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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly increased depression rates, particularly in emerging adults. The aim of this study was to examine longitudinal changes in depression risk before and during COVID-19 in a cohort of emerging adults in the U.S. and to determine whether prior drinking or sleep habits could predict the severity of depressive symptoms during the pandemic.
Participants were 525 emerging adults from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA), a five-site community sample including moderate-to-heavy drinkers. Poisson mixed-effect models evaluated changes in the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) from before to during COVID-19, also testing for sex and age interactions. Additional analyses examined whether alcohol use frequency or sleep duration measured in the last pre-COVID assessment predicted pandemic-related increase in depressive symptoms.
The prevalence of risk for clinical depression tripled due to a substantial and sustained increase in depressive symptoms during COVID-19 relative to pre-COVID years. Effects were strongest for younger women. Frequent alcohol use and short sleep duration during the closest pre-COVID visit predicted a greater increase in COVID-19 depressive symptoms.
The sharp increase in depression risk among emerging adults heralds a public health crisis with alarming implications for their social and emotional functioning as this generation matures. In addition to the heightened risk for younger women, the role of alcohol use and sleep behavior should be tracked through preventive care aiming to mitigate this looming mental health crisis.
The end-Cretaceous (K/Pg) mass extinction event is the most recent and well-understood of the “big five” and triggered establishment of modern terrestrial ecosystem structure. Despite the depth of research into this event, our knowledge of upper Maastrichtian terrestrial deposits globally relies primarily on assemblage-level data limited to a few well-sampled formations in North America, the Hell Creek and Lance Formations. These assemblages disproportionally affect our interpretations of this important interval. Multiple investigations have quantified diversity patterns within these assemblages, but the potential effect of formation-level size-dependent taphonomic biases and their implications on extinction dynamics remains unexplored. Here, the relationship between taphonomy and body size of the Hell Creek Formation and Lance Formation dinosaurs and mammals are quantitatively analyzed. Small-bodied dinosaur taxa (<70 kg) are consistently less complete, unlikely to be articulated, and delayed in their description relative to their large-bodied counterparts. Family-level abundance (particularly skeletons) is strongly tied to body mass, and the relative abundance of juveniles of large-bodied taxa similarly is underrepresented. Mammals show similar but nonsignificant trends. The results are remarkably similar to those from the Campanian-aged Dinosaur Park Formation, suggesting a widespread strong taphonomic bias against the preservation of small taxa, which will result in their seemingly depauperate diversity within the assemblage. This taphonomically skewed view of diversity and abundance of small-bodied taxa amid our best late Maastrichtian samples has significant implications for understanding speciation and extinction dynamics (e.g., size-dependent extinction selectivity) across the K/Pg boundary.
A chloroacetamide herbicide by application timing factorial experiment was conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Mississippi to investigate chloroacetamide use in a dicamba-based Palmer amaranth management program in cotton production. Herbicides used were S-metolachlor or acetochlor, and application timings were preemergence, preemergence followed by (fb) early postemergence, preemergence fb late postemergence, early postemergence alone, late postemergence alone, and early postemergence fb late postemergence. Dicamba was included in all preemergence applications, and dicamba plus glyphosate was included with all postemergence applications. Differences in cotton and weed response due to chloroacetamide type were minimal, and cotton injury 14 d after LP application was less than 10% for all application timings. Late-season weed control was reduced up to 30 and 53% if chloroacetamide application occurred PRE or LP only, respectively. Late-season weed densities were minimized if multiple applications were used instead of a single application. Cotton height was reduced by up to 23% if a single application was made LP relative to other application timings. Chloroacetamide application at any timing except PRE alone minimized late season weed biomass. Yield was maximized by any treatment involving multiple applications or EP alone whereas applications PRE or LP alone resulted in up to 56 and 27% yield losses, respectively. While no yield loss was reported by delaying the first of sequential applications until EP, foregoing a PRE application is not advisable given the multiple factors that may delay timely POST applications such as inclement weather.
We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
This project aimed to assess and improve the quality and frequency of documentation from Psychiatric Liaison Team (PLT) to ward-based medical colleagues against the Treat as One recommendations. From experience, we hypothesised that written documentation of information crucial to patient care is not consistently meeting standards. This communication breakdown directly affects patient safety, potentially introducing additional risks to our already vulnerable patient group.
Effective communication between PLT and our medical colleagues bridges the gap in providing continuity of care and ensures patients’ mental and physical health needs are met in acute trusts. The NCEPOD found that there remains many barriers to high quality mental healthcare provided to patients in general hospitals and recommended 7 elements that PLT documentations should encompass.
