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Indications of geographic origin for foodstuffs and manufactures have become an important source of brand value since the beginnings of globalization during the late nineteenth century. In this work, David M. Higgins explores the early nineteenth-century business campaigns to secure national and international protection of geographic brands. He shows how these efforts culminated in the introduction of legal protocols which protect such brands, including, 'Champagne', 'Sheffield', 'Swiss made' watches and 'Made in the USA'. Higgins explores the major themes surrounding these indications, tying in the history of global marketing and the relevant laws on intellectual property. He also questions the effectiveness of European Union policy to promote 'regional' and 'local' foods and why such initiatives brought the EU in conflict with North America, especially the US He extends the study with a reflection on contemporary issues affecting globalization, intellectual property, less developed countries, and supply chains.
In situ and ex situ neutron reflectivity is used to characterize annealed regioregular-P3HT/PCBM bilayers. In situ annealing of a 20 nm PCBM/35 nm P3HT bilayer at 170 °C reveals rapid mixing of PCBM and P3HT to produce a polymer-rich layer that contains around 18–20% PCBM. Samples with three different thicknesses of P3HT layer are ex situ annealed at 140 °C. This again reveals migration of PCBM into the P3HT and vice versa, with the polymer-rich layer in the 20 nm PCBM/35 nm P3HT sample containing 19% PCBM. Complete migration of the entire PCBM layer into the P3HT layer is observed for a 20 nm PCBM/80 nm P3HT bilayer. The robustness of fitted model composition profiles, in comparison with real-space imaging of sample surface morphology and previous work on annealed P3HT/PCBM bilayer compositions, is discussed in detail.