To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We apply the author's computational approach to groups to our empirical work studying and modelling riots. We suggest that assigning roles in particular gives insight, and measuring the frequency of bystander behaviour provides a method to understand the dynamic nature of intergroup conflict, allowing social identity to be incorporated into models of riots.
The main question that Firestone & Scholl (F&S) pose is whether “what and how we see is functionally independent from what and how we think, know, desire, act, and so forth” (sect. 2, para. 1). We synthesize a collection of concerns from an interdisciplinary set of coauthors regarding F&S's assumptions and appeals to intuition, resulting in their treatment of visual perception as context-free.
Perception is solitary. After all, it is the individual alone who feels, hears, tastes, smells and sees. Yet, while the phenomenology of engaging with the world through our senses is restricted to subjective sensations, those sensations are often experienced in a social context. Do social forces change how an individual interacts with the environment and responds to incoming information? We present and discuss a recently discovered phenomenon: people’s eye movements and focus of attention change with their belief that they are looking at objects alone or together with somebody else. Research on ‘joint perception’ provides evidence for the pervasive effect of social context, influencing psychological processes from cognition to low-level perception.
The target article offers a negative, eliminativist thesis, dissolving the specialness of mirroring processes into a solution of associative mechanisms. We support the authors' project enthusiastically. What they are currently missing, we argue, is a positive, generative thesis about associative learning mechanisms and how they might give way to the complex, multimodal coordination that naturally arises in social interaction.
We document patterns of distribution and relative abundance of marine megavertebrate fauna around Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly from a combination of aerial and boat-based surveying. Between January 2006 and November 2007, 20 aerial surveys were undertaken, comprising over 40 hours of on-effort flying time. In April to October of these years, 27 effort-corrected ferry surveys were also conducted from a passenger ferry travelling between Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly. Opportunistic sightings were also logged by the crew members of the ferry and another vessel travelling regularly along the same route on 155 days. Ten megavertebrate species were sighted: basking sharks Cetorhinus maximus, sunfish Mola mola, common dolphins Delphinus delphis, harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena, grey seals Halichoerus grypus, Risso's dolphins Grampus griseus, bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus, minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata, long-finned pilot whales Globicephala melas and killer whale Orcinus orca. During aerial surveys, 206 sighting events of seven species were made, compared with 145 sighting events of eight species during ferry surveys and 293 sighting events of 10 species from opportunistic ship-board data collection efforts. Seasonal and spatial patterns in species occurrence were evident. Basking sharks were the most commonly-sighted species in the region and were relatively abundant throughout the estimated 5 km-wide strip of coastal waters covered by the aerial surveys, during spring and summer. Ferry surveys and opportunistic vessel-based sightings data confirmed that the distribution of surface-feeding aggregations of this species was largely around the coasts. Despite the limited scope of this study, it has provided valuable baseline data, and possible insights into the marine biodiversity of the region.
Language is not a module. Well, at least, it is not a feedforward encapsulated domain-specific perceptual input system in the way that Fodor (1983) imagined. To be sure, there are regions of cortex that are conspicuously specialized for language-like processes (e.g., Gazzaniga, 2000; Kuperberg, Holcomb, Sitnikova, Greve, Dale, & Caplan, 2003; Ojemann, 1983), but when cognitive neuroscientists refer to these cortical areas as “modules,” they certainly do not imply solely feedforward synaptic projections or encapsulation from neighboring cortical areas. The vast and recurrent interconnectedness between anatomically and functionally segregated cortical areas (e.g., Douglas, Koch, Mahowald, Martin, & Suarez, 1995; Haxby, Gobbini, Furey, Ishai, Schouten, & Pietrini, 2001; Van Orden, Jansen op de Haar, & Bosman, 1997) unavoidably compromises any assumptions of information encapsulation, and can even wind up blurring the distinction between feedback and feedforward signals.
What this means is that we should expect language processes to function in concert with other perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes, not independently of them. For example, McGurk's famous and compelling demonstration of visual perception of mouth shape influencing the immediate percept of a spoken phoneme (McGurk & MacDonald, 1976) is emblematic of the intense degree to which speech perception and visual perception pay close attention to one another. More recently, visual perception has also been shown to play a strong role in spoken word recognition, syntactic processing, and reference resolution (Tanenhaus, Spivey-Knowlton, Eberhard, & Sedivy, 1995).
Corballis's explanation for right-handedness in humans relies heavily on the gestural protolanguage hypothesis, which he argues for by a series of “intuition pumps.” Scrutinizing the mirror system hypothesis and modern gesture as components of the argument, we find that they do not provide the desired evidence of a gestural precursor to speech.
We argue that the strengths of the Theory of Event Coding (TEC) can usefully be applied to a wider scope of cognitive tasks, and tested by more diverse methodologies. When allied with a theory of conceptual representation such as Barsalou's (1999a) perceptual symbol systems, and extended to data from eye-movement studies, the TEC has the potential to address the larger goals of an embodied view of cognition.
Parvalbumins constitute a class of calcium-binding
proteins characterized by the presence of several helix-loop-helix
(EF-hand) motifs. In a previous study (Revett SP, King
G, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Hartman KL, Laue TM, Nelson
DJ, 1997, Protein Sci 7:2397–2408), we presented
the sequence of the major parvalbumin isoform from the
silver hake (Merluccius bilinearis) and presented
spectroscopic and structural information on the excised
“EF-hand” portion of the protein. In this study,
the X-ray crystal structure of the silver hake major parvalbumin
has been determined to high resolution, in the frozen state,
using the molecular replacement method with the carp parvalbumin
structure as a starting model. The crystals are orthorhombic,
space group C2221, with a = 75.7 Å,
b = 80.7 Å, and c = 42.1 Å.
Data were collected from a single crystal grown in 15%
glycerol, which served as a cryoprotectant for flash freezing
at −188 °C. The structure refined to a conventional
R-value of 21% (free R 25%) for observed
reflections in the range 8 to 1.65 Å [I
> 2σ(I)]. The refined model includes
an acetylated amino terminus, 108 residues (characteristic
of a β parvalbumin lineage), 2 calcium ions, and 114
water molecules per protein molecule. The resulting structure
was used in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations focused
primarily on the dynamics of the ligands coordinating the
Ca2+ ions in the CD and EF sites. MD simulations
were performed on both the fully Ca2+ loaded
protein and on a Ca2+ deficient variant, with
Ca2+ only in the CD site. There was substantial
agreement between the MD and X-ray results in addressing
the issue of mobility of key residues in the calcium-binding
sites, especially with regard to the side chain of Ser55
in the CD site and Asp92 in the EF site.
Selection operates at many levels. Some of the most obvious cases are organismic, such as changes in coloration under the influence of predation (cf. Kettlewell 1973; also Endler 1986). It also operates at other levels. Meiotic drive involves selection for a gene, independently of its effect on the organism. At a higher level, there may also be selection for patterns of colony growth in social insects, again under the influence of predation (cf. Wilson 1971). The appropriate level of selection is a matter of the causal patterns exhibited, or the target of selection. It can also be understood as a question of the appropriate level at which to seek explanatory laws.
Robert Brandon (1982, 1990) first clearly distinguished the question of the level of selection from debates over the units of selection. In doing so, he argued that the phenotype is commonly the target of selection, whatever the unit of selection might be.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.