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The transient growth of a counter-rotating equal strength vortex pair, which descends under mutual induction towards a ground plane, is examined through non-modal linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulation. The vortex pair is studied at a height of five vortex spacing distances above the wall, consistent with the first mode of vortex instability/wall interaction observed by experiment. Three regimes are identified in which the optimal mode topology and non-modal growth mechanisms are distinct, correlated with the widely studied Crow and elliptic instabilities, alongside a wall-modified long-wavelength-displacement-type instability. The initial optimal amplification mechanisms are found to be weakly influenced by the wall, with the long- and short-wave mechanisms consisting of anti-symmetric amplification at the leading hyperbolic point and symmetric amplification at the trailing hyperbolic point, respectively, as observed by out-of-wall studies previously. The linear growth of the Crow instability is found to be impeded by the wall, and the evolution results in the suppression of both the secondary structure formation and vortex rebound. The linear elliptic mode remains largely uninhibited however, and substantially outgrows the long-wave modes, illustrating the importance of the elliptic instability on the wall-bounded interaction. Both the wall-modified long-wave and elliptic optimal growth modes show substantial amplification in the secondary vortices. At finite perturbation amplitudes, the nonlinear formation of both long- and short-wavelength secondary vortex tongues are shown to play a critical role in the vortex dynamics as the pair strongly interacts with the wall.
This article argues that the politics of extraterritorial jurisdiction in the 1920s reshaped relations between ethnicity and territorial sovereignty in Ethiopia's eastern borderlands. A 1925 criminal trial involving Gadabursi Somalis began as what Britons deemed a ‘tribal matter’ to be settled through customary means, but became a struggle for Ethiopia's regent, Ras Tafari, to assert Ethiopia's territorial authority and imperial sovereignty. British claims of extraterritorial jurisdiction over Somalis amidst 1920s global geopolitical shifts disrupted existing practices of governance in Ethiopia's eastern borderlands and created a dilemma for Ethiopian authorities. In order to uphold international obligations, Ethiopian officials effectively had to revoke their sovereignty over some Somalis indigenous to Ethiopia. Yet Britons’ practical application of extraterritoriality to Somalis was predicated on assumed racial differences between Somalis and highland Ethiopians (‘Abyssinians’). Thus, Ethiopia's recognition of British extraterritorial jurisdiction would lend legitimacy to claims exempting Somalis from Ethiopian sovereignty due to differences in identity. The case reveals how assertions about race, nationality and ‘tribal’ identity articulated to subordinate Ethiopian rule to British interests and, in the longer term, to delegitimize Ethiopian governance over Somalis.
This study aimed to validate a nutrition knowledge questionnaire appropriate for use in Australia.
Nutrition knowledge is essential in establishing and maintaining strategies that reduce the burden of disease and promote wellbeing. The General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ) was developed in the United Kingdom in 1999 and validated for Australia in 2008. Changes in national nutrition recommendations and food availability prompted the redevelopment and revalidation of the UK questionnaire in 2016. However, the Australian questionnaire had not been subsequently updated.
Content validity was determined using a sample of academic dietitians in Australia (n 8). Face validity was undertaken with retail employees (n 11) whose highest level of education was secondary school. Ninety-three undergraduate nutrition and engineering students at Queensland University of Technology completed the questionnaire for construct validity, and nineteen students were contacted a week later for test–retest reliability.
In the 117-scored questionnaire, nutrition students scored consistently higher in each of the four sections and overall (87 %, M 102, IQR 95, 107) compared with engineering students (77 %, M 82, IQR 76, 87·25, P < 0·01). Internal reliability of the questionnaire was high (α = 0·92) as was test–retest reliability (rs = 0·96, ICC2,1 = 0·99). AUS-R NKQ determined significant differences between individuals with known higher levels of nutrition knowledge and obtained high validity, reliability and consistency within an Australian sample.
AUS-R NKQ refined through this research is valid and would be an appropriate questionnaire for assessing the effectiveness of nutrition knowledge-based interventions for public health programmes, clinicians and researchers.
