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This study explored programme recipients’ and deliverers’ experiences and perceived outcomes of accessing or facilitating a grocery gift card (GGC) programme from I Can for Kids (iCAN), a community-based programme that provides GGC to low-income families with children.
This qualitative descriptive study used Freedman et al’s framework of nutritious food access to guide data generation and analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted between August and November 2020. Data were analysed using directed content analysis with a deductive–inductive approach.
Fifty-four participants were purposively recruited, including thirty-seven programme recipients who accessed iCAN’s GGC programme and seventeen programme deliverers who facilitated it.
Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Three themes were generated from the data. First, iCAN’s GGC programme promoted a sense of autonomy and dignity among programme recipients as they appreciated receiving financial support, the flexibility and convenience of using GGC, and the freedom to select foods they desired. Recipients perceived these benefits improved their social and emotional well-being. Second, recipients reported that the use of GGC improved their households’ dietary patterns and food skills. Third, both participant groups identified programmatic strengths and limitations.
Programme recipients reported that iCAN’s GGC programme provided them with dignified access to nutritious food and improved their households’ finances, dietary patterns, and social and emotional well-being. Increasing the number of GGC provided to households on each occasion, establishing clear and consistent criteria for distributing GGC to recipients, and increasing potential donors’ awareness of iCAN’s GGC programme may augment the amount of support iCAN could provide to households.
Children need to be repeatedly and consistently exposed to a variety of vegetables from an early age to achieve an increase in vegetable intake. A focus on enjoyment and learning to like eating vegetables at an early age is critical to forming favourable lifelong eating habits. Coordinated work is needed to ensure vegetables are available and promoted in a range of settings, using evidence-based initiatives, to create an environment that will support children’s acceptance of vegetables. This will help to facilitate increased intake and ultimately realise the associated health benefits. The challenges and evidence base for a new approach are described.
We assessed the implementation of telehealth-supported stewardship activities in acute-care units and long-term care (LTC) units in Veterans’ Administration medical centers (VAMCs).
Before-and-after, quasi-experimental implementation effectiveness study with a baseline period (2019–2020) and an intervention period (2021).
The study was conducted in 3 VAMCs without onsite infectious disease (ID) support.
The study included inpatient providers at participating sites who prescribe antibiotics.
During 2021, an ID physician met virtually 3 times per week with the stewardship pharmacist at each participating VAMC to review patients on antibiotics in acute-care units and LTC units. Real-time feedback on prescribing antibiotics was given to providers. Additional implementation strategies included stakeholder engagement, education, and quality monitoring.
The reach–effectiveness–adoption–implementation–maintenance (RE-AIM) framework was used for program evaluation. The primary outcome of effectiveness was antibiotic days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 days present aggregated across all 3 sites. An interrupted time-series analysis was performed to compare this rate during the intervention and baseline periods. Electronic surveys, periodic reflections, and semistructured interviews were used to assess other RE-AIM outcomes.
The telehealth program reviewed 502 unique patients and made 681 recommendations to 24 providers; 77% of recommendations were accepted. After program initiation, antibiotic DOT immediately decreased in the LTC units (−30%; P < .01) without a significant immediate change in the acute-care units (+16%; P = .22); thereafter DOT remained stable in both settings. Providers generally appreciated feedback and collaborative discussions.
The implementation of our telehealth program was associated with reductions in antibiotic use in the LTC units but not in the smaller acute-care units. Overall, providers perceived the intervention as acceptable. Wider implementation of telehealth-supported stewardship activities may achieve reductions in antibiotic use.
This chapter describes pseudoscience and questionable ideas related to substance use disorders and addiction. The chapter opens by discussing diagnostic controversies and myths that influence treatments. Dubious treatments include naturopathy, homeopathy, orthomolecular medicine, acupuncture, energy medicine, hypnosis, chiropractic care, and animal-assisted therapy. The fuzzy boundary between science-based and pseudoscientific approaches is also considered. The chapter closes by reviewing research-supported approaches.
Dr. Sharpe was a leading eye movement researcher who had also been the editor of this journal. We wish to mark the 10th anniversary of his death by providing a sense of what he had achieved through some examples of his research.
