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Principal challenges to direct fabrication of high performance a-Si:H transistor arrays on flexible substrates include automated handling through bonding-debonding processes, substrate-compatible low temperature fabrication processes, management of dimensional instability of plastic substrates, and planarization and management of CTE mismatch for stainless steel foils. In collaboration with our industrial and academic partners, we have developed viable solutions to address these challenges, as described in this paper.
Many people with mental health problems do not seek professional help but their use of other sources of help is unclear.
To investigate patterns of lay and professional help-seeking in men and women aged 16–64 years in relation to severity of symptoms and sociodemographic variables.
Postal questionnaire survey, including the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ–12), sent to a stratified random sample (n=15222) of the population of Somerset.
The response rate was 76%. Only 28% of people with extremely high GHQ–12 scores (⩾8) had sought help from their general practitioner but most (78%) had sought some form of help. Males, young people and people living in affluent areas were the least likely to seek help.
Health promotion interventions to encourage appropriate help-seeking behaviour in young people, particularly in men, may lead to improvements in the mental health of this group of the population.
We discuss the optical identification of 9 Be/X-ray binary optical counterparts of X-ray sources in the Magellanic clouds, most of them discovered in ROSAT observations. Imaging CCD photometry (using BV RC and Hα filters) was employed to search the typically 20 arcsec radius error circles for early-type stars exhibiting Hα emission. Spectroscopy of 5 candidates confirmed the presence of Hα emission. Based on the positional coincidences, we propose Be star optical counterparts to all of 9 X-ray sources: 6 from ROSAT and one each from ASCA, EXOSAT and HEAO-1. All of the sources exhibit the typical X-ray characteristics of Be/neutron star X-ray binaries: transient nature or strong variability, relatively hard X-ray spectra and, in 5 cases, detections of probable neutron star spin periods in the range 8.9 to 91.1 seconds.
Dennis Snower has written a very useful chapter, one that should be studied carefully by policy makers searching for practical measures to reduce high levels of unemployment. The chapter presents a concrete proposal that takes seriously the problem of policy design. The proposed Benefit Transfer Programme (BTP) is voluntary and relatively simple. The programme aims to reduce long-duration unemployment by allowing individuals who have been unemployed for a minimum period of time to convert their unemployment insurance benefits into either recruitment or training vouchers. In this way, it would remove disincentives to job search in unemployment insurance schemes and replace them with incentives for hiring and training. Moreover, the programme is designed to be neutral with respect to government expenditures; and to the extent that the programme reduces unemployment and thereby enlarges the tax base, it will increase government revenues. These are all attractive features that suggest that the programme would be political viable.
Although I see no fundamental problems with the proposed programme, there are a number of issues that could be usefully clarified. It is not clear, for example, how one ensures that the total cost of the voucher scheme is the same as the cost of benefits it replaces. This is because the voucher is not linked to the individual's actual unemployment benefits, the value of which is readily calculated, but rather to benefits broadly interpreted ‘to include forgone taxes and the full spectrum of welfare state benefits falling on the unemployed’, which are difficult if not impossible to calculate ex ante.
The greatest problem concerning health care technology for developing countries is that they are dependent upon the industrialized world for technology. The only short-term solution to this problem is to improve the choices that are available to them. This goal will require changes in the structure and processes of policy making. A particular difficulty for these countries is the lack of trained personnel in fields related to technology assessment.
The DASH scale was used to assess 506 profoundly and severely mentally retarded persons (247 females and 259 males). The scale, covering 13 major psychiatric disorders, consists of 83 items derived from DSM–III–R as well as previously published studies of this population. Data were collected on symptom frequency, duration and severity in individual interviews with direct-care staff. Elimination and pervasive developmental disorders were most frequent, self-injurious behaviour disorders most severe. Most symptoms had been evident for at least a year. Inter-rater reliability was generally good.
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