To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We implemented universal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing of patients undergoing surgical procedures as a means to conserve personal protective equipment (PPE). The rate of asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was <0.5%, which suggests that early local public health interventions were successful. Although our protocol was resource intensive, it prevented exposures to healthcare team members.
This path-breaking study of the standardisation of English goes well beyond the traditional prescriptivism versus descriptivism debate. It argues that the way norms are established and enforced is the result of a complex network of social factors and cannot be explained simply by appeals to power and hegemony. It brings together insights from leading researchers to re-centre the discussion on linguistic communities and language users. It examines the philosophy underlying the urge to standardise language, and takes a closer look at both well-known and lesser-known historical dictionaries, grammars and usage guides, demonstrating that they cannot be simply labelled as 'prescriptivist'. Drawing on rich empirical data and case studies, it shows how the norm continues to function in society, influencing and affecting language users even today.
One in three adults, most of whom are living in a care home at the time, dies with dementia. Their end-of-life is often in hospital, where they may experience uncomfortable interventions without known benefit and die rapidly with uncontrolled pain and comfort needs. This study aimed to improve end-of-life care for people with dementia in a care home by increasing the number and implementation of advanced care wishes.
We recruited staff, residents with dementia, and their relatives from a 120-bed nursing home in London, UK. The intervention was a ten-session manualized, interactive staff training program. We compared advance care wishes documentation and implementation, place of death for residents who died, and themes from staff and family carers’ after-death interviews pre- and post-intervention.
Post-intervention there were significant increases in documented advance care wishes arising from residents’ and relatives’ discussions with staff about end-of-life. These included do not resuscitate orders (16/22, 73% vs. 4/28, 14%; p < 0.001); and dying in the care homes as opposed to hospital (22/29, 76% vs. 14/30, 47%; p < 0.02). Bereaved relatives overall satisfaction increased from 7.5 (SD = 1.3) pre-intervention to 9.1 (SD = 2.4) post-intervention; t = 17.6, p = 0.06. Relatives reported increased consultation and satisfaction about decisions. Staff members were more confident about end-of-life planning and implementing advanced wishes.
This small non-randomized study is the first end-of-life care in dementia intervention to report an increase in family satisfaction with a reduction in hospital deaths. This is promising but requires further evaluation in diverse care homes.
Research suggests that levels of discrimination against people using mental health services are high; however, reports of these people's experiences are rare.
To determine whether the Time to Change (TTC) programme target of 5% reduction in discrimination has been achieved.
Separate samples of people using mental health services were interviewed annually from 2008 to 2011 using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale to record instances of discrimination.
Ninety-one per cent of participants reported one or more experiences of discrimination in 2008 compared with 88% in 2011 (z=-1.9, P=0.05). The median negative discrimination score was 40% in 2008 and 28% in 2011 (Kruskal-Wallis χ2=83.4, P < 0.001).
The proportion of participants experiencing no discrimination increased significantly over the course of TTC but by less than the initial target The overall median discrimination score fell by 11.5%. Data from 2010 and 2011 suggest that these gains may be hard to maintain during economic austerity.