Refugees typically spend years in a state of protracted displacement prior to permanent resettlement. Little is known about how various prior displacement contexts influence long-term mental health in resettled refugees. In this study, we aimed to determine whether having lived in refugee camps v. community settings prior to resettlement impacted the course of refugees' psychological distress over the 4 years following arrival in Australia.
Participants were 1887 refugees who had taken part in the Building a New Life in Australia study, which comprised of five annual face-to-face or telephone surveys from the year of first arrival in Australia.
Latent growth curve modelling revealed that refugees who had lived in camps showed greater initial psychological distress (as indexed by the K6) and faster decreases in psychological distress in the 4 years after resettling in Australia, compared to those who had lived in community settings. Investigation of refugee camp characteristics revealed that poorer access to services in camps was associated with greater initial distress after resettlement, and greater ability to meet one's basic needs in camps was associated with faster decreases in psychological distress over time.
These findings highlight the importance of the displacement context in influencing the course of post-resettlement mental health. Increasing available services and meeting basic needs in the displacement environment may promote better mental health outcomes in resettled refugees.
Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are common following traumatic stress exposure (TSE). Identification of individuals with PTSS risk in the early aftermath of TSE is important to enable targeted administration of preventive interventions. In this study, we used baseline survey data from two prospective cohort studies to identify the most influential predictors of substantial PTSS.
Self-identifying black and white American women and men (n = 1546) presenting to one of 16 emergency departments (EDs) within 24 h of motor vehicle collision (MVC) TSE were enrolled. Individuals with substantial PTSS (⩾33, Impact of Events Scale – Revised) 6 months after MVC were identified via follow-up questionnaire. Sociodemographic, pain, general health, event, and psychological/cognitive characteristics were collected in the ED and used in prediction modeling. Ensemble learning methods and Monte Carlo cross-validation were used for feature selection and to determine prediction accuracy. External validation was performed on a hold-out sample (30% of total sample).
Twenty-five percent (n = 394) of individuals reported PTSS 6 months following MVC. Regularized linear regression was the top performing learning method. The top 30 factors together showed good reliability in predicting PTSS in the external sample (Area under the curve = 0.79 ± 0.002). Top predictors included acute pain severity, recovery expectations, socioeconomic status, self-reported race, and psychological symptoms.
These analyses add to a growing literature indicating that influential predictors of PTSS can be identified and risk for future PTSS estimated from characteristics easily available/assessable at the time of ED presentation following TSE.
It has been suggested that psychosocial factors are related to survival time of inpatients with cancer. However, there are not many studies examining the relationship between spiritual well-being (SWB) and survival time among countries. This study investigated the relationship between SWB and survival time among three East Asian countries.
This international multicenter cohort study is a secondary analysis involving newly admitted inpatients with advanced cancer in palliative care units in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. SWB was measured using the Integrated Palliative Outcome Scale (IPOS) at admission. We performed multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model to identify independent prognostic factors.
A total of 2,638 patients treated at 37 palliative care units from January 2017 to September 2018 were analyzed. The median survival time was 18.0 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.5–19.5) in Japan, 23.0 days (95% CI 19.9–26.1) in Korea, and 15.0 days (95% CI 13.0–17.0) in Taiwan. SWB was a significant factor correlated with survival in Taiwan (hazard ratio [HR] 1.27; 95% CI 1.01–1.59; p = 0.04), while it was insignificant in Japan (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.00–1.22; p = 0.06), and Korea (HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.77–1.35; p = 0.89).
Significance of results
SWB on admission was associated with survival in patients with advanced cancer in Taiwan but not Japan or Korea. The findings suggest the possibility of a positive relationship between spiritual care and survival time in patients with far advanced cancer.