Abdominal ultrasonography is an extremely valuable diagnostic tool for all perioperative physicians. While the FAST exam was designed for use in patients with blunt abdominal trauma, its principles are applicable in a wide variety of perioperative settings and can be used to narrow the differential diagnosis in unstable patients. Aortic ultrasound is easy to perform and rapidly confirms or rules out the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm or dissection. Other uses include gallbladder imaging and evaluation for free intra-peritoneal air. Perioperative and intensive care unit patients will benefit from point-of-care ultrasound, including detailed examination of the abdominal cavity.
Cultures around the world are converging as populations become more connected. On the one hand this increased connectedness can promote the recombination of existing cultural practices to generate new ones, but on the other it may lead to the replacement of traditional practices and global WEIRDing. Here we examine the process and causes of changes in cultural traits concerning wild plant knowledge in Mbendjele BaYaka hunter–gatherers from Congo. Our results show that the BaYaka who were born in town reported knowing and using fewer plants than the BaYaka who were born in forest camps. Plant uses lost in the town-born BaYaka related to medicine. Unlike the forest-born participants, the town-born BaYaka preferred Western medicine over traditional practices, suggesting that the observed decline of plant knowledge and use is the result of replacement of cultural practices with the new products of cumulative culture.
The influence of a horizontal wall on the evolution of the long-wave instability in equal strength counter-rotating vortex pairs is studied with direct numerical simulation. The two vortices descend under mutual induction and interact with a ground plane, as would aircraft trailing vortices in ground effect. Both the linear and nonlinear development of the pair is studied for three initial heights above the wall, representative of three modes of interaction identified by experiment. A study of two vortex core sizes over a range of Reynolds numbers (
$1000\leqslant Re\leqslant 2500$
) is used to verify parameter independence. The vortex system undergoes complex topological changes in the presence of a wall, with the separation of wall generated vorticity into hairpin-like vortex tongues and axial flow development in the primary pair. The secondary structures are rotated and stretched around the primary vortices, strongly influencing the resultant flow evolution and are comparable with those observed for oblique ring–wall interaction. Of the three modes, the small-amplitude mode shows the formation of four principal tongues per long wavelength of the Crow instability, with the secondary vortex remaining connected. The large-amplitude mode undergoes a re-connective process to form two non-planar secondary vortex structures per wavelength, and a simulation of the large ring mode in its first formation develops six tongues per wavelength. These secondary structures ‘rebound’ from the wall and interact at the symmetry plane prior to dissipation, governing the bending, stretching and trajectory of the primary vortex pair.
Is local law enforcement conducted differently based on the party in power? I offer an answer to this question by focusing on a case in which law enforcement is elected and has meaningful independent discretion: sheriff compliance with federal requests to detain unauthorized immigrants. Using a regression discontinuity design in a new dataset of over 3,200 partisan sheriff elections and administrative data on sheriff behavior, I find that Democrats and Republicans comply at nearly the same rate. These results contribute to ongoing research into the role that partisanship plays in local policy making, indicating that law enforcement officers make similar choices across party lines even when they have broad authority. I also present evidence that sheriffs hold more similar immigration enforcement views across party than the general public, highlighting the role of candidate entry and selection in determining the level of partisan polarization.
Formally established in the fall of 1947, the Laboratory of Archaeology at the University of Georgia is an archaeological research and collection repository. It is considered one of the premier institutions for curation of archaeological collections from the American Southeast. For over 70 years, the Laboratory has served as a repository for objects and associated records generated from archaeological projects and research undertaken by faculty, students, CRM professionals, and state and federal agencies. The Laboratory curates over 20,000 cubic feet of artifacts as well as paper and digital archives. In addition, the Laboratory houses the Georgia Archaeological Site File and manages data from more than 59,000 archaeological sites, including over 11,500 archaeological reports. In this paper, we explore implementation procedures for bringing legacy collections up to modern curation standards. We also outline how we migrate the data on paper records into the digital realm, articulating them within a comprehensive framework.
