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In the first reported case of IVF and embryo development in the human, Rock and Menkin made the following description of the culture and development of a fertilized embryo: “The eggs were incubated in serum for 22.5 hours, being washed in salt solution before and after incubation, and then exposed to a washed sperm suspension in Locke’s solution for two hours at room temperature. They were again washed in Locke’s solution and cultured in fresh serum for 45 hours.
This comprehensive review of the factors that affect the harvesting and preparation of oocytes and the management of embryos will allow practitioners to make evidence-based decisions for successful IVF. The book reviews and re-considers the value of strategies and outcomes in the management of fertility and conception rates, centred on the production of oocytes, and successful development of the embryo. Authored by leading experts in the field, chapters engage with treatments and strategies that affect the production of oocytes and embryos, optimizing outcomes in the management of female fertility, conception rates, and live births. This vital guide covers controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, the role of AMH in determining ovarian reserve, and primary stimulation agents and the use of adjuncts. Integral for all clinicians and embryologists working in reproductive medicine units, readers are provided with evidence-based, comprehensive advice and review of all factors affecting the management of oocytes and the embryo that are vital for successful IVF cycles.
The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and establish the proportion of people with psychosis meeting criteria for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The study also aimed to identify the key lifestyle behaviours associated with increased risk of the MetS and to investigate whether the MetS is associated with illness severity and degree of functional impairment.
Baseline data were collected as part of a large randomized controlled trial (IMPaCT RCT). The study took place within community mental health teams in five Mental Health NHS Trusts in urban and rural locations across England. A total of 450 randomly selected out-patients, aged 18–65 years, with an established psychotic illness were recruited. We ascertained the prevalence rates of cardiometabolic risk factors, illness severity and functional impairment and calculated rates of the MetS, using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria.
High rates of cardiometabolic risk factors were found. Nearly all women and most men had waist circumference exceeding the IDF threshold for central obesity. Half the sample was obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) and a fifth met the criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Females were more likely to be obese than males (61% v. 42%, p < 0.001). Of the 308 patients with complete laboratory measures, 57% (n = 175) met the IDF criteria for the MetS.
In the UK, the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with psychotic illnesses is much higher than that observed in national general population studies as well as in most international studies of patients with psychosis.
This chapter reviews the sexually dimorphic nature of meiosis in mammalian species, since many aspects of recombination depend on whether the gamete is proceeding through spermatogenesis or oogenesis. Since meiotic recombination occurs at prophase during fetal development in mammalian females, few investigations of human recombination have focused on this stage. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis provides a powerful tool for the generation of high resolution genetic maps. LD mapping does not require analysis of multiple generations in a family. Rather it is a simple assessment of haplotype blocks among different individuals. Fortunately, with improvements in immunostaining techniques and the increasing availability of antibodies capable of detecting meiosis-acting proteins, it has now become possible to analyze the processes of pairing, synapsis, and recombination in human fetal oocytes. Advances in mapping methodology have led to the generation of high-resolution male and female genetic maps.