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To prioritise and refine a set of evidence-informed statements into advice messages to promote vegetable liking in early childhood, and to determine applicability for dissemination of advice to relevant audiences.
A nominal group technique (NGT) workshop and a Delphi survey were conducted to prioritise and achieve consensus (≥70 % agreement) on thirty evidence-informed maternal (perinatal and lactation stage), infant (complementary feeding stage) and early years (family diet stage) vegetable-related advice messages. Messages were validated via triangulation analysis against the strength of evidence from an Umbrella review of strategies to increase children’s vegetable liking, and gaps in advice from a Desktop review of vegetable feeding advice.
A purposeful sample of key stakeholders (NGT workshop, n 8 experts; Delphi survey, n 23 end users).
Participant consensus identified the most highly ranked priority messages associated with the strategies of: ‘in-utero exposure’ (perinatal and lactation, n 56 points) and ‘vegetable variety’ (complementary feeding, n 97 points; family diet, n 139 points). Triangulation revealed two strategies (‘repeated exposure’ and ‘variety’) and their associated advice messages suitable for policy and practice, twelve for research and four for food industry.
Supported by national and state feeding guideline documents and resources, the advice messages relating to ‘repeated exposure’ and ‘variety’ to increase vegetable liking can be communicated to families and caregivers by healthcare practitioners. The food industry provides a vehicle for advice promotion and product development. Further research, where stronger evidence is needed, could further inform strategies for policy and practice, and food industry application.
In the first reported case of IVF and embryo development in the human, Rock and Menkin made the following description of the culture and development of a fertilized embryo: “The eggs were incubated in serum for 22.5 hours, being washed in salt solution before and after incubation, and then exposed to a washed sperm suspension in Locke’s solution for two hours at room temperature. They were again washed in Locke’s solution and cultured in fresh serum for 45 hours.
This comprehensive review of the factors that affect the harvesting and preparation of oocytes and the management of embryos will allow practitioners to make evidence-based decisions for successful IVF. The book reviews and re-considers the value of strategies and outcomes in the management of fertility and conception rates, centred on the production of oocytes, and successful development of the embryo. Authored by leading experts in the field, chapters engage with treatments and strategies that affect the production of oocytes and embryos, optimizing outcomes in the management of female fertility, conception rates, and live births. This vital guide covers controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, the role of AMH in determining ovarian reserve, and primary stimulation agents and the use of adjuncts. Integral for all clinicians and embryologists working in reproductive medicine units, readers are provided with evidence-based, comprehensive advice and review of all factors affecting the management of oocytes and the embryo that are vital for successful IVF cycles.
The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and establish the proportion of people with psychosis meeting criteria for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The study also aimed to identify the key lifestyle behaviours associated with increased risk of the MetS and to investigate whether the MetS is associated with illness severity and degree of functional impairment.
Baseline data were collected as part of a large randomized controlled trial (IMPaCT RCT). The study took place within community mental health teams in five Mental Health NHS Trusts in urban and rural locations across England. A total of 450 randomly selected out-patients, aged 18–65 years, with an established psychotic illness were recruited. We ascertained the prevalence rates of cardiometabolic risk factors, illness severity and functional impairment and calculated rates of the MetS, using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria.
High rates of cardiometabolic risk factors were found. Nearly all women and most men had waist circumference exceeding the IDF threshold for central obesity. Half the sample was obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) and a fifth met the criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Females were more likely to be obese than males (61% v. 42%, p < 0.001). Of the 308 patients with complete laboratory measures, 57% (n = 175) met the IDF criteria for the MetS.
In the UK, the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with psychotic illnesses is much higher than that observed in national general population studies as well as in most international studies of patients with psychosis.
This chapter reviews the sexually dimorphic nature of meiosis in mammalian species, since many aspects of recombination depend on whether the gamete is proceeding through spermatogenesis or oogenesis. Since meiotic recombination occurs at prophase during fetal development in mammalian females, few investigations of human recombination have focused on this stage. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis provides a powerful tool for the generation of high resolution genetic maps. LD mapping does not require analysis of multiple generations in a family. Rather it is a simple assessment of haplotype blocks among different individuals. Fortunately, with improvements in immunostaining techniques and the increasing availability of antibodies capable of detecting meiosis-acting proteins, it has now become possible to analyze the processes of pairing, synapsis, and recombination in human fetal oocytes. Advances in mapping methodology have led to the generation of high-resolution male and female genetic maps.
The inherent ease of laboratory assessment of various morphological markers makes it the preferred assessment technique of embryo transfer. Even with the adoption of more complex forms of assessment it remains as one of the main tools available for embryo selection. For a new assessment procedure to be acceptable in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) laboratory setting it must satisfy a number of criteria. The complete array of small-molecule metabolites that are found within a biological system constitutes the metabolome, which can be considered to reflect the functional phenotype. Using various forms of spectral and analytical approaches, metabolomics attempts to determine metabolites associated with physiologic and pathologic states. Investigation of the metabolome of embryos, by analysis of the culture media they grow in, using targeted spectroscopic analysis and bioinformatics, will plausibly assist in identifying the most viable embryo(s) within a cohort.