Background: Povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate are commonly used antiseptics that have broad antiviral properties, including against SARS-CoV-2. Nasal and oral antisepsis is a possible option to reduce viral transmission; however, effectiveness data are limited. The acceptability of this method for adjunct infection control is also unknown. We are conducting a clinical randomized controlled trial (NCT04478019) to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of nasal and oral antisepsis to prevent COVID-19. Methods: Healthcare and other essential workers with in-person job duties were recruited into a 10-week clinical trial. Participation did not require in-person activities: all communication was web- or telephone-based, supplies were shipped directly to the participant, and participants self-collected specimens. Participants completed a 3-week intervention and 3-week control phases and were randomized to the timing of these phases (Fig. 1). During the 3-week intervention phase, participants applied povidone-iodine nasal swabs 2 times per day and chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinse 4 times per day following the manufacturers’ instructions for use. Participants continued all usual infection control measures (eg, face masks, eye protection, gowns, hand hygiene) as required by their workplace. To measure effectiveness against viral transmission, participants collected midturbinate nasal swabs 3 times per week to measure SARS-CoV-2 viral load. Participants also self-reported COVID-19 tests they received and why (eg, symptoms or exposure). To assess acceptability, participants completed pre- and post-surveys about their perceived and actual experience with the interventions. Participants also self-reported adverse effects due to the intervention. Results: As of December 3, 2021, 221 participants (148 healthcare workers and 73 non–healthcare essential workers) had enrolled. Moreover, 20 adverse effects have been reported, including skin irritation, epistaxis, and mouth discoloration; 9 participants withdrew due to side effects. Laboratory analyses are ongoing to measure effectiveness in reducing SARS-CoV-2 viral load. We performed an interim analysis of intervention acceptability. Survey responses were given on a Likert scale of 1 (not at all) to 5 (extremely). Although 36% of respondents (n = 74) reported on the postsurvey that the intervention was less acceptable than they had expected on the presurvey, the overall acceptability measure was still relatively high (3.76) (Fig. 2). In addition, 76% of respondents reported that they would use the intervention in the future (n = 56). Conclusions: Participant recruitment is ongoing, and data continue to be collected to analyze effectiveness and feasibility. Preliminary data suggest that participants find the nasal and oral antisepsis intervention to be an acceptable option to complement standard infection control methods to prevent COVID-19.
Funding: Professional Disposables International, Healthcare Division (PDIHC)
To explore motivations, self-regulation barriers and strategies in a multi-ethnic Southeast Asian population with overweight and obesity.
Qualitative design using semi-structured face-to-face and videoconferencing interviews. Data were analysed using thematic framework analysis and constant comparison method.
Specialist weight management clinic.
Twenty-two participants were purposively sampled from 13 April to 30 April 2021. Median age and BMI of the participants were 37·5 (interquartile range (IQR) = 13·3) and 39·2 kg/m2 (IQR = 6·1), respectively. And 31·8 % were men, majority had a high intention to adopt healthy eating behaviours (median = 6·5; IQR = 4·8–6·3) and 59 % of the participants had a medium level of self-regulation.
Six themes and fifteen subthemes were derived. Participants were motivated to lose weight by the sense of responsibility as the family’s pillar of support and to feel ‘normal’ again. We coupled self-regulation barriers with corresponding strategies to come up with four broad themes: habitual overconsumption – mindful self-discipline; proximity and convenience of food available – mental tenacity; momentary lack of motivation and sense of control – motivational boosters; and overeating triggers – removing triggers. We highlighted six unique overeating triggers namely: trigger activities (e.g. using social media); eating with family, friends and colleagues; provision of food by someone; emotions (e.g. feeling bored at home, sad and stressed); physiological condition (e.g. premenstrual syndrome); and the time of the day.
Future weight management interventions should consider encompassing participant-led weight loss planning, motivation boosters and self-regulation skills to cope with momentary overeating triggers.
To describe the epidemiology of patients with nonintestinal carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) colonization and to compare clinical outcomes of these patients to those with CRE infection.
A secondary analysis of Consortium on Resistance Against Carbapenems in Klebsiella and other Enterobacteriaceae 2 (CRACKLE-2), a prospective observational cohort.
A total of 49 US short-term acute-care hospitals.
Patients hospitalized with CRE isolated from clinical cultures, April, 30, 2016, through August 31, 2017.
We described characteristics of patients in CRACKLE-2 with nonintestinal CRE colonization and assessed the impact of site of colonization on clinical outcomes. We then compared outcomes of patients defined as having nonintestinal CRE colonization to all those defined as having infection. The primary outcome was a desirability of outcome ranking (DOOR) at 30 days. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality and 90-day readmission.