We audited initial PLT assessments and the resulting documentation to determine if these met the 7 standards set by NCEPOD. Baseline audit undertaken from 21-27/09/2020 encompassing 130 patient referrals to PLT.
A period of time was allotted to implement robust changes to improve the service. This included a streamlined e-template that automatically populates in the acute hospital eRecord system which prompts clinicians to document according to the NCEPOD standards, structured clinician training and education, and the nomination of “Treat as One Guardians” in the team to ensure that acute trust documentations are present during daily multidisciplinary meetings.
The cycle was then completed on 22-28/02/2021 with a re-audit capturing 55 referrals.
Implementation of our recommended changes saw an increase from 58% of documentations with ≥50% NCEPOD elements to 98% in the re-audit.
We also saw an increase in number of the NCEPOD 7 elements included following intervention: formulation (0% to 8%), legal status and capacity (47% to 79%), risk assessment (2% to 28%), risk management (18% to 53%), and discharge plan (2% to 29%).
Completion rate of acute trust documentation increased from 74% to 96%.
Our interventions also led to more contemporaneous communication, significantly reducing mean time from assessment to documentation in both acute trust and mental health records from 6.02 to 3.53 hours, (p = 0.04) and 6.12 to 3.50 hours, (p = 0.05) respectively.
Following our interventions, the results showed improving trends in the frequency and quality of our documentation with secondary outcomes showing increased documenting efficiency. Our current practice is not yet optimal and retains potential to adversely affect our patients. We propose further investigating barriers to change using the quality improvement PDSA (Plan, Do, Study, Act) methodology to continue innovating.
To systematically review and synthesise qualitative evidence about determinants of self-management in adults with SMI. The goal is to use findings from this review to inform the design of effective self-management strategies for people with SMI and LTCs.
People living with serious mental illness (SMI) have a reduced life expectancy by around 15–20 years, mainly due to the high prevalence of long-term physical conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. People with SMI face many challenges when trying to manage their physical health. Little is known about the determinants of self-management – managing the emotional and practical issues – of long-term conditions (LTCs) for people with SMI.
Six databases, including CINAHL and MEDLINE, were searched to identify qualitative studies that explored people's perceptions about determinants of self-management in adults with SMI (with or without comorbid LTCs). Self-management was defined according to the American Association of Diabetes Educator's self-care behaviours (AADE7). Determinants were defined according to the Capabilities, Opportunity, Motivations and Behaviours (COM-B) framework. Eligible studies were purposively sampled for synthesis according to the richness of the data (assessed using Ames et al (2017)'s data richness scale), and thematically synthesised.
Twenty-six articles were included in the synthesis. Seven studies focused on self-management of LTCs, with the remaining articles exploring self-management of SMI. Six analytic themes and 28 sub-themes were identified from the synthesis. The themes included: the additional burden of SMI; living with comorbidities; beliefs and attitudes about self-management; support from others for self-management; social and environmental factors; routine, structure and planning. Capabilities for self-management were linked to people's perceptions about the support they received for their SMI and LTC from healthcare professionals, family and friends. Opportunities for self-management were more commonly expressed in the context of social and environmental factors. Motivation for self-management was influenced by beliefs and attitudes, whilst being closely related to the burden of SMI.
The themes identified from the synthesis suggest that capabilities, opportunities and motivations for self-management can be negatively influenced by the experience of SMI, whilst social and professional support, improved access to resources, and increased involvement in care, could promote self-management. Support programmes for people with SMI and LTCs need to account for these experiences and adapt to meet the unique needs of this population.
This chapter shifts to the island of Cuba and the La Escalera conspiracy in the mid-1840s. As this chapter reveals, this conspiracy between free and enslaved people of color in the Spanish colony to overthrow their oppressors takes center stage in the later novels of Martin Delany and Andrés Avelino de Orihuela, each of whom turns to La Escalera in order to develop a particular vision of Black revolution in the hemisphere.
To determine whether a hospital-wide universal gloving program resulted in increased hand hygiene compliance and reduced inpatient Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) rates.
We carried out a multiple-year before-and-after quasi-experimental quality improvement study. Gloving and hand hygiene compliance data as well as hospital-acquired infection rates were prospectively collected from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2017, by secret monitors.
The University of Rochester Strong Memorial Hospital, an 849-bed quaternary-care teaching hospital.
All adult inpatients with the exception of patients in the obstetrics unit.
A hospital-wide universal gloving protocol was initiated on January 1, 2016.
Hand hygiene compliance increased from 68% in 2015 reaching an average of 88% by 2017 (P < .0002). A 10% increase in gloving per unit was associated with a 1.13-fold increase in the odds of hand hygiene (95% credible interval, 1.12–1.14). The rates of CDI decreased from 1.05 infections per 1,000 patient days in 2015 to 0.74 in 2017 (P < .04).