Classrooms are key social settings that impact children's mental health, though individual differences in physiological reactivity may render children more or less susceptible to classroom environments. In a diverse sample of children from 19 kindergarten classrooms (N = 338, 48% female, M age = 5.32 years), we examined whether children's parasympathetic reactivity moderated the association between classroom climate and externalizing symptoms. Independent observers coded teachers’ use of child-centered and teacher-directed instructional practices across classroom social and management domains. Children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity to challenge tasks was assessed in fall and a multi-informant measure of externalizing was collected in fall and spring. Both the social and the management domains of classroom climate significantly interacted with children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity to predict spring externalizing symptoms, controlling for fall symptoms. For more reactive children, as classrooms shifted toward greater proportional use of child-centered methods, externalizing symptoms declined, whereas greater use of teacher-dominated practices was associated with increased symptoms. Conversely, among less reactive children, exposure to more teacher-dominated classroom management practices was associated with lower externalizing. Consistent with the theory of biological sensitivity to context, considering variability in children's physiological reactivity aids understanding of the salience of the classroom environment for children's mental health.
The ventricular assist device is being increasingly used as a “bridge-to-transplant” option in children with heart failure who have failed medical management. Care for this medically complex population must be optimised, including through concomitant pharmacotherapy. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic alterations affecting pharmacotherapy are increasingly discovered in children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, another form of mechanical circulatory support. Similarities between extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and ventricular assist devices support the hypothesis that similar alterations may exist in ventricular assist device-supported patients. We conducted a literature review to assess the current data available on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics in children with ventricular assist devices. We found two adult and no paediatric pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies in ventricular assist device-supported patients. While mechanisms may be partially extrapolated from children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, dedicated investigation of the paediatric ventricular assist device population is crucial given the inherent differences between the two forms of mechanical circulatory support, and pathophysiology that is unique to these patients. Commonly used drugs such as anticoagulants and antibiotics have narrow therapeutic windows with devastating consequences if under-dosed or over-dosed. Clinical studies are urgently needed to improve outcomes and maximise the potential of ventricular assist devices in this vulnerable population.
Political observers, campaign experts, and academics alike argue bitterly over whether it is more important for a party to capture ideologically moderate swing voters or to encourage turnout among hardcore partisans. The behavioral literature in American politics suggests that voters are not informed enough, and are too partisan, to be swing voters, while the institutional literature suggests that moderate candidates tend to perform better. We speak to this debate by examining the link between the ideology of congressional candidates and the turnout of their parties’ bases in US House races, 2006–2014. Combining a regression discontinuity design in close primary races with survey and administrative data on individual voter turnout, we find that extremist nominees—as measured by the mix of campaign contributions they receive—suffer electorally, largely because they decrease their party’s share of turnout in the general election, skewing the electorate towards their opponent’s party. The results help show how the behavioral and institutional literatures can be connected. For our sample of elections, turnout appears to be the dominant force in determining election outcomes, but it advantages ideologically moderate candidates because extremists appear to activate the opposing party’s base more than their own.
We study thermodynamic formalism for the family of robustly transitive diffeomorphisms introduced by Mañé, establishing existence and uniqueness of equilibrium states for natural classes of potential functions. In particular, we characterize the Sinaĭ–Ruelle–Bowen measures for these diffeomorphisms as unique equilibrium states for a suitable geometric potential. We also obtain large deviations and multifractal results for the unique equilibrium states produced by the main theorem.
Eslicarbazepine is a novel anti-epileptic agent indicated for the treatment of partial-onset seizures. We present the case of an 18 year old female that presented to the Emergency Department four hours after a reported intentional ingestion of an estimated 5600 mg of eslicarbazepine. Although initially hemodynamically stable and neurologically normal, shortly after arrival she developed confusion, rigidity and clonus, followed by recurrent seizures, hypoxemia and cardiac arrest which responded to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and wide complex tachycardia requiring defibrillation. Treatment for refractory seizures included benzodiazepines and eventual intubation and sedation with propofol. Cardiac toxicity responded to sodium bicarbonate. In addition, empiric hemodialysis was performed. In this case report, we discuss the successful management of the first reported overdose of eslicarbazepine using supportive care and hemodialysis.
We trained local public health workers on disaster recovery roles and responsibilities by using a novel curriculum based on a threat and efficacy framework and a training-of-trainers approach. This study used qualitative data to assess changes in perceptions of efficacy toward Hurricane Sandy recovery and willingness to participate in future disaster recoveries.
