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Elective surgical patients routinely bathe with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) at home days prior to their procedures. However, the impact of home CHG bathing on surgical site CHG concentration is unclear. We examined 3 different methods of applying CHG and hypothesized that different application methods would impact resulting CHG skin concentration.
Smoking rates in people with depression and anxiety are twice as high as in the general population, even though people with depression and anxiety are motivated to stop smoking. Most healthcare professionals are aware that stopping smoking is one of the greatest changes that people can make to improve their health. However, smoking cessation can be a difficult topic to raise. Evidence suggests that smoking may cause some mental health problems, and that the tobacco withdrawal cycle partly contributes to worse mental health. By stopping smoking, a person's mental health may improve, and the size of this improvement might be equal to taking antidepressants. In this article we outline ways in which healthcare professionals can compassionately and respectfully raise the topic of smoking to encourage smoking cessation. We draw on evidence-based methods such as cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and outline approaches that healthcare professionals can use to integrate these methods into routine care to help their patients stop smoking.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Lack of blood vessels remains a major obstacle in tissue regeneration. Angiopoietin 1 and 2 modulate angiogenesis through the Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase. Ang1 activates pAKT to promote endothelial cell survival while Ang2 antagonizes these effects. We aim to dissect the Ang/Tie2 pathway to uncover the molecular basis for these opposing effects. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Ang1 and Ang2 bind Tie2 via nearly identical F-domains (Fd). To investigate the molecular basis regulating the Tie2 pathway, we generated a series of computationally designed self-assembling protein scaffolds presenting F-domains in a wide range of valencies and geometries using Rosette Molecular Modeling Suite. We examined the protein kinase activation, cell migration, and blood vessel formation produced by the designed proteins in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Two phenotypic classes were demonstrated by the number of presented F domains: scaffolds presenting 3 or 4 Fd have Ang2 like activity, upregulating pFAK and pERK but not pAKT and failing to induce cell migration and tube formation; scaffolds presenting more than 6 Fd have Ang1 like activity, upregulating the three signaling branches and enhancing cell migration and tube formation. Scaffolds with 8 or more Fd show superagonist activity, producing significantly stronger phenotypes than Ang1. These results suggest that Fd valency largely determines Ang1 vs Ang2 signaling outcomes, and our designed superagonists can outperform Ang1 in vascularization and wound healing. In in vivo experiments, nanoparticles displaying 60 copies of Fd produce significant revascularization in hemorrhagic brains. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Targeting the Tie2 pathway is a new paradigm in regenerative medicine. Our designed constructs will enable us to generate high-affinity Tie2 agonists and antagonists as drugs to control angiogenesis, enabling tissue regeneration that recapitulates the biological architecture of the native tissue physiology, improving organ transplant outcome.
We present a 53-year-old male with the rare constellation of stress cardiomyopathy, dextrocardia with situs inversus and anomalous coronary anatomy. This case highlights the difficulties faced when managing patients with uncommon disorders and demonstrates a rare overlap of acquired and CHD.
This article argues that, despite the protestations to the contrary of William Camden (1551–1623), the antiquarian methods of his “Britannia” are indebted to the “Origines Antwerpianae” of Johannes Goropius Becanus (1519–73). Both Goropius and Camden posited the contemporary existence of an unchanged primeval language (Dutch for Goropius and Welsh for Camden) wherein etymologies could be used to trace the origins and migrations of ancient peoples. Even as humanist philology underscored the mutability of language, Goropius and Camden selectively ignored this mutability in order to have a basis other than myth or legend for reconstructing antiquity. Their efforts, however, created new myths about language and its ability to bridge present and distant past.
In this chapter we introduce and explain the key principles of integrated learning and outline ways in which it can be put into practice to provide quality Arts experiences, as well as quality learning in other areas. We suggest ways to achieve integrated learning that you can adapt to construct your own successful program.
We also move beyond the concept of curriculum integration to look at child integration as it should be applied in the classroom. Schools do exclude, both intentionally and otherwise. We explore the justifications offered for, and ways to remove, these barriers to engagement in the Arts by all. We argue in this chapter for the need for everyone to experience the Arts equally, no matter what their background or what form of diverse learning is brought to the classroom. For some children, this is the only pathway to success. In the Arts anyone can engage; everyone gets to live them.
This chapter will provide a foundation for the provision of quality visual arts educational experiences in early childhood and primary years. Practical suggestions for planning a high-quality visual arts program are linked to recent theory in a way that helps you construct your own visual arts program. Visual arts concepts, language, elements and principles will be defined and explained, with examples of the progression in visual arts education from early childhood through the primary years. Practicalities such as classroom management, safety and materials are addressed and additional interactive material can be found through the icons.
If we approach Arts education as we might approach literacy, we would aim to develop Arts literacy in students. We would teach students the tools of language, ways of constructing meaning, vocabulary, structures, forms, genres and shaping cultural and social contexts. In literacy we allow children freedom to gain confidence and experiment with creative writing, but we also intervene when necessary to correct, guide and teach them explicit skills and knowledge. If we apply this approach to the Arts, then, rather than stand back and ‘let the child be free’, we focus on developing proficiency in knowledge and skills as well as fostering creativity and imagination right from the start. As with any other Learning Area, child engagement and achievement in the Arts are determined by exposure to ongoing, sequential learning experiences. This chapter suggests ways in which teachers can achieve this in a way that is respectful of the needs and interests of the child.
The previous chapters have explored the teaching methodologies and concepts related to different forms of the Arts, as well as methodologies for integration and organisation. However, in addition to being able to teach the Arts, we need to have in place a system for evaluating the teaching process to ensure that the outcomes and goals we wish to achieve are met for the learners. There has been a great deal of research to identify specific teaching practices that can improve children’s outcomes. This chapter does not intend to analyse the validity or otherwise of these outcomes, as these are mandated by the various examination and education boards. In part, this is because it is difficult to isolate any specific technique or learning skill that works for individuals because all children have unique and individual learning styles. For these reasons, the focus of recent research has been to isolate general characteristics.
Teaching the Arts: Early Childhood and Primary Education foregrounds the importance of arts education to children's development and learning while connecting each arts area to the Australian Curriculum. The third edition provides comprehensive coverage and an exciting introduction to arts education in Australia, with updated content and new, interactive features. The book covers the key areas of dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts, full of teacher tips, spotlights on arts education, and downloadable lesson plans. This new edition includes interactive eBook content such as interactive questions and answers throughout each chapter, example videos of arts activities accompanying lesson plans and teacher tips, and weblinks to further content to support students in their learning This book is a vital resource for all pre-service early childhood and primary teachers, emphasising the fundamental nature of the arts in schools.
In this chapter we will discuss the important role of the Arts in addressing the cross-curriculum priorities of the Australian Curriculum. The cross-curriculum priorities serve a number of functions, including fostering intercultural understanding. We will also explore ways the Arts can be used to respond to issues of sustainability. The chapter includes innovative and practical suggestions for developing continuous and sequential cross-curriculum learning in the Arts.