A universal gloving initiative was associated with a statistically significant increase in both gloving and hand hygiene compliance. CDI rates decreased during this intervention.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This research shows that physical intimate partner violence was associated with never testing for HIV while verbal intimate partner violence was associated with increased testing for HIV suggesting that HIV testing interventions should consider intimate partner violence prevention. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: HIV incidence is higher among women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV). However, few studies have assessed the association between HIV testing (regardless of the result) and the experience of IPV. Our objective was to assess the relationship between IPV and HIV testing among women from rural southwestern Uganda. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a whole-population, cross-sectional study including women ?18 years of age who
were permanent residents in 8 villages of Rwampara District, southwestern Uganda from 2011-2012 who reported having a primary partner in the past 12 months. We surveyed participants to assess their exposure to 12 different forms of verbal, physical, and/or sexual IPV, and whether they had ever been tested for HIV. We used three separate modified Poisson regression models, clustering by village, to estimate the association between each type of IPV and ever testing for HIV, adjusting for categorical age, completion of more than primary education, and any food insecurity measured by the nine-item Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among 496 women with a primary partner (>95% response rate), 64 (13%) had never tested for HIV, 297 (60%) reported verbal IPV, 81 (16%) reported physical IPV, and 131 (26%) reported sexual IPV. Further, among these women, 208 (42%) were aged <30 years, 378 (76%) had a primary or no education, and 390 (79%) experienced food insecurity. Never having been tested for HIV was positively associated with physical IPV (adjusted risk ratio (ARR): 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-2.56) and negatively associated with verbal IPV (ARR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.44-0.99), but not sexual IPV (ARR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.51-2.12). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Among this population of adult women with partners in Uganda, physical IPV was associated with never testing for HIV while verbal IPV was associated with increased testing for HIV. Evidence suggests that HIV testing interventions should consider IPV prevention, and future studies should focus on why certain IPV types impact HIV testing rates.
We acknowledge and pay respect to the people of the Yugambeh Nation on whose Land we work, meet and study. We recognise the significant role the past and future Elders play in the life of the University and the region. We are mindful that within and without the buildings, the Land always was and always will be Aboriginal Land.1
This paper introduces staying-with the traces of inter/intra-subjective experience, with and within place, in mapping-making philosophy in environmental education. Through a conceptualisation of philosophy as concepts or knots in an infinite composition of knowledge, rather than separate knowledges, we use staying-with the traces2 as method, whereby our embodied patterns of human and more than human relationality across place and time may engage with philosophy. This grounding of philosophy foregrounds the diverse onto-epistemologies of posthumanism and indigenist3 ways of knowing, acknowledging tensions and searching for the possibilities of connectivity between them. Through an embodied arts-based walking practice, our approach challenges the perpetuation of reductionist perspectives, including nature/culture binaries, within environmental education. We stay with the traces of bird, meeting, tree, watery and concrete in mutual inseparable relation and becoming.
Agency is the human capacity to freely choose one’s thoughts, motivations and actions without undue internal or external influences; it is distinguished from decisional capacity. Four well-known conditions that can deeply affect agency are depression, demoralization, existential distress, and family dysfunction. The study reviews how they may diminish agency in persons whose circumstances may lead them to consider or request euthanasia or assisted suicide. Since agency has been a relatively neglected dimension of autonomous choice at the end of life, it is argued that to respect the autonomy of individuals, it is essential to establish their agency.