Purposive and snowball sampling were used to select trainers and trainees from participating local public health departments in jurisdictions impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. Two focus groups totaling 29 local public health workers were held in April and May of 2015. Focus group participants discussed the content and quality of the curriculum, training logistics, and their willingness to engage in future disaster recovery efforts.
The training curriculum improved participants’ understanding of and confidence in their disaster recovery work and related roles within their agencies (self-efficacy); increased their individual- and agency-level sense of role-importance in disaster recovery (response-efficacy); and enhanced their sense of their agencies’ effective functioning in disaster recovery. Participants suggested further training customization and inclusion of other recovery agencies.
Threat- and efficacy-based disaster recovery trainings show potential to increase public health workers’ sense of efficacy and willingness to participate in recovery efforts. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:615–622)
We aimed to quantitatively gauge local public health workers’ perceptions toward disaster recovery role expectations among jurisdictions in New Jersey and Maryland affected by Hurricane Sandy.
An online survey was made available in 2014 to all employees in 8 Maryland and New Jersey local health departments whose jurisdictions had been impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. The survey included perceptions of their actual disaster recovery involvement across 3 phases: days to weeks, weeks to months, and months to years. The survey also queried about their perceptions about future involvement and future available support.
Sixty-four percent of the 1047 potential staff responded to the survey (n=669). Across the 3 phases, 72% to 74% of the pre-Hurricane Sandy hires knew their roles in disaster recovery, 73% to 75% indicated confidence in their assigned roles (self-efficacy), and 58% to 63% indicated that their participation made a difference (response efficacy). Of the respondents who did not think it likely that they would be asked to participate in future disaster recovery efforts (n=70), 39% indicated a willingness to participate.
The marked gaps identified in local public health workers’ awareness of, sense of efficacy toward, and willingness to participate in disaster recovery efforts after Hurricane Sandy represent a significant infrastructural concern of policy and programmatic relevance. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:371–377)
To investigate associations of maternal periconceptional shellfish, lean fish and fatty fish intake with risk of pregnancy complications.
In this prospective cohort study, we collected information on intake of seafood subtypes using FFQ. We categorized seafood intake into frequencies of <0·2 servings/month, 0·2 servings/month–<0·5 servings/week, 0·5–1·0 servings/week and >1 servings/week. We ascertained gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth diagnoses from medical records. Using generalized linear models with a log link, the Poisson family and robust standard errors, we estimated risk ratios and 95 % confidence intervals across seafood intake categories.
The Omega study, a study of risk factors for pregnancy complications among women recruited from prenatal clinics in Washington State, USA, 1996–2008.
The current study included 3279 participants from the Omega study.
Median (interquartile range) shellfish, lean fish and fatty fish intake was 0·3 (0–0·9), 0·5 (0–1·0) and 0·5 (0·1–1·0) servings/week, respectively. Lean fish intake of >1 servings/week (v. <0·2 servings/month) was associated with a 1·55-fold higher risk of preterm birth (95 % CI 1·04, 2·30) and was not associated with the other pregnancy complications. Higher intake of seafood (total or other subtypes) was not associated with pregnancy complications (separately or combined).
Higher intake of lean fish, but not fatty fish or shellfish, was associated with a higher risk of preterm birth; these findings may have significance for preterm birth prevention. Studies of mechanisms and potential contributing factors (including seafood preparation and nutrient/contaminant content) are warranted.
A series of (HfN)1−x(TaN)x, ceramics with x representing the starting powder blend compositions of 0.0, 18.8, 28.1, and 46.7 at.%, have been fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying. During the plasma spraying, the mixture lost approximately 25 at.% nitrogen facilitating the precipitation of metallic and metal-rich nitride phases. These specimens underwent static air oxidation exposure up to 1700 °C. In general, it was found that the addition of tantalum nitrides to the hafnium nitrides resulted in poorer oxidation behavior. However, the 18.8 at.% specimen deviated from this trend and had the lowest observed mass change. This specimen formed a dark-colored oxide scale, indexed as Hf6Ta2O17, which acted as a passivation layer. Within the scale, hafnium oxynitride phases were observed. A transformation pathway in forming these rhombohedral oxynitride phases is proposed by the filling in of oxygen in the light element interstitial locations of the rhombohedral ε-Hf3N2 and ζ-Hf4N3 structures.