the issuesw hich occur when life insurance companies aresu bject to takeovers and to other changes of ownership. The Takeover Code has many implications in such situations and these are discussed fully, particularly any conflicts of interest and the independence or otherwise of the actuaries involved. The interests of policyholders are considered and advice is proffered to actuaries. A Guidance Note is being issued.