Background: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are a major public health concern because they typically display multidrug resistance and they cause hard-to-treat infections. Organisms harboring metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) pose a critical challenge in clinical practice because they confer resistance to nearly all β-lactams, including recently approved β-lactam combination agents. A promising new β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combination for treating infections caused by MBL-producing CPE is aztreonam–avibactam. Although clinical trials using aztreonam–avibactam are ongoing, clinicians can administer this combination using 2 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved drugs: aztreonam and ceftazidime–avibactam. In 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) initiated a pilot program in the Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network (AR Lab Network) to address the lack of commercially available antimicrobial susceptibility tests (ASTs) for aztreonam-avibactam by performing broth microdilution (BMD) for this drug combination. We describe the isolates submitted for aztreonam-avibactam AST during the AR Lab Network pilot in 2019. Methods: The AR Lab Network regional laboratories adopted the HP D300e Digital Dispenser to create customized BMD panels for aztreonam–avibactam ASTs. To qualify for aztreonam–avibactam AST, isolates had to be an Enterobacteriaceae displaying nonsusceptibility to all tested β-lactams (including either ceftazidime-avibactam or meropenem-vaborbactam) or confirmed to harbor at least 1 MBL gene (blaVIM, blaNDM, or blaIMP). Regional laboratories confirmed carbapenemase gene(s) using a molecular method. If an MBL gene was confirmed, aztreonam-–avibactam minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were reported back to submitters within 3 working days of receipt. Findings were reported to CDC using a REDCap database. Results: From March through August 2019, aztreonam–avibactam AST was requested for 32 clinical isolates across 16 states. These isolates included 15 Escherichia coli, 12 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 4 Enterobacter cloacae complex, and 1 Proteus mirabilis. Molecular detection identified 27 blaNDM-positive isolates, 2 blaOXA-48-like-positive isolates, and 3 blaOXA-48/blaNDM-positive isolates. Aztreonam-avibactam results were reported for 30 isolates; 5 displayed elevated aztreonam-avibactam MICs of 8/4 µg/mL (n = 4) or 16/4 µg/mL (n = 1). Results for 2 isolates were not reported because the isolates were MBL negative. Aztreonam-avibactam MICs ranged from 0.06/4 µg/mL to 16/4 µg/mL. The MIC50/MIC90 were 0.5/4 µg/mL and 8/4 µg/mL. Conclusions: In the absence of effective FDA-approved treatments and lack of available AST for novel antibiotic combinations, CDC’s provision of AST for aztreonam-avibactam among MBL-producing CPE, offered through the AR Lab Network, helps fill a critical gap to inform patient treatment decisions. To date, our in vitro data suggest that aztreonam–avibactam could be a promising drug combination for use against infections caused by MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae.
The principal aim of this study was to optimize the diagnosis of canine neuroangiostrongyliasis (NA). In total, 92 cases were seen between 2010 and 2020. Dogs were aged from 7 weeks to 14 years (median 5 months), with 73/90 (81%) less than 6 months and 1.7 times as many males as females. The disease became more common over the study period. Most cases (86%) were seen between March and July. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was obtained from the cisterna magna in 77 dogs, the lumbar cistern in f5, and both sites in 3. Nucleated cell counts for 84 specimens ranged from 1 to 146 150 cells μL−1 (median 4500). Percentage eosinophils varied from 0 to 98% (median 83%). When both cisternal and lumbar CSF were collected, inflammation was more severe caudally. Seventy-three CSF specimens were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing for antibodies against A. cantonensis; 61 (84%) tested positive, titres ranging from <100 to ⩾12 800 (median 1600). Sixty-one CSF specimens were subjected to real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) testing using a new protocol targeting a bioinformatically-informed repetitive genetic target; 53/61 samples (87%) tested positive, CT values ranging from 23.4 to 39.5 (median 30.0). For 57 dogs, it was possible to compare CSF ELISA serology and qPCR. ELISA and qPCR were both positive in 40 dogs, in 5 dogs the ELISA was positive while the qPCR was negative, in 9 dogs the qPCR was positive but the ELISA was negative, while in 3 dogs both the ELISA and qPCR were negative. NA is an emerging infectious disease of dogs in Sydney, Australia.
Previous genetic association studies have failed to identify loci robustly associated with sepsis, and there have been no published genetic association studies or polygenic risk score analyses of patients with septic shock, despite evidence suggesting genetic factors may be involved. We systematically collected genotype and clinical outcome data in the context of a randomized controlled trial from patients with septic shock to enrich the presence of disease-associated genetic variants. We performed genomewide association studies of susceptibility and mortality in septic shock using 493 patients with septic shock and 2442 population controls, and polygenic risk score analysis to assess genetic overlap between septic shock risk/mortality with clinically relevant traits. One variant, rs9489328, located in AL589740.1 noncoding RNA, was significantly associated with septic shock (p = 1.05 × 10–10); however, it is likely a false-positive. We were unable to replicate variants previously reported to be associated (p < 1.00 × 10–6 in previous scans) with susceptibility to and mortality from sepsis. Polygenic risk scores for hematocrit and granulocyte count were negatively associated with 28-day mortality (p = 3.04 × 10–3; p = 2.29 × 10–3), and scores for C-reactive protein levels were positively associated with susceptibility to septic shock (p = 1.44 × 10–3). Results suggest that common variants of large effect do not influence septic shock susceptibility, mortality and resolution; however, genetic predispositions to clinically relevant traits are significantly associated with increased susceptibility and mortality in septic individuals.
What really inspires learning? We know that methods of teaching where students passively listen to a professor’s lecture may no longer inspire or engage learners to be active participants in the classroom. Today, educators are learning to move outside of their comfort zones to promote active participation and student-centered learning. However, this approach still isn’t enough to engage all learners. A one-size-fits-all pedagogy is unlikely to inspire the full range of students who we may have in our classrooms, whether due to differences in cultures of learning or differences related to learning disabilities.