Of 547 patients with nonintestinal CRE colonization, 275 (50%) were from the urinary tract, 201 (37%) were from the respiratory tract, and 71 (13%) were from a wound. Patients with urinary tract colonization were more likely to have a more desirable clinical outcome at 30 days than those with respiratory tract colonization, with a DOOR probability of better outcome of 61% (95% confidence interval [CI], 53%–71%). When compared to 255 patients with CRE infection, patients with CRE colonization had a similar overall clinical outcome, as well as 30-day mortality and 90-day readmission rates when analyzed in aggregate or by culture site. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated similar results using different definitions of infection.
Patients with nonintestinal CRE colonization had outcomes similar to those with CRE infection. Clinical outcomes may be influenced more by culture site than classification as “colonized” or “infected.”
Later Cambrian and earliest Ordovician trilobites and brachiopods spanning eight horizons from five localities within the Sông Mã, Hàm Rồng and Đông Sơn formations of the Thanh Hóa province of Việt Nam, constrain the age and faunal affinities of rocks within the Sông Đà terrane, one of several suture/fault-bounded units situated between South China to the north and Indochina to the south. ‘Ghost-like’ preservation in dolomite coupled with tectonic deformation leaves many of the fossils poorly preserved, and poor exposure precludes collecting within continuously exposed stratigraphic successions. Cambrian carbonate facies pass conformably into Lower Ordovician carbonate-rich strata that also include minor siliciclastic facies, and the recovered fauna spans several uppermost Cambrian and Lower Ordovician biozones. The fauna is of equatorial Gondwanan affinity, and comparable to that from South China, North China, Sibumasu and Australia. A new species of Miaolingian ‘ptychopariid’ trilobite, Kaotaia xuanensis, is described. Detrital zircon samples from Cambrian–Ordovician rocks of the North Việt Nam and Sông Đà terranes, and from Palaeozoic samples from the Trường Sơn sector of Indochina immediately to the south, contain a predominance of ages spanning the Neoproterozoic period and have a typical equatorial Gondwanan signature. We associate the Cambrian and Tremadocian of the Sông Đà terrane with areas immediately to the north of it, including the North Việt Nam terrane and the southern parts of Yunnan and Guangxi provinces of China.
We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
Child abuse is associated with elevated risk for psychopathology. The current study examined the role of automatic emotion regulation as a potential mechanism linking child abuse with internalizing psychopathology. A sample of 237 youth aged 8–16 years and their caregivers participated. Child abuse severity was assessed by self-report questionnaires, and automatic emotion regulation was assessed using an emotional Stroop task designed to measure adaptation to emotional conflict. A similar task without emotional stimuli was also administered to evaluate whether abuse was uniquely associated with emotion regulation, but not cognitive control applied in a nonemotional context. Internalizing psychopathology was assessed concurrently and at a 2-year longitudinal follow-up. Child abuse severity was associated with lower emotional conflict adaptation but was unrelated to cognitive control. Specifically, the severity of emotional and physical abuse, but not sexual abuse, were associated with lower emotional conflict adaptation. Emotional conflict adaptation was not associated with internalizing psychopathology prospectively. These findings suggest that childhood emotional and physical abuse, in particular, may influence automatic forms of emotion regulation. Future work exploring the socioemotional consequences of altered automatic emotion regulation among youth exposed to child abuse is clearly needed.
Trust is an important factor in building acceptance of autonomous vehicles within our society, but the complex nature of trust makes it challenging to design for an appropriate level of trust. This can lead to instances of mistrust and/or distrust between users and AV’s. Designing for calibrated trust is a possible option to address this challenge. Existing research on designing for calibrated trust focuses on the human machine interaction (HMI), while from literature we infer that trust creation beings much before the first interaction between a user and an AV. The goal of our research is to broaden the scope of calibrated trust, by exploring the pre-use phase and understand the challenges faced in calibration of trust. Within our study 16 mobility experts were interviewed and a thematic analysis of the interviews was conducted. The analysis revealed the lack of clear communication between stakeholders, a solutionism approach towards designing and lack of transparency in design as the prominent challenges. Building on the research insights, we briefly introduce the Calibrated Trust Toolkit as our design solution, and conclude by proposing a sweet spot for achieving calibration of trust between users and autonomous